Kendaraan peluncur luar angkasa

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Dalam penerbangan angkasa, kendaraan peluncur atau roket pembawa adalah roket yang digunakan untuk membawa muatan dari permukaan bumi ke luar angkasa. Sebuah sistem peluncuran termasuk kendaraan peluncur, panggung stage peluncuran dan infrastruktur lainnya. Biasanya muatan payload adalah buatan satelit yang ditempatkan ke orbit, tetapi beberapa spaceflights yang sub-orbital sementara yang lain memungkinkan pesawat ruang angkasa untuk keluar dari orbit Bumi seluruhnya. Sebuah kendaraan peluncuran yang membawa muatan pada lintasan suborbital sering disebut sounding roket.

Peluncuran kendaraan, kendaraan peluncur khususnya orbital, memiliki minimal dua tahap, tapi kadang-kadang sampai 4.

Jenis kendaraan peluncuran[sunting | sunting sumber]

Dengan platform peluncuran[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Darat : Spaceport dan silo rudal tetap (Strela) untuk dikonversi ICBM
  • Laut : Platform tetap (San Marco), platform mobile (Sea Launch), kapal selam (Shtil', Volna ) untuk dikonversi SLBM
  • Udara : Pesawat (Pegasus, Virgin Galactic LauncherOne, Stratolaunch Sistem), balon (ARCASPACE), JP Aerospace Orbital Ascender, proposal permanen pelabuhan ruang angkasa Buoyant

Dengan ukuran[sunting | sunting sumber]

Ada banyak cara untuk mengklasifikasikan ukuran kendaraan peluncuran. The Komisi Agustinus yang diciptakan untuk meninjau rencana untuk mengganti Space Shuttle , menggunakan skema klasifikasi berikut:

  • Sounding rocket tidak dapat mencapai orbit dan hanya mampu spaceflight sub-orbital.
  • Kendaraan peluncur small lift mampu mengangkut hingga 2.000 kg (£ 4400) dari muatan ke orbit bumi rendah (LEO).
  • Kendaraan peluncur medium lift mampu mengangkut antara 2.000 sampai 20.000 kg (4.400 sampai £ 44.000) dari muatan ke LEO.
  • Kendaraan peluncur heavy lift mampu mengangkut antara 20.000 sampai 50.000 kg (44.000 sampai £ 110.200) dari muatan ke LEO.
  • Kendaraan peluncur super-heavy lift mampu mengangkut lebih dari 50.000 kg (110.200 £ +) dari muatan ke LEO.

Perbandingan Sistem orbital launch[sunting | sunting sumber]

Legend for orbit abbreviations in table:

Legend for launch system status in below table:   [under development] — [retired] — [operational]

Vehicle Origin Manufacturer Mass to
LEO
(kg)
Mass to
other orbits
(kg)
Cost
(Mil US$)
Cost/kg
(LEO) (US$)
Cost/kg
(GTO) (US$)
Launches Status First flight Last flight Vehicle
Angara 1.1  Rusia Khrunichev &100000000000000000000000 Development Angara 1.1
Angara 1.2  Rusia Khrunichev &100000000000038000000003.800[1] &100000000000000000000000 Development Angara 1.2
Angara A3  Rusia Khrunichev &1000000000001460000000014.600[1] &100000000000024000000002.400–3,600 to GTO[1] &0000000000000070000000 €50 (US$70)[2] &100000000000000000000000 Development Angara A3
Angara A5  Rusia Khrunichev &1000000000002450000000024.500 (63°) [3][4] &100000000000000000000000 Development Angara A5
Angara A7  Rusia Khrunichev &1000000000004100000000041.000[3][4] &100000000000000000000000 Development Angara A7
Ariane 1  Europe Aérospatiale &100000000000014000000001.400 &100000000000018300000001.830 to GTO[5] &1000000000000001100000011[5] Retired 1979 1986 Ariane 1
Ariane 2  Europe Aérospatiale &100000000000022700000002.270 to GTO[5] &100000000000000060000006[5] Retired 1986 1989 Ariane 2
Ariane 3  Europe Aérospatiale &100000000000026500000002.650 to GTO[5] &1000000000000001100000011[5] Retired 1984 1989 Ariane 3
Ariane 4 40  Europe Aérospatiale &100000000000046000000004.600[5] &100000000000027400000002.740 to SSO
1,900 to GTO[5]
&100000000000000030000003[5] Retired 1990 1993 Ariane 4 40
Ariane 4 40 H10+  Europe Aérospatiale &100000000000020200000002.020 to GTO[5] &100000000000000010000001[5] Retired 1995 1995 Ariane 4 40 H10+
Ariane 4 40 H10-3  Europe Aérospatiale &100000000000021050000002.105 to GTO[5] &100000000000000030000003[5] Retired 1995 1999 Ariane 4 40 H10-3
Ariane 4 42L  Europe Aérospatiale &100000000000070000000007.000[5] &100000000000045000000004.500 to SSO
3,200 to GTO[5]
&100000000000000010000001[5] Retired 1993 1993 Ariane 4 42L
Ariane 4 42L H10+  Europe Aérospatiale &100000000000070000000007.000[5] &100000000000033500000003.350 to GTO[5] &100000000000000010000001[5] Retired 1994 1994 Ariane 4 42L H10+
Ariane 4 42L H10-3  Europe Aérospatiale &100000000000070000000007.000[5] &100000000000034800000003.480 to GTO[5] &1000000000000001100000011[5] Retired 1995 2002 Ariane 4 42L H10-3
Ariane 4 42P  Europe Aérospatiale &100000000000060000000006.000[5] &0000000000002600000000 3,400 to SSO
2,600 to GTO[5]
&100000000000000020000002[5] Retired 1990 1992 Ariane 4 42P
Ariane 4 42P H10+  Europe Aérospatiale &100000000000027400000002.740 to GTO[5] &100000000000000040000004[5] Retired 1992 1994 Ariane 4 42P H10+
Ariane 4 42P H10-3  Europe Aérospatiale &100000000000029300000002.930 to GTO[5] &100000000000000090000009[5] Retired 1994 2002 Ariane 4 42P H10-3
Ariane 4 44L  Europe Aérospatiale &100000000000070000000007.000[5] &0000000000004200000000 6,000 to SSO
4,200 to GTO[5]
&1000000000000001100000011[5] Retired 1989 1992 Ariane 4 44L
Ariane 4 44L H10+  Europe Aérospatiale &100000000000070000000007.000[5] &100000000000044600000004.460 to GTO[5] &100000000000000050000005[5] Retired 1992 1994 Ariane 4 44L H10+
Ariane 4 44L H10-3  Europe Aérospatiale &100000000000070000000007.000[5] &100000000000047200000004.720 to GTO[5] &1000000000000002400000024[5] Retired 1995 2003 Ariane 4 44L H10-3
Ariane 4 44LP  Europe Aérospatiale &100000000000070000000007.000[5] &0000000000003700000000 5,000 to SSO
3,700 to GTO[5]
&100000000000000070000007[5] Retired 1988 1993 Ariane 4 44LP
Ariane 4 44LP H10+  Europe Aérospatiale &100000000000070000000007.000[5] &100000000000040300000004.030 to GTO[5] &100000000000000060000006[5] Retired 1992 1995 Ariane 4 44LP H10+
Ariane 4 44LP H10-3  Europe Aérospatiale &100000000000070000000007.000[5] &100000000000042200000004.220 to GTO[5] &1000000000000001300000013[5] Retired 1995 2001 Ariane 4 44LP H10-3
Ariane 4 44P  Europe Aérospatiale &100000000000065000000006.500[5] &0000000000003000000000 4,100 to SSO
3,000 to GTO[5]
&100000000000000020000002[5] Retired 1991 1991 Ariane 4 44P
Ariane 4 44P H10-3  Europe Aérospatiale &100000000000034650000003.465 to GTO[5] &100000000000000090000009[5] Retired 1995 2001 Ariane 4 44P H10-3
Ariane 5ECA  Europe EADS Astrium &1000000000002100000000021.000[6] &1000000000001005000000010.050 to GTO[7] &10000000000000220000000220 [8] &1000000000001047600000010.476 [8] &1000000000000003100000031
[note 1]
Operational 2002
Ariane 5ME  Europe EADS Astrium &1000000000001150000000011.500 to GTO[9] &100000000000000000000000 Development Ariane 5ME
Ariane 5ES  Europe EADS Astrium &1000000000002100000000021.000[6] &100000000000080000000008.000 to GTO[10] &10000000000000220000000220 [8] &1000000000000001047600010.476 [8] &100000000000000020000002 Operational 2008 Ariane 5ES
Ariane 5G  Europe EADS Astrium &1000000000001800000000018.000[10] &100000000000069000000006.900[10] &1000000000000001600000016[10] Retired[11] 1996 2003 Ariane 5G
Ariane 5G+  Europe EADS Astrium &1000000000001800000000018.000[rujukan?] &100000000000071000000007.100 to GTO [10] &100000000000000030000003[10] Retired[11] 2004 2004 Ariane 5G+
Ariane 5GS  Europe EADS Astrium &1000000000001800000000018.000[rujukan?] &100000000000066000000006.600 to GTO [10] &100000000000000060000006[10] Retired[11] 2005 2009 Ariane 5GS
Ariane 6  Europe EADS Astrium &100000000000065000000006.500 to GTO 93 &100000000000000000000000 Development Ariane 6
ASLV  India ISRO[12] 1987 1994 ASLV
Athena I  Amerika Serikat Lockheed Martin &100000000000000040000004[13] Retired 1995 2001 Athena I
Athena Ic [14]  Amerika Serikat ATK
Lockheed Martin
&100000000000000000000000 Development Athena Ic
Athena II  Amerika Serikat Lockheed Martin &100000000000020650000002.065[rujukan?] &100000000000000030000003[15] Retired[rujukan?] 1998 1999 Athena II
Athena IIc [14]  Amerika Serikat ATK
Lockheed Martin
&100000000000000000000000 Development Athena IIc
Atlas-Centaur  Amerika Serikat Lockheed &100000000000086180000008.618[rujukan?] &100000000000038330000003.833 to GTO[rujukan?] &10000000000000148000000148 Retired 1962 1983 Atlas-Centaur
Atlas G  Amerika Serikat Lockheed &100000000000059000000005.900[16] &100000000000022220000002.222 to GTO
1,179 to HCO[16]
&100000000000000070000007[16] Retired 1984 1989 Atlas G
Atlas H/MSD  Amerika Serikat Lockheed &100000000000000050000005 Retired 1983 1987 Atlas H/MSD
Atlas I  Amerika Serikat Lockheed Martin &100000000000059000000005.900[16] &100000000000023400000002.340[16] &1000000000000001100000011[16] Retired 1990 1997 Atlas I
Atlas II  Amerika Serikat Lockheed Martin &100000000000067800000006.780[16] &100000000000028100000002.810 to GTO
2,000 to HCO[16]
&1000000000000001000000010[16] Retired 1991 1998 Atlas II
Atlas IIA  Amerika Serikat Lockheed Martin &100000000000073160000007.316[16] &100000000000031800000003.180 to GTO
2,160 to HCO[16]
&1000000000000002300000023[16] Retired 1992 2002 Atlas IIA
Atlas IIAS  Amerika Serikat Lockheed Martin &100000000000086180000008.618[16] &100000000000038330000003.833 to GTO
2,680 to HCO[16]
&1000000000000003000000030[16] Retired 1993 2004 Atlas IIAS
Atlas IIIA  Amerika Serikat Lockheed Martin &100000000000086860000008.686[16] &100000000000040600000004.060 to GTO
2,970 to HCO[16]
&100000000000000020000002[16] Retired 2000 2004 Atlas IIIA
Atlas IIIB/DEC  Amerika Serikat Lockheed Martin &1000000000001075900000010.759[16] &100000000000046090000004.609 to GTO[16] &100000000000000010000001[16] Retired 2002 2002 Atlas IIIB/DEC
Atlas IIIB/SEC  Amerika Serikat Lockheed Martin &100000000000041930000004.193 to GTO [16] &100000000000000030000003[16] Retired 2003 2005 Atlas IIIB/SEC
Atlas V 401  Amerika Serikat United Launch Alliance &100000000000090500000009.050[17] &0000000000004950000000 6,670 to SSO
4,950 to GTO[17]
&10000000000000125000000125 [8] &1000000000000001381199913.812 [8] &1000000000000001800000018[17] Operational 2002 Atlas V 401
Atlas V 411  Amerika Serikat United Launch Alliance &100000000000090500000009.050[17] &0000000000006075000000 8,495 to SSO
6,075 to GTO[17]
&100000000000000030000003[17] Operational 2006 Atlas V 411
Atlas V 421  Amerika Serikat United Launch Alliance &100000000000090500000009.050[17] &0000000000007000000000 9,050 to SSO
7,000 to GTO[17]
&100000000000000030000003[17] Operational 2007 Atlas V 421
Atlas V 431  Amerika Serikat United Launch Alliance &100000000000090500000009.050[17] &0000000000007800000000 9,050 to SSO
7,800 to GTO[17]
&100000000000000020000002[17] Operational 2005 Atlas V 431
Atlas V 501  Amerika Serikat United Launch Alliance &100000000000082500000008.250[17] &0000000000003970000000 5,945 to SSO
3,970 to GTO
1,500 to GEO[17]
&100000000000000040000004[17] Operational 2010 Atlas V 501
Atlas V 511  Amerika Serikat United Launch Alliance &1000000000001095000000010.950[17] &0000000000005370000000 7,820 to SSO
5,370 to GTO
1,750 to GEO[17]
&100000000000000000000000[17] Operational Atlas V 511
Atlas V 521  Amerika Serikat United Launch Alliance &1000000000001330000000013.300[17] &0000000000006485000000 9,585 to SSO
6,485 to GTO
2,760 to GEO[17]
&100000000000000020000002[17] Operational 2003 Atlas V 521
Atlas V 531  Amerika Serikat United Launch Alliance &1000000000001530000000015.300[17] &0000000000007425000000 11,160 to SSO
7,425 to GTO
3,250 to GEO[17]
&100000000000000020000002[17] Operational 2010 Atlas V 531
Atlas V 541  Amerika Serikat United Launch Alliance &1000000000001710000000017.100[17] &0000000000008240000000 12,435 to SSO
8,240 to GTO
3,730 to GEO[17]
223 (2013)[18] 27,063 &100000000000000010000001[17] Operational Atlas V 541
Atlas V 551  Amerika Serikat United Launch Alliance &1000000000001850000000018.500[17] &0000000000008700000000 12,435 to SSO
8,700 to GTO
3,960 to GEO[17]
&100000000000000040000004[17] Operational 2006 Atlas V 551
Black Arrow  Britania Raya RAE &1000000000000007300000073 &100000000000000020000002 Retired 1969[note 2] 1971 Black Arrow
Commercial Titan III  Amerika Serikat Martin Marietta &100000000000000040000004 Retired 1990 1992 Commercial Titan III
Delta 0300  Amerika Serikat McDonnell Douglas &10000000000000700000000700[rujukan?] &10000000000000370000000370 to SSO[rujukan?] &100000000000000030000003[19] Retired[20] 1972 1973 Delta 0300
Delta 0900  Amerika Serikat McDonnell Douglas &100000000000013000000001.300[21] &10000000000000818000000818 to SSO[19] &100000000000000020000002[19] Retired 1972 1972 Delta 0900
Delta 1410  Amerika Serikat McDonnell Douglas &100000000000000010000001[19] Retired 1975 1975 Delta 1410
Delta 1604  Amerika Serikat McDonnell Douglas &100000000000000020000002[19] Retired 1972 1973 Delta 1604
Delta 1900  Amerika Serikat McDonnell Douglas &100000000000018000000001.800[19] &100000000000000010000001[19] Retired 1973 1973 Delta 1900
Delta 1910  Amerika Serikat McDonnell Douglas &100000000000000010000001[19] Retired 1975 1975 Delta 1910
Delta 1913  Amerika Serikat McDonnell Douglas &100000000000000010000001[19] Retired 1973 1973 Delta 1913
Delta 1914  Amerika Serikat McDonnell Douglas &100000000000000020000002[19] Retired 1972 1973 Delta 1914
Delta 2310  Amerika Serikat McDonnell Douglas &100000000000000030000003[19] Retired 1974 1981 Delta 2310
Delta 2313  Amerika Serikat McDonnell Douglas &100000000000000030000003[19] Retired 1974 1977 Delta 2313
Delta 2910  Amerika Serikat McDonnell Douglas &100000000000018870000001.887[19] &100000000000000060000006[19] Retired 1975 1978 Delta 2910
Delta 2913  Amerika Serikat McDonnell Douglas &100000000000020000000002.000[22] &10000000000000700000000700 to GTO[22] &100000000000000060000006[19] Retired 1975 1976 Delta 2913
Delta 2914  Amerika Serikat McDonnell Douglas &10000000000000724000000724 to GTO[19] &1000000000000003000000030[19] Retired 1974 1979 Delta 2914
Delta 3910  Amerika Serikat McDonnell Douglas &100000000000024940000002.494[19] &100000000000011540000001.154 to GTO with PAM-D[19] &1000000000000001000000010[19] Retired 1980 1988 Delta 3910
Delta 3913  Amerika Serikat McDonnell Douglas &100000000000000010000001[19] Retired 1981 1981 Delta 3913
Delta 3914  Amerika Serikat McDonnell Douglas &10000000000000954000000954 to GTO[19] &1000000000000001300000013[19] Retired 1975 1987 Delta 3914
Delta 3920  Amerika Serikat McDonnell Douglas &100000000000034520000003.452[19] &100000000000012840000001.284 to GTO with PAM-D[19] &1000000000000001000000010[19] Retired 1982 1989 Delta 3920
Delta 3924  Amerika Serikat McDonnell Douglas &100000000000011040000001.104 to GTO[19] &100000000000000040000004[19] Retired 1982 1984 Delta 3924
Delta 4925  Amerika Serikat McDonnell Douglas &100000000000034000000003.400[23] &100000000000013120000001.312 to GTO[19] &100000000000000020000002[19] Retired 1989 1990 Delta 4925
Delta 5920  Amerika Serikat McDonnell Douglas &100000000000038480000003.848[24] &100000000000000010000001[19] Retired 1989 1989 Delta 5920
Delta II 6920  Amerika Serikat McDonnell Douglas &100000000000039830000003.983[19] &100000000000000030000003[19] Retired 1990 1992 Delta II 6920
Delta II 6925  Amerika Serikat McDonnell Douglas &100000000000014470000001.447 to GTO[19] &1000000000000001400000014[19] Retired 1989 1992 Delta II 6925
Delta II 7320  Amerika Serikat United Launch Alliance &100000000000028650000002.865[note 3][19] &100000000000016510000001.651 to SSO[note 3][19] &1000000000000001000000010[19] Retired 1999 2011 Delta II 7320
Delta II 7326  Amerika Serikat Boeing IDS &10000000000000934000000934 to GTO
636 to TLI
629 to HCO[note 3][19]
&100000000000000030000003[19] Retired 1998[rujukan?] Delta II 7326
Delta II 7420  Amerika Serikat United Launch Alliance &100000000000031850000003.185[note 3][19] &100000000000019660000001.966 to SSO[note 3][19] &1000000000000001300000013[19] Retired 1998 2010 Delta II 7420
Delta II 7425  Amerika Serikat Boeing IDS &100000000000011000000001.100 to GTO
804 to HCO[note 3][19]
&100000000000000040000004[19] Retired 1998 2002 Delta II 7425
Delta II 7426  Amerika Serikat Boeing IDS &100000000000010580000001.058 to GTO
734 to TLI
711 to HCO[note 3][19]
&100000000000000010000001[19] Retired 1999 1999 Delta II 7426
Delta II 7920  Amerika Serikat United Launch Alliance &100000000000050300000005.030[note 3][19] &100000000000031230000003.123 to SSO[note 3][19] &1000000000000002700000027[19] Operational 1998 2011 Delta II 7920
Delta II 7925  Amerika Serikat Boeing IDS &100000000000018190000001.819 to GTO
1,177 to TLI
1,265 to HCO[note 3][19]
&1000000000000006900000069[19] Retired 1990 2009 Delta II 7925
Delta II-H 7920H  Amerika Serikat United Launch Alliance &100000000000060970000006.097[note 3][19] &100000000000000030000003[19] Retired 2003 2011 Delta II-H 7920H
Delta II-H 7925H  Amerika Serikat United Launch Alliance &100000000000021710000002.171 to GTO
1,508 to HCO[note 3][19]
&100000000000000030000003[19] Operational
[rujukan?][note 4]
2003 2007 Delta II-H 7925H
Delta III 8930  Amerika Serikat Boeing IDS &100000000000082920000008.292[19] &100000000000038100000003.810 to GTO[19] &100000000000000030000003[19] Retired 1998 2000 Delta III 8930
Delta IV-H  Amerika Serikat United Launch Alliance &1000000000002295000000022.950[25] &1000000000001298000000012.980 to GTO [25] &10000000000000300000000300(€220)[26] &1000000000001307200000013.072[rujukan?] &100000000000000050000005 Operational 2004 Delta IV-H
Delta IV-M  Amerika Serikat Boeing IDS &100000000000081200000008.120[27] &100000000000042100000004.210 to GTO
2,722 to HCO[27]
&100000000000000030000003[27] Retired 2003 2006 Delta IV-M
Delta IV-M+(4,2)  Amerika Serikat United Launch Alliance &1000000000001175000000011.750[28] &100000000000057400000005.740 to GTO[28] &100000000000000080000008[27] Operational 2002 Delta IV-M+(4,2)
Delta IV-M+(5,2)  Amerika Serikat United Launch Alliance &1000000000001025000000010.250[28] &100000000000045900000004.590 to GTO[28] &100000000000000000000000[27] Operational Delta IV-M+(5,2)
Delta IV-M+(5,4)  Amerika Serikat United Launch Alliance &1000000000001350000000013.500[28] &100000000000064700000006.470 to GTO[28] &100000000000000010000001[27] Operational 2009[29] Delta IV-M+(5,4)
Diamant  Perancis SEREB &1000000000000001200000012 Retired 1965 1975 Diamant
Dnepr-1  Ukraina Yuzhmash &100000000000037000000003.700[30] &1000000000000001400000014(€10)[2] &100000000000037840000003.784[rujukan?] &1000000000000001600000016 Operational 1999 Dnepr-1
Energia[note 5]  Uni Soviet NPO Energia &10000000000100000000000100.000[31] &1000000000002000000000020.000 to GTO[31]
32,000 to TLI[31]
&10000000000000240000000240[note 6] &100000000000000010000001[32] Retired 1987 1987 Energia
Energia-Buran  Uni Soviet NPO Energia (Launcher)
NPO Molniya (Orbiter)
&1000000000003000000000030.000[31]
[note 7]
&100000000000000010000001 Retired 1988 1988 Energia-Buran
Epsilon  Jepang IHI Aerospace[33]      &100000000000012000000001.200[34] ¥3.8B (US$38)[35] &1000000000003166700000031.667 1 Operational[34] 2013 Epsilon
Falcon 1  Amerika Serikat SpaceX &10000000000000670000000670[rujukan?] &100000000000000070000007[rujukan?] &100000000000000050000005 Retired[36] 2006 2009 Falcon 1
Falcon 1e  Amerika Serikat SpaceX &100000000000010100000001.010[rujukan?] &1000000000000010900000010,9 &1000000000001079200000010.792[rujukan?] &100000000000000000000000 Retired[36] Falcon 1e
Falcon 9 v1.0  Amerika Serikat SpaceX &1000000000001045000000010.450[37][38][39] &100000000000046800000004.680 to GTO[37] &1000000000000005600000056[37] &100000000000053590000005.359[rujukan?] &100000000000000050000005[40] Retired[41] 2010 2013 Falcon 9 v1.0
Falcon 9 v1.1  Amerika Serikat SpaceX &1000000000001662500000016.625[42] &100000000000057600000005.760 to GTO[43] &1000000000000005600000056[37] &100000000000041090000004.109[44] &100000000000000010000001 Operational 2013 Falcon 9 v1.1
Falcon Heavy  Amerika Serikat SpaceX &1000000000005300000000053.000[45][46] &1000000000001200000000012.000 to GTO[45]
&1000000000001600000000016.000 to TLI[46]
&1000000000000008300000083–128[45] &100000000000022000000002.200[44] &100000000000000000000000 Development Falcon Heavy
GSLV Mk.I(a)  India ISRO[47][48] Retired 2001 2001 GSLV Mk.I(a)
GSLV Mk.I(b) [49][50]  India ISRO Retired 2004 2007[rujukan?] GSLV Mk.I(b)
GSLV Mk.I(c)  India ISRO &100000000000000010000001[rujukan?] Operational 2010 GSLV Mk.I(c)
GSLV Mk.II [51]  India ISRO &100000000000025000000002.500[52] Operational 2010 GSLV Mk.II
GSLV Mk.III  India ISRO[53] &1000000000001000000000010.000[rujukan?] &100000000000000050000005.000[54] &100000000000000000000000 Development GSLV Mk.III
H-I  Jepang
 Amerika Serikat
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries &100000000000032000000003.200[rujukan?] &100000000000011000000001.100 to GTO[rujukan?] &100000000000000090000009 Retired 1986 1992 H-I
H-II  Jepang Mitsubishi Heavy Industries &100000000000000050000005[55][note 8] Retired 1994 1998 H-II
H-IIA 202  Jepang Mitsubishi Heavy Industries &1000000000001000000000010.000[56] &100000000000038000000003.800 to GTO[56] &100000000000000090000009[56] Operational 2001 H-IIA 202
H-IIA 204  Jepang Mitsubishi Heavy Industries &100000000000058000000005.800 to GTO[56] &100000000000000010000001[56] Operational 2006 2006 H-IIA 204
H-IIA 2022  Jepang Mitsubishi Heavy Industries &100000000000042000000004.200[56] &100000000000000030000003[56] Retired 2005 2007 H-IIA 2022
H-IIA 2024  Jepang Mitsubishi Heavy Industries &100000000000000070000007[56] Retired 2002 2008 H-IIA 2024
H-IIB 304  Jepang Mitsubishi Heavy Industries &1000000000001650000000016.500[45] &100000000000080000000008.000[57][pranala nonaktif] &100000000000000020000002[58] Operational 2009 H-IIB 304
H-II/SSB  Jepang Mitsubishi Heavy Industries &100000000000000010000001[55] Retired 1995 1995 H-II/SSB
H-IIS  Jepang Mitsubishi Heavy Industries &100000000000000010000001[note 9][55] Retired 1999 1999 H-IIS
J-I  Jepang IHI Corporation
Nissan Motors[59]
&00000000000000000010000(+1) Retired 1996 1996 J-I
Kaituozhe-1  Republik Rakyat Tiongkok CALT &100000000000000020000002 Operational 2002 2003[rujukan?] Kaituozhe-1
Kosmos-3M  Uni Soviet
 Rusia
NPO Polyot &100000000000015000000001.500 €12 million[2] &10000000000000442000000442[rujukan?] Retired 1967 2010[rujukan?] Kosmos-3M
Lambda 4S  Jepang Nissan Motors[59] &1000000000000002600000026[34] &100000000000000050000005 Retired 1966 1970[rujukan?] Lambda 4S
Long March 1  Republik Rakyat Tiongkok CALT &10000000000000300000000300[rujukan?] &100000000000000030000003 Retired[60] 1969 1971[rujukan?] Long March 1
Long March 1D  Republik Rakyat Tiongkok CALT &00000000000000000030000(+3) Operational[rujukan?] 1995[note 10] 2002 Long March 1D
Long March 2A  Republik Rakyat Tiongkok CALT &100000000000000010000001 Retired 1974 1974[rujukan?] Long March 2A
Long March 2C  Republik Rakyat Tiongkok CALT &1000000000000003200000032 Operational 1975[rujukan?] Long March 2C
Long March 2D  Republik Rakyat Tiongkok CALT &1000000000000001400000014 Operational 1992[rujukan?] Long March 2D
Long March 2E  Republik Rakyat Tiongkok CALT &100000000000000070000007[rujukan?] Retired 1990 1995[rujukan?] Long March 2E
Long March 2F  Republik Rakyat Tiongkok CALT &100000000000000070000007 Operational 1999[rujukan?] Long March 2F
Long March 2F/G  Republik Rakyat Tiongkok CALT &100000000000000010000001 Operational 2011 Long March 2F/G
Long March 3  Republik Rakyat Tiongkok CALT &1000000000000001400000014 Retired 1984 Long March 3
Long March 3A  Republik Rakyat Tiongkok CALT &100000000000026500000002.650 to GTO[61] &1000000000000002300000023[rujukan?] Operational 1994 Long March 3A
Long March 3B  Republik Rakyat Tiongkok CALT &1000000000000001119999911.200[45][62]Templat:Source need translation &1000000000000001000000010[rujukan?] Operational 1996 Long March 3B
Long March 3B/E  Republik Rakyat Tiongkok CALT &100000000000000055000005.500 to GTO [62] Operational 2007[rujukan?] Long March 3B/E
Long March 3B(A)  Republik Rakyat Tiongkok CALT &100000000000000000000000 Development[rujukan?] Long March 3B(A)
Long March 3C  Republik Rakyat Tiongkok CALT &100000000000037000000003.700 [62] &100000000000000080000008
[rujukan?]
Operational 2008 Long March 3C
Long March 4A  Republik Rakyat Tiongkok CALT &100000000000000020000002
[rujukan?]
Retired 1988 1990[rujukan?] Long March 4A
Long March 4B  Republik Rakyat Tiongkok CALT &100000000000042000000004.200[63] &1000000000000001800000018[63] Operational 1999[63] Long March 4B
Long March 4C  Republik Rakyat Tiongkok CALT Operational 2007[rujukan?] Long March 4C
Long March 5  Republik Rakyat Tiongkok CALT &1000000000002500000000025.000 [64] &1000000000001400000000014.000 to GTO [64] &100000000000000000000000 Development[rujukan?] Long March 5
Long March 6  Republik Rakyat Tiongkok CALT &100000000000000000000000 Development[rujukan?]
since 2009
Long March 6
Long March 7  Republik Rakyat Tiongkok CALT &100000000000000000000000 Development
since 2009[rujukan?]
Long March 7
Long March 9  Republik Rakyat Tiongkok CALT &10000000000130000000000130.000[65] &100000000000000000000000 Development Long March 9
M-V  Jepang Nissan Motors[59] (-2000)
IHI AEROSPACE[33] (-2006)
&100000000000018000000001.800 - 1,850[34] &100000000000000070000007 Retired 1997 2006 M-V
Minotaur I  Amerika Serikat Orbital &10000000000000580000000580[66] &1000000000000001000000010[67] Operational 2000 2011 Minotaur I
Minotaur IV  Amerika Serikat Orbital &100000000000000030000003(+2)[68] Operational 2010[68] 2011[68] Minotaur IV
Minotaur V  Amerika Serikat Orbital &10000000000000640000000640 to GTO
447 to TLI
&100000000000000010000001[68] Operational 2013[68] Minotaur V
Molniya  Uni Soviet RSC Energia &1000000000000002400000024[69] Retired 1960 1965[69] Molniya
Molniya-M  Uni Soviet
 Rusia
RSC Energia &10000000000000275000000275 Retired 1964 2010 Molniya-M
Mu-3C  Jepang Nissan Motors[59] &10000000000000195000000195[34] &100000000000000040000004 Retired 1974 1979 Mu-3C
Mu-3H  Jepang Nissan Motors[59] &10000000000000300000000300[34] &100000000000000030000003 Retired 1977 1978 Mu-3H
Mu-3S  Jepang Nissan Motors[59] &10000000000000300000000300[34] &100000000000000040000004 Retired 1980 1984[rujukan?] Mu-3S
Mu-3SII  Jepang Nissan Motors[59] &10000000000000770000000770[34] &100000000000000080000008 Retired 1985 1995 Mu-3SII
Mu-4S  Jepang Nissan Motors[59] &10000000000000180000000180[34] &100000000000000040000004 Retired 1971 1972 Mu-4S
N1  Uni Soviet NPO Energia &1000000000009500000000095.000 [70][71][72][note 11] &100000000000000040000004 [73] Retired 1969 1972 N1
N-I  Jepang
 Amerika Serikat
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Retired 1975 1982[rujukan?] N-I
N-II  Jepang
 Amerika Serikat
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries &100000000000000080000008 Retired 1981 1987[rujukan?] N-II
Naro-1  Korea Selatan
 Rusia
KARI/Khrunichev 3 Retired 2009 2013 Naro-1
Paektusan  North Korea KCST Retired 1998 1998
Pegasus  Amerika Serikat Orbital &10000000000000443000000443 &1000000000000004100000041[74] Operational 1990 2012[74] Pegasus
Pegasus II  Amerika Serikat Orbital &100000000000061200000006.120[75] &100000000000020000000002.000 to GTO[75] Development Pegasus II
Polyot  Uni Soviet RSC Energia &100000000000014000000001.400 Retired 1963 1964[rujukan?] Polyot
Proton-K  Uni Soviet
 Rusia
Khrunichev &1000000000001976000000019.760[rujukan?] &100000000000049300000004.930[rujukan?] to GTO &10000000000000311000000311 [76] Retired 1965 2012[rujukan?] Proton-K
Proton-M  Uni Soviet
 Rusia
Khrunichev &1000000000002160000000021.600[77] &100000000000061500000006.150 to GTO[77] &1000000000000008500000085 [78] &100000000000043020000004.302[78] &1000000000000006100000061 [76] Operational 2001[rujukan?] Proton-M
PSLV  India ISRO &100000000000032000000003.200[79] &100000000000016000000001.600 to SSO
1,050 to GTO[80]
&1000000000000001100000011 Operational 1993[rujukan?] PSLV
PSLV-CA  India ISRO &100000000000028000000002.800[79] &100000000000011000000001.100 to SSO[80] &100000000000000070000007 Operational 2007 PSLV-CA
PSLV-XL  India ISRO &100000000000038000000003.800[80] &0000000000001300000000 1,750 to SSO
1,300 to GTO[80]
&100000000000000030000003 Operational 2008 PSLV-XL
PSLV-HP  India ISRO &100000000000040000000004.000[80] &0000000000001440000000 1,900 to SSO
1,440 to GTO[80]
&100000000000000000000000 Development PSLV-HP
Rokot  Rusia Khrunichev &100000000000019500000001.950 &1000000000000001400000014[81] &100000000000071790000007.179[rujukan?] &1000000000000001400000014[82] Operational 1990
Safir  Iran Iranian Space Agency &100000000000000030000003 Operational 2008 2012[rujukan?] Safir
Saturn I  Amerika Serikat Chrysler (S-I)
Douglas (S-IV)
&1000000000000001000000010[83] Retired 1961 1965[83] Saturn I
Saturn IB  Amerika Serikat Chrysler (S-IB)
Douglas (S-IVB)
&1000000000002041200000020.412[rujukan?] &100000000000000090000009[84] Retired 1966 1975 Saturn IB
Saturn V  Amerika Serikat Boeing (S-IC)
North American (S-II)
Douglas (S-IVB)
&10000000000118000000000118.000[85] &1000000000004700000000047.000 to TLI[85] &10000000000000185000000185 (1,11 billion in 2014)[86] &100000000000000099149999.915[rujukan?] &1000000000000001300000013[87][88][note 12] Retired 1967 1973 Saturn V
Scout  Amerika Serikat US Air Force/NASA &10000000000000150000000150 &10000000000000125000000125 Retired 1961 1994 Scout
Shavit  Israel IAE &10000000000000160000000160 &1000000000000001500000015 &100000000000000090000009 Operational 1988 2010 Shavit
Shtil'  Rusia Makeyev &10000000000000160000000160 - 430 Operational 1998 2006[rujukan?] Shtil'
Simorgh  Iran Iranian Space Agency &1000000000000006000000060-100[89][90] &100000000000000000000000 Simorgh
SLS Block 1  Amerika Serikat Alliant Techsystems (SRBs)

Boeing (proposed)[91]

&1000000000007000000000070.000[92] &100000000000000000000000 Development SLS Block 1
SLS Block 2  Amerika Serikat Alliant Techsystems (SRBs)

Boeing (proposed)[91]

&10000000000130000000000130.000[92] &100000000000000000000000 Development SLS Block 2
SLV  India ISRO &1000000000000004000000040[rujukan?] &100000000000000040000004[rujukan?] 1979 1983[rujukan?] SLV
Soyuz  Uni Soviet RSC Energia &100000000000064500000006.450 &1000000000000003000000030 Retired 1966 1975 Soyuz
Soyuz-L  Uni Soviet RSC Energia &100000000000055000000005.500 &100000000000000030000003 Retired 1970 1971 Soyuz-L
Soyuz-M  Uni Soviet RSC Energia &100000000000066000000006.600 &100000000000000080000008 Retired 1971 1976 Soyuz-M
Soyuz-U  Uni Soviet
 Rusia
TsSKB-Progress &100000000000062000000006.200–6,700 kg from Plesetsk)
6590-6950 from Baikonour[93]
&10000000000000727000000727 Operational 1973 Soyuz-U
Soyuz-U2  Uni Soviet
 Rusia
TsSKB-Progress &1000000000000009200000092 Retired 1982 1995 Soyuz-U2
Soyuz-FG  Rusia TsSKB-Progress &100000000000067900000006.790–7130 kg[94] &1000000000000002900000029 Operational 2001 Soyuz-FG
Soyuz-2.1a  Rusia TsSKB-Progress &00000000000000070010007(+1) Operational 2004[note 13] Soyuz-2.1a
Soyuz-2.1b  Rusia TsSKB-Progress &100000000000000040000004 Operational 2011 Soyuz-2.1b
Soyuz-2.1v  Rusia TsSKB-Progress &100000000000028500000002.850 &100000000000000000000000 Development Soyuz-2.1v
Space Shuttle  Amerika Serikat Alliant Techsystems (SRBs)
Martin Marietta (ET)
Rockwell International (Orbiter)
&1000000000002440000000024.400[note 7] &10000000000000300000000300 [78] &1000000000001041600000010.416 [78] &10000000000000135000000135[95] Retired 1981 2011 Space Shuttle
Sputnik 8K71PS  Uni Soviet RSC Energia &10000000000000500000000500 &100000000000000020000002 Retired 1957 1957 Sputnik 8K71PS
Sputnik 8A91  Uni Soviet RSC Energia &100000000000013270000001.327 &100000000000000020000002 Retired 1958 1958 Sputnik 8A91
Start-1  Rusia MITT &10000000000000532000000532[rujukan?] &10000000000000167000000167 to SSO[rujukan?] &100000000000000070000007[rujukan?] Operational 1993 2006[rujukan?] Start-1
StratoLaunch  Amerika Serikat Stratolaunch Systems &100000000000061000000006.100[96] Development[96] 2016[97] StratoLaunch
Strela  Rusia Khrunichev &100000000000017000000001.700 €5 million.[2] Operational[rujukan?] 2003 2003 Strela
Super Haas  Rumania ARCA &100000000000026000000002.600 &100000000000000000000000 Development Super Haas
Taurus  Amerika Serikat Orbital &100000000000013200000001.320[rujukan?] &100000000000000090000009[rujukan?] Operational[98] 1994 2011[rujukan?] Taurus
Antares  Amerika Serikat Orbital &100000000000060000000006.000[99] &100000000000019000000001.900 to GTO[99] &100000000000000020000002 Operational 2013 2013 Antares
Titan II GLV  Amerika Serikat Martin Marietta &000000000000001100099911(+1) Retired 1964 1966 Titan II GLV
Titan II(23)G  Amerika Serikat Martin Marietta &1000000000000001300000013 Retired 1988 2003 Titan II(23)G
Titan IIIA  Amerika Serikat Martin Marietta Retired 1964 1965 Titan IIIA
Titan IIIB  Amerika Serikat Martin Marietta &1000000000000007000000070 Retired 1966 1987 Titan IIIB
Titan IIIC  Amerika Serikat Martin Marietta &1000000000000003600000036 Retired 1965 1982 Titan IIIC
Titan IIID  Amerika Serikat Martin Marietta &1000000000000002200000022 Retired 1971 1982 Titan IIID
Titan IIIE  Amerika Serikat Martin Marietta &100000000000000070000007 Retired 1974 1977 Titan IIID
Titan 34D  Amerika Serikat Martin Marietta &1000000000000001500000015 Retired 1982 1989 Titan 34D
Titan IVA  Amerika Serikat Martin Marietta &1000000000000002200000022[100] Retired 1989 1998 Titan IVA
Titan IVB  Amerika Serikat Lockheed Martin &1000000000002168200000021.682[101] &100000000000057610000005.761 to GTO [101]
(9,000 with upper stage)
&10000000000000432000000432 &1000000000001383600000013.836[rujukan?] &1000000000000001700000017[100] Retired 1997 2005 Titan IVB
Tronador II  Argentina CONAE &100000000000000000000000 Development Tronador 2.0
Tsyklon-2A  Uni Soviet Yuzhmash &100000000000000080000008[102] Retired 1967 1969 Tsyklon-2A
Tsyklon-2  Uni Soviet
 Ukraina
Yuzhmash &10000000000000106000000106[103] Retired 1969 2006[103] Tsyklon-2
Tsyklon-3  Uni Soviet
 Ukraina
Yuzhmash &10000000000000122000000122[104] Retired 1977 2009[104] Tsyklon-3
Tsyklon-4  Ukraina Yuzhmash &100000000000055000000005.500 [105] &100000000000017000000001.700 to GTO [105] &100000000000000000000000 Development Tsyklon-4
Unha  North Korea KCST &10000000000000100000000100[rujukan?] &100000000000000020000002[rujukan?] Operational[rujukan?] 2006 2009[rujukan?] Unha
Vanguard  Amerika Serikat Martin &1000000000000002300000023[rujukan?] &000000000000001100099911(+1) Retired 1957 1959 Vanguard
Vega  Europe ESA/ASI &100000000000015000000001.500 &1000000000000023500000023,5 [106] &1000000000001560000000015.600[rujukan?] &100000000000000020000002 Operational 2012 [107] Vega
VLS-1  Brasil AEB, INPE &10000000000000380000000380 &100000000000000020000002[note 14] Operational 1997 2003 VLS-1
Volna  Rusia Makeyev &10000000000000100000000100 &00000000000000010049991(+5)[A] Operational[rujukan?] 1995[note 15] 2005 Volna
Voskhod  Uni Soviet RSC Energia &10000000000000306000000306 Retired 1963 1976 Voskhod
Vostok-L  Uni Soviet RSC Energia &100000000000000040000004 Retired 1960 1960 Vostok-L
Vostok-K  Uni Soviet RSC Energia &1000000000000001600000016 Retired 1960 1964[rujukan?] Vostok-K
Vostok-2  Uni Soviet RSC Energia &1000000000000004500000045 Retired 1962 1967[rujukan?] Vostok-2
Vostok-2M  Uni Soviet RSC Energia &1000000000000009300000093[rujukan?] Retired 1964 1991[rujukan?] Vostok-2M
Soyuz/Vostok  Uni Soviet RSC Energia Retired 1965 1966[rujukan?] Soyuz/Vostok
Zenit-2  Uni Soviet
 Ukraina
Yuzhnoye &1000000000001374000000013.740[108] &1000000000000003700000037[58] Retired 1985 2004[109] Zenit-2
Zenit-2M (2SLB)  Ukraina Yuzhnoye &1000000000001392000000013.920[108] &100000000000000010000001 Operational 2007 Zenit-2M (2SLB)
Zenit-3F  Ukraina Yuzhnoye[note 16] &100000000000000010000001 Operational 2011 Zenit-3F
Zenit-3SL  Ukraina Yuzhmash
RKK Energia [note 17]
&100000000000060000000006.000 to GTO [110] &10000000000000100000000100[111] &1000000000000003000000030 Operational 1999 Zenit-3SL
Zenit-3SLB  Ukraina Yuzhmash
RKK Energia [note 16]
&100000000000037500000003.750 to GTO[rujukan?] &100000000000000040000004[rujukan?] Operational 2008 Zenit-3SLB


Catatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ A full listing of the Ariane 5 launch history is in its main article.
  2. ^ Suborbital test in 1969, first orbital launch attempt in 1970
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l With 9.5 foot (2.9 metre) fairing
  4. ^ No flights planned, but 5 unsold heavies could be used.
  5. ^ Without Buran, and assuming payload providing orbital insertion
  6. ^ Encyclopedia Astronautica quotes Energia's "flyaway unit cost" at "$764 million in 1985 dollars". However the realistic exchange rate of Soviet currency was drastically different from the official conversion rate which had been set by decree at 0.8 Soviet rubles per US$1. Unofficially one US dollar in 1980s was in terms of purchasing power roughly equivalent to four Soviet rubles.
  7. ^ a b The US Space Shuttle Transportation System and the Soviet Energia-Buran system, consist of launch vehicle rockets and returnable spaceplane orbiter. Payload values listed here are for the mass of the payload in cargo bay of the spaceplanes, excluding the mass of the spaceplanes themselves.
  8. ^ Not including two launches made using the H-II/SSB and H-IIS configurations
  9. ^ Only launch failed to achieve orbit
  10. ^ Suborbital test flights in 1995, 1997 and 2002, no orbital launches attempted
  11. ^ The N1 rocket was initially designed for 75mt LEO capacity and launch attempts were made with this version, but there were studies to increase the payload capacity to 90—95 mt, if a liquid-hydrogen upper stage engine could be developed.
  12. ^ The Saturn V made 13 launches, 12 of which reached the correct orbits, and the other (Apollo 6) reached a different orbit than the one which had been planned; however, some mission objectives could still be completed; NASA, Saturn V News Reference, Appendix: Saturn V Flight History (1968). For more information, see the Saturn V article. The Saturn V launch record is usually quoted as having never failed, e.g. "The rocket was masterminded by Wernher Von Braun and did not fail in any of its flights", Alan Lawrie and Robert Godwin; Saturn, but the Apollo 6 launch should be considered a partial mission failure. The 13th launch of Saturn V was in special configuration (SA-513) with the Skylab.
  13. ^ Suborbital test flight in 2004, first orbital launch in 2006
  14. ^ A third rocket exploded before launch
  15. ^ First orbital launch attempt in 2005
  16. ^ a b Operated by Land Launch
  17. ^ Operated by Sea Launch

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ a b c "Angaga Launch Vehicle Family". Khrunichev. 
  2. ^ a b c d European Space Directory 2006. Referenced in: Brian Harvey, The Rebirth of the Russian Space Program. p.296.
  3. ^ a b Семейство ракет-носителей «Ангара», date unknown, Retrieved 2010-08-09.
  4. ^ a b "The Angara-7 rocket". Russianspaceweb.com. Diakses 2012-07-25. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az Gunter, Krebs. "Ariane-1, -2, -3, -4". Gunter's Space Page. Diakses 2 August 2011. 
  6. ^ a b "Ariane 5 Users Manual, Issue 4, P. 39 (ISS orbit)" (PDF). Arianespace. Diarsipkan dari aslinya tanggal 2007-09-27. Diakses 2007-11-13. 
  7. ^ "Ariane 5 delivers a record performance with two payloads for new Arianespace customers". Arianespace. Diakses 2011-04-11. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f "FAA Semi-Annual Launch Report: Second Half of 2009". Federal Aviation Administration - Office of Commercial Space Transportation. hlm. end of document. Diakses August 18, 2011. 
  9. ^ "ESA - Launch vehicles - Ariane 5 ME". Esa.int. 2011-06-21. Diakses 2013-11-11. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h "Ariane-5". Space.skyrocket.de. Diakses 2012-07-25. 
  11. ^ a b c "Final launch of Ariane 5 GS completes busy year / Launchers / Our Activities / ESA". Esa.int. 2009-12-19. Diakses 2013-11-04. 
  12. ^ "Welcome To ISRO :: Launch Vehicles". Isro.org. Diakses 2013-11-04. 
  13. ^ "Athena-1". Astronautix.com. Diakses 2013-11-04. 
  14. ^ a b [1][pranala nonaktif]
  15. ^ "Athena-2". Astronautix.com. Diakses 2013-11-04. 
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Gunter, Krebs. "Atlas Centaur". Gunter's Space Page. Diakses 1 August 2011. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad Gunter, Krebs. "Atlas-5". Gunter's Space Page. Diakses 1 August 2011. 
  18. ^ "CONTRACT RELEASE : C12-016: NASA Awards Launch Contract For Goes-R And Goes-S Missions". NASA. Diakses 2013-04-21. 
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg Gunter, Krebs. "Delta". Gunter's Space Page. Diarsipkan dari aslinya tanggal 2 August 2011. Diakses 2 August 2011. 
  20. ^ Wade, Mark. "Delta 0300". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Diarsipkan dari aslinya tanggal 2 August 2011. Diakses 2 August 2011. 
  21. ^ Wade, Mark. "Delta 0900". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Diarsipkan dari aslinya tanggal 2 August 2011. Diakses 2 August 2011. 
  22. ^ a b Wade, Mark. "Delta 2913". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Diarsipkan dari aslinya tanggal 2 August 2011. Diakses 2 August 2011. 
  23. ^ Wade, Mark. "Delta 4000". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Diarsipkan dari aslinya tanggal 2 August 2011. Diakses 2 August 2011. 
  24. ^ Wade, Mark. "Delta 5000". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Diarsipkan dari aslinya tanggal 2 August 2011. Diakses 2 August 2011. 
  25. ^ a b "Delta Product Sheet, FINAL" (PDF). United Launch Alliance. Diarsipkan dari aslinya tanggal 2007-09-28. Diakses 2007-11-14. 
  26. ^ "Breaking News | Lockheed Martin to select Delta 4 rocket for Orion test". Spaceflight Now. Diakses 2012-07-25. 
  27. ^ a b c d e f Gunter, Krebs. "Delta-4". Gunter's Space Page. Diarsipkan dari aslinya tanggal 2 August 2011. Diakses 2 August 2011. 
  28. ^ a b c d e f Ed Kyle. "Delta IV Data Sheet". Spacelaunchreport.com. Diakses 2013-11-04. 
  29. ^ "Delta Launch Report | New communications craft launched for U.S. military". Spaceflight Now. 2009-12-05. Diakses 2013-11-04. 
  30. ^ Gunter, Krebs. "Dnepr-1". Gunter's Space Page. Diarsipkan dari aslinya tanggal 2 August 2011. Diakses 2 August 2011. 
  31. ^ a b c d "S.P.Korolev RSC Energia - LAUNCHERS". Energia. 
  32. ^ Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama Energia3
  33. ^ a b "Projects&Products". IHI Aerospace. Diakses 2011-03-08. 
  34. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Satellite Launch Vehicles". Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS). Diakses 4 March 2011. 
  35. ^ "Breaking News | Japan's 'affordable' Epsilon rocket triumphs on first flight". Spaceflight Now. 2013-09-14. Diakses 2013-11-04. 
  36. ^ a b "Space Exploration Technologies Corporation - Falcon 1". Diakses 2010-10-29. 
  37. ^ a b c d "FALCON 9 OVERVIEW". SpaceX. Diakses 2013-11-04. 
  38. ^ "Falcon 9 Overview". Space Exploration Technologies. Diakses 29 Oct 2010. 
  39. ^ "Falcon 9 Overview". SpaceX. 2011. Diarsipkan dari aslinya tanggal 2011-12-01. Diakses 2011-12-01. 
  40. ^ Klotz, Irene (2013-09-06). "Musk Says SpaceX Being "Extremely Paranoid" as It Readies for Falcon 9’s California Debut". Space News. Diakses 2013-11-04. "...the company’s five previous Falcon 9 boosters, all launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station here. Three of those rockets carried Dragon cargo capsules to the international space station for NASA. Two others were test flights." 
  41. ^ Clark, Stephen (2012-05-18). "Q&A with SpaceX founder and chief designer Elon Musk". Diakses 2013-11-04. "The next version of Falcon 9 will be used for everything. The last flight of version 1.0 will be Flight 5. All future missions after Flight 5 will be v1.1. We've got this mission, which is Flight 3. And we've two CRS [Commercial Resupply Services] missions, Flight 4 and Flight 5, which will fly Version 1.0. Then all future missions, CRS or otherwise, will fly Version 1.1." 
  42. ^ "FALCON 9 Launch Vehicle Performance". NASA. Diakses 2013-11-04. 
  43. ^ "FALCON 9 Launch Vehicle Performance". NASA. Diakses 2013-11-04. 
  44. ^ a b "Upgraded Spacex Falcon 9.1.1 will launch 25% more than old Falcon 9 and bring price down to $4109 per kilogram to LEO". Nextbigfuture.com. 2013-03-22. Diakses 2013-11-04. 
  45. ^ a b c d e "Falcon Heavy Overview". SpaceX. 2013. Diakses 2013-03-22. 
  46. ^ a b "SpaceX Brochure". Spacex.com. Diakses 14 June 2011. 
  47. ^ "Welcome To ISRO :: GSLV :: GSLV-D1". Isro.org. Diakses 2013-11-04. 
  48. ^ "Welcome To ISRO :: Launch Vehicles :: GSLV :: GSLV-D2". Isro.org. 2001-04-18. Diakses 2013-11-04. 
  49. ^ "Welcome To ISRO". Isro.org. Diakses 2013-11-04. 
  50. ^ "Welcome To ISRO :: Launch Vehicles :: GSLV :: GSLV-F04". Isro.org. Diakses 2013-11-04. 
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