Rokot

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Rokot (Rusia: Рокот berarti Rumble), juga diterjemahkan Rockot, adalah sebuah peluncuran kendaraan ruang angkasa Rusia yang bisa meluncurkan muatan 1.950 kilogram menjadi 200 kilometer orbit tinggi Earth dengan kemiringan 63°. Ini adalah turunan dari rudal balistik antar benua (ICBM) UR-100N (SS-19 Stiletto), disediakan dan dioperasikan oleh Eurockot Launch Services.

Peluncuran pertama kali dimulai pada tahun 1990 dari Kosmodrom Baikonur dari silo. Kemudian peluncuran komersial dimulai dari Kosmodrom Plesetsk menggunakan jalan peluncuran khusus dibangun kembali dari satu untuk roket Kosmos-3M. Biaya peluncur itu sendiri adalah sekitar 15 juta pada tahun 1999;[1][2] Eurockot kontrak terakhir dengan ESA untuk meluncurkan Swarm pada September 2013 adalah senilai € 27.100.000 ($ 36.000.000).[3]

Tabel peluncuran[sunting | sunting sumber]

Date (UTC) Type Launch site Payload Payload type Notes
20 November 1990 Rokot/Briz-K Ba LC131  – experimental payload Suborbital, success
20 December 1991 Rokot/Briz-K Ba LC175/1  – experimental payload Suborbital, success
26 December 1994 Rokot/Briz-K Ba LC175/1 Radio-ROSTO Amateur radio satellite success, first orbital mission
22 December 1999 Rokot/Briz-K Pl LC133 RSVN-40 experimental payload no launch, rocket irreparably damaged during preparation
16 May 2000 Rokot/Briz-KM Pl LC133 SimSat-1 and 2 Iridium-mock-ups success
17 March 2002 Rokot/Briz-KM Pl LC133 GRACE-1 and 2 research satellite success
20 June 2002 Rokot/Briz-KM Pl LC133 Iridium-97 and 98 communication satellites success
30 June 2003 Rokot/Briz-KM Pl LC133 MIMOSA, DTUsat, MOST, Cute-I, QuakeSat, AAU CubeSat, CanX-1, Cubesat XI-IV, Monitor-E mockup NLS satellites and Monitor-E-Mockup success
30 October 2003 Rokot/Briz-KM Pl LC133 SERVIS-1 Japanese test satellite success
26 August 2005 Rokot/Briz-KM Pl LC133 Monitor-E1 earth observation satellite success
8 October 2005 Rokot/Briz-KM Pl LC133 CryoSat earth observation satellite failure, launch terminated after 2nd stage main engine was not shut down correctly, resulting in an explosion, causing the vehicle to exceed its flight envelope limit and thereby causing the automatic termination of the launch and the re-entry of the combined Rokot 2nd stage/3rd stage/CryoSat spacecraft stack
28 July 2006 Rokot/Briz-KM Pl LC133/3 KOMPSAT 2 earth observation satellite success
23 May 2008 Rokot/Briz-KM Pl LC133/3 3 Gonets, and Yubileiny[4] success
17 March 2009 [1] Rokot/Briz-KM Pl LC133/3 GOCE ESA earth observation satellite success
6 July 2009 Rokot/Briz-KM Pl LC133/3 3 Rodnik (TBC) success
2 November 2009 Rokot/Briz-KM Pl LC133/3 SMOS, PROBA-2[5] SMOS: ESA earth-observation satellite; PROBA-2: sun-observation satellite testing a new spacecraft platform success
2 June 2010 Rokot/Briz-KM Pl LC133/3 SERVIS-2 Japanese test satellite success
8 September 2010 Rokot/Briz-KM Pl LC133/3 Gonets-M No.2
Kosmos 2467
Kosmos 2468
Communications satellites success
1 February 2011 Rokot/Briz-KM Pl LC133/3 Geo-IK-2 No.11 Geodesy satellite failure, upper stage malfunction, reached lower orbit than planned.
28 July 2012 Rokot/Briz-KM Pl LC133/3 Gonets M-3
Gonets M-4
Kosmos 2481
MiR
Communications satellites success
15 January 2013 Rokot/Briz-KM Pl LC133/3 Kosmos 2482
Kosmos 2483
Kosmos 2484
Communications satellites success
11 September 2013 Rokot/Briz-KM Pl LC133/3 Gonets M-5
Gonets M-6
Gonets M-7
Communications satellites success

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Harvey, Brian (2007). "Launchers and engines". The Rebirth of the Russian Space Program (edisi ke-1st). Germany: Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-71354-0. 
  2. ^ "Rokot". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Diakses tanggal 16 September 2013. 
  3. ^ Stephen Clark (12 September 2013). "Rockot launch clears way for long-delayed ESA mission". SpaceFlightNow.com. Diakses tanggal 16 September 2013. 
  4. ^ "Russia launches relay craft, commemorative satellite". Spaceflight Now. 
  5. ^ Eurockot Launch Service Provider

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]