Historiografi

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Historiografi adalah kajian mengenai metode sejarawan dalam pengembangan sejarah sebagai disiplin akademis, dan secara luas merupakan setiap karya sejarah mengenai topik tertentu. Historiografi tentang topik khusus melingkupi tentang bagaimana sejarawan mengkaji topik tersebut dengan menggunakan sumber, teknik, dan pendekatan teoretis tertentu. Para sarjana telah mendiskusikan historiografi dengan topik  – seperti "historiografi Indonesia", "Historiografi Islam awal", "Historiografi Tiongkok" – serta berbagai pendekatan dan aliran, seperti sejarah politik dan sejarah sosial. Sejak abad ke-19, dengan bangkitnya sejarah akademis, mulai berkembang bentuk literatur historiografi. Sejauh mana sejarawan dipengaruhi oleh kelompok dan loyalitas mereka sendiri – seperti kepada negara bangsanya - menjadi permasalahan yang diperdebatkan.[1]

Ketertarikan penelitian sejarawan berubah sepanjang waktu, dan telah ada pergeseran jauh dari diplomasi, ekonomi, dan politik tradisional menuju pendekatan yang lebih baru, khususnya sosial dan sejarah budaya. Sejak 1975 sampai 1995, proporsi profesor sejarah di universitas Amerika yang diidentifikasi dengan sejarah sosial naik dari 31 ke 41 persen, sedangkan proporsi sejarawan politik menurun dari 40 ke 30 persen.[2] Pada 2007, dari 5.723 fakultas di departemen sejarah di universitas Britania, 1.644 (29%) mengidentifikasi dirinya dengan sejarah sosial dan 1.425 (25%) mengidentifikasi dirinya dengan sejarah politik.[3]

Pendekatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bagaimana pendekatan sejarawan terhadap peristiwa sejarah adalah salah satu keputusan utama dalam historiografi. Secara umum diakui oleh sejarawan, fakta sejarah perseorangan terkait nama, tanggal dan tempat tidak terlalu memiliki makna. Fakta tersebut hanya akan menjadi berguna saat dikaitkan dengan bukti sejarah lainnya, dan proses pengaitan bukti ini dipahami sebagau pendekatan histiografi tertentu.

Pendekatan historiografi paling berpengaruh di antaranya:

Bidang terkait[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bidang terkait penting termasuk::

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Metode[sunting | sunting sumber]

Topik[sunting | sunting sumber]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Marc Ferro, The Use and Abuse of History: Or How the Past Is Taught to Children (2003).
  2. ^ Diplomasi turun dari 5% ke 3%, dan sejarah budaya naik dari 14% ke 16%. Berdasarkan jumlah profesor purna waktu di departemen sejarah Amerika Serikat. Stephen H. Haber, David M. Kennedy, dan Stephen D. Krasner, "Brothers under the Skin: Diplomatic History and International Relations", International Security, Vol. 22, No. 1 (Summer, 1997), pp. 34–43 at p. 42 online at JSTOR
  3. ^ See "Teachers of History in the Universities of the UK 2007 – listed by research interest"

Bibliografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Teori[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Appleby, Joyce, Lynn Hunt & Margaret Jacob, Telling the Truth About History. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1994.
  • Bentley, Michael. Modern Historiography: An Introduction, 1999 ISBN 0-415-20267-1
  • Marc Bloch, The Historian's Craft (1940)
  • Burke, Peter. History and Social Theory, Polity Press, Oxford, 1992
  • David Cannadine (editor), What is History Now, Palgrave Macmillan, 2002
  • E. H. Carr, What is History? 1961, ISBN 0-394-70391-X
  • R.G. Collingwood, The Idea of History, 1936, ISBN 0-19-285306-6
  • Doran, Robert. ed. Philosophy of History After Hayden White. London: Bloomsbury, 2013.
  • Geoffrey Elton, The Practice of History, 1969, ISBN 0-631-22980-9
  • Richard J. Evans In Defence of History, 1997, ISBN 1-86207-104-7
  • Fischer, David Hackett. Historians' Fallacies: Towards a Logic of Historical Thought, Harper & Row, 1970
  • Gardiner, Juliet (ed) What is History Today...? London: MacMillan Education Ltd., 1988.
  • Harlaftis, Gelina, ed. The New Ways of History: Developments in Historiography (I.B. Tauris, 2010) 260 pp; tren dalam historiografi sejak 1990
  • Hewitson, Mark, History and Causality, Palgrave Macmillan, 2014
  • Jenkins, Keith ed. The Postmodern History Reader (2006)
  • Jenkins, Keith. Rethinking History, 1991, ISBN 0-415-30443-1
  • Arthur Marwick, The New Nature of History: knowledge, evidence, language, Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2001, ISBN 0-333-96447-0
  • Munslow, Alan. The Routledge Companion to Historical Studies (2000), ensiklopedia konsep, metode dan sejarawan
  • Spalding, Roger & Christopher Parker, Historiography: An Introduction, 2008, ISBN 0-7190-7285-9
  • Sreedharan, E, "A Textbook of Historiography: 500 BC to AD 2000". New Delhi, Oreient Black Swan, 2004, ISBN 81-250-2657-6 [1]
  • Sreedharan, E, "A Manual of Historical Research Methodology." Trivandrum, Centre for South Indian Studies, 2007, ISBN 978-81-905928-0-2 [2]
  • Tosh, John. The Pursuit of History, 2002, ISBN 0-582-77254-0
  • Tucker, Aviezer, ed. A Companion to the Philosophy of History and Historiography Malden: Blackwell, 2009
  • White, Hayden. The Fiction of Narrative: Essays on History, Literature, and Theory, 1957–2007, Johns Hopkins, 2010. Ed. Robert Doran

Panduan kesarjanaan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • The American Historical Association's Guide to Historical Literature, ed. by Mary Beth Norton and Pamela Gerardi (3rd ed. 2 vol, Oxford U.P. 1995) 2064 pages; panduan beranotasi 27.000 buku sejarah berbahasa Inggris paling penting di semua bidang dan topik volume 1 daring, volume 2 daring
    • Allison, William Henry et al. eds. A guide to historical literature (1931) bibliografi komprehensif untuk kesarjanaan sampai 1930 dan telah dipilah oleh sarjana dari American Historical Association edisi daring, gratis;
  • Backhouse, Roger E. and Philippe Fontaine, eds. A Historiography of the Modern Social Sciences (Cambridge University Press, 2014) pp. ix, 248; esai tentang bagaimana cara sejarah penulisan ilmu psikologi, antropologi, sosiologi, ekonomi, sejarah dan politik sejak 1945
  • Black, Jeremy. Clio's Battles: Historiography in Practice (Indiana University Press, 2015.) xvi, 323 pp.
  • Boyd, Kelly, ed. Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writers (2 Vol 1999), 1600 hlm meliputi sejarawan dan tema utama
  • Cline, Howard F. ed. Guide to Ethnohistorical Sources, Handbook of Middle American Indians (4 vols U of Texas Press 1973.
  • Gray, Wood. Historian's Handbook, 2nd ed. (Houghton-Miffin Co., cop. 1964), vii, 88 pp; sebuah primer
  • Elton, G.R. Modern Historians on British History 1485-1945: A Critical Bibliography 1945-1969 (1969), panduan beranotasi ke 1.000 buku sejarah dalam semua topik utama, ditambah ulasan buku dan artikel ilmiah utama. daring
  • Loades, David, ed. Reader's Guide to British History (Routledge; 2 vol 2003) 1760 pp; panduan yang sangat rinci tentang historiografi Britania pencarian kutipan dan teks
  • Parish, Peter, ed. Reader's Guide to American History (Routledge, 1997), 880 pp; panduan rinci tentang historiografi bertopik Amerika kutipan dan teks
  • Popkin, Jeremy D. From Herodotus to H-Net: The Story of Historiography (Oxford UP, 2015).
  • Woolf, Daniel, et al. The Oxford History of Historical Writing (5 vol 2011–r12), meliputi semua sejarawan utama sejak 600 SM; lihat daftar
    • The Oxford History of Historical Writing: Volume 1: Beginnings to AD 600 tersedia daring di DOI:10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199218158.001.0001
    • The Oxford History of Historical Writing: Volume 3: 1400-1800 tersedia daring di DOI:10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199219179.001.0001
    • The Oxford History of Historical Writing: Volume 4: 1800-1945 tersedia daring di DOI:10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199533091.001.0001

Sejarah dan penulisan sejarah[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Barnes, Harry Elmer. A history of historical writing (1962)
  • Barraclough, Geoffrey. History: Main Trends of Research in the Social and Human Sciences, (1978)
  • Bentley, Michael. ed., Companion to Historiography, Routledge, 1997, ISBN 0415285577, 39 bab oleh para ahli
  • Boyd, Kelly, ed. Encyclopedia of historians and historical writing (2 vol. Taylor & Francis, 1999), 1562 pp
  • Breisach, Ernst. Historiography: Ancient, Medieval and Modern, 3rd edition, 2007, ISBN 0-226-07278-9
  • Budd, Adam, ed. The Modern Historiography Reader: Western Sources. (Routledge, 2009).
  • Cline, Howard F., ed.Latin American History: Essays on Its Study and Teaching, 1898–1965. 2 vols. Austin: University of Texas Press 1965.
  • Cohen, H. Floris The Scientific Revolution: A Historiographical Inquiry, (1994), ISBN 0-226-11280-2
  • Conrad, Sebastian. The Quest for the Lost Nation: Writing History in Germany and Japan in the American Century (2010)
  • Fitzsimons, M.A. et al. eds. The development of historiography (1954) 471 pages; comprehensive global coverage; gratis daring
  • Gilderhus, Mark T. History an Historiographical Introduction, 2002, ISBN 0-13-044824-9
  • Iggers, Georg G. Historiography in the 20th Century: From Scientific Objectivity to the Postmodern Challenge (2005)
  • Kramer, Lloyd, and Sarah Maza, eds. A Companion to Western Historical Thought Blackwell 2006. 520 pp; ISBN 978-1-4051-4961-7.
  • Momigliano, Arnaldo. The Classical Foundation of Modern Historiography, 1990, ISBN 978-0-226-07283-8
  • The Oxford History of Historical Writing (5 vol 2011), Volume 1: Beginnings to AD 600; Volume 2: 600–1400; Volume 3: 1400–1800; Volume 4: 1800–1945; Volume 5: Historical Writing since 1945 catalog
  • Rahman, M. M. ed. Encyclopaedia of Historiography (2006) kutipan dan teks
  • Soffer, Reba. History, Historians, and Conservatism in Britain and America: From the Great War to Thatcher and Reagan (2009) pencarian kutipan dan teks
  • Thompson, James Westfall. A History of Historical Writing. vol 1: From the earliest Times to the End of the 17th Century (1942) edisi daring; A History of Historical Writing. vol 2: The 18th and 19th Centuries (1942) edisi daring
  • Woolf, Daniel, ed. A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing (2 vol. 1998)
  • Woolf, Daniel. "Historiography", in New Dictionary of the History of Ideas, ed. M.C. Horowitz, (2005), vol. I.
  • Woolf, Daniel. A Global History of History (Cambridge University Press, 2011)
  • Woolf, Daniel, ed. The Oxford History of Historical Writing. 5 vols. (Oxford University Press, 2011–12).

Historiografi feminis[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Bonnie G. Smith, The Gender of History: Men, Women, and Historical Practice, Harvard University Press 2000
  • Gerda Lerner, The Majority Finds its Past: Placing Women in History, New York: Oxford University Press 1979
  • Judith M. Bennett, History Matters: Patriarchy and the Challenge of Feminism, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006
  • Julie Des Jardins, Women and the Historical Enterprise in America, University of North Carolina Press, 2002
  • Donna Guy, "Gender and Sexuality in Latin America" in The Oxford Handbook of Latin American History, José C. Moya, ed. New York: Oxford University Press 2011, pp. 367–81.
  • Asunción Lavrin, "Sexuality in Colonial Spanish America" in The Oxford Handbook of Latin American History, José C. Moya, ed. New York: Oxford University Press 2011, pp. 132–54.
  • Mary Ritter Beard, Woman as force in history: A study in traditions and realities
  • Mary Spongberg, Writing women's history since the Renaissance, Palgrave Macmillan, 2002
  • Clare Hemmings, "Why Stories Matter: The Political Grammar of Feminist Theory", Duke University Press 2011

Kajian nasional dan regional[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Berger, Stefan et al., eds. Writing National Histories: Western Europe Since 1800 (1999) kutipan dan teks; bagaimana sejarah telah digunakan di Jerman, Perancis dan Italia untuk melegitimasi negara-bangsa melawan internasionalisme sosialis, komunis dan Katolik
  • Iggers, Georg G. A new Directions and European Historiography (1975)
  • LaCapra, Dominic, and Stephen L. Kaplan, eds. Modern European Intellectual History: Reappraisals and New Perspective (1982)

Amerika Serikat[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Hofstadter, Richard. The Progressive Historians: Turner, Beard, Parrington (1968)
  • Novick, Peter. That Noble Dream: The "Objectivity Question" and the American Historical Profession (1988), ISBN 0-521-34328-3
  • Palmer, William W. "All Coherence Gone? A Cultural History of Leading History Departments in the United States, 1970–2010", Journal of The Historical Society (2012), 12: 111–53. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-5923.2012.00360.x
  • Palmer, William. Engagement with the Past: The Lives and Works of the World War II Generation of Historians (2001)
  • Parish, Peter J., ed. Reader's Guide to American History (1997), historiographical overview of 600 topics
  • Wish, Harvey. The American Historian (1960), covers pre-1920

Britania[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Bann, Stephen. Romanticism and the Rise of History (Twayne Publishers, 1995)
  • Bentley, Michael. Modernizing England's Past: English Historiography in the Age of Modernism, 1870–1970 (2006) pencarian kutipan dan teks
  • Cannadine, David. In Churchill’s Shadow: Confronting the Passed in Modern Britain (2003)
  • Furber, Elizabeth, ed. Changing Views on British History; Essays on Historical Writing Since 1939 (1966); 418pp; essays by scholars
  • Goldstein, Doris S. "The origins and early years of the English Historical Review." English Historical Review (1986) 101#398 pp. 6–19.
  • Goldstein, Doris S. "The Organizational Development of the British Historical Profession, 1884–1921." Historical Research (1982) 55#132 pp. 180–93.
  • Hale, John Rigby, ed. The evolution of British historiography: from Bacon to Namier (1967).
  • Howsam, Leslie. "Academic Discipline or Literary Genre?: The Establishment of Boundaries in Historical Writing." Victorian Literature and Culture (2004) 32#2 pp. 525–45. daring
  • Hexter, J. H. On Historians: Reappraisals of some of the makers of modern history (1979); covers Carl Becker, Wallace Ferguson, Fernan Braudel, Lawrence Stone, Christopher Hill, and J.G.A. Pocock
  • Howsam, Leslie. "Academic Discipline or Literary Genre?: The Establishment of Boundaries in Historical Writing." Victorian Literature and Culture 32.02 (2004): 525-545. daring
  • Jann, Rosemary. The Art and Science of Victorian History (1985)
  • Jann, Rosemary. "From Amateur to Professional: The Case of the Oxbridge Historians." Journal of British Studies (1983) 22#2 pp: 122–47.
  • Kenyon, John. The History Men: The Historical Profession in England since the Renaissance (1983)
  • Loades, David. Reader's Guide to British History (2 vol. 2003) 1700pp; esai historiografi sepanjang 1.600 kata mengenai sekitar 1.000 topik
  • Mitchell, Rosemary. Picturing the Past: English History in Text and Image 1830–1870 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2000)
  • Philips, Mark Salber. Society and Sentiment: Genres of Historical Writing in Britain, 1740–1820 (Princeton University Press, 2000).
  • Richardson, Roger Charles, ed. The debate on the English Revolution (2nd ed. Manchester University Press, 1998)
  • Schlatter, Richard, ed. Recent Views on British History: Essays on Historical Writing Since 1966 (1984) 525 pp; 13 esai topik oleh sarjana

Kerajaan Britania[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Berger, Carl. Writing Canadian History: Aspects of English Canadian Historical Writing since 1900, (2nd ed. 1986)
  • Bhattacharjee, J. B. Historians and Historiography of North East India (2012)
  • Davison, Graeme. The Use and Abuse of Australian History, (2000) edisi daring
  • Farrell, Frank. Themes in Australian History: Questions, Issues and Interpretation in an Evolving Historiography (1990)
  • Gare, Deborah. "Britishness in Recent Australian Historiography", The Historical Journal, Vol. 43, No. 4 (Dec., 2000), pp. 1145–1155 in JSTOR
  • Guha, Ranajiit. Dominance Without Hegemony: History and Power in Colonial India (Harvard UP, 1998)
  • Granatstein, J. L. Who Killed Canadian History? (2000)
  • Mittal, S. C India distorted: A study of British historians on India (1995), on 19th century writers
  • Saunders, Christopher. The making of the South African past: major historians on race and class, (1988)
  • Winks, Robin, ed. The Oxford History of the British Empire: Volume V: Historiography (2001)

Amerika Latin[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Adelman, Jeremy, ed. Colonial Legacies. New York: Routledge 1999.
  • Coatsworth, John. "Cliometrics and Mexican History," Historical Methods18:1 (Winter 1985)31-37.
  • Gootenberg, Paul. "Between a Rock and a Softer Place: Reflections on Some Recent Economic History of Latin America". Latin American Research Review 39:2(2004)-239-57.
  • Kuzensof and Robert Oppenheimer, "The Family and Society in Nineteenth-Century Latin America: An Historiographical Introduction," Journal of Family History 10:3 (1985): 215-34.
  • Lockhart, James. "The Social History of Early Latin America". Latin American Research Review 1972.
  • Moya, José C. The Oxford Handbook of Latin American History. New York: Oxford University Press 2011.
  • Russell-Wood, A.J.R. "Archives and the Recent Historiography on Colonial Brazil," Latin American Research Review 36:1(2001)75-103.
  • Van Young, Eric. "The New Cultural History Comes to Old Mexico," The Hispanic American Historical Review, 79:2 (1999): 211-48.

Asia dan Afrika[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Cohen, Paul. Discovering History in China: American Historical Writing on the Recent Chinese Past. New York, London:: Columbia University Press, Studies of the East Asian Institute, 1984. 237p. Reprinted: 2010, with a New Introduction by the Author. ISBN 023152546X. [3]
  • Marcinkowski, M. Ismail. Persian Historiography and Geography: Bertold Spuler on Major Works Produced in Iran, the Caucasus, Central Asia, India and Early Ottoman Turkey (Singapore: Pustaka Nasional, 2003)
  • Martin, Thomas R. Herodotus and Sima Qian: The First Great Historians of Greece and China: A Brief History with Documents (2009)
  • Yerxa, Donald A. Recent Themes in the History of Africa and the Atlantic World: Historians in Conversation (2008) pencarian kutipan dan teks

Perancis[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Burke, Peter. The French Historical Revolution: The Annales School 1929-2014 (John Wiley & Sons, 2015).
  • Clark, Stuart. "French historians and early modern popular culture." Past & Present 100 (1983): 62-99.
  • Daileader, Philip and Philip Whalen, eds. French Historians 1900-2000: New Historical Writing in Twentieth-Century France (2010) 40 esai panjang oleh ahli. kutipan
  • Revel, Jacques, and Lynn Hunt, eds. Histories: French Constructions of the Past, (1995). 654pp; 65 esai oleh sejarawan Perancis
  • Stoianovich, Traian. French Historical Method: The Annales Paradigm (1976)

Jerman[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Fletcher, Roger. "Recent developments in West German Historiography: the Bielefeld School and its critics." German Studies Review (1984): 451-480. in JSTOR
  • Hagemann, Karen, and Jean H. Quataert, eds. Gendering Modern German History: Rewriting Historiography (2008)
  • Iggers, Georg G. The German Conception of History: The National Tradition of Historical Thought from Herder to the Present (2nd ed. 1983)
  • Rüger, Jan, and Nikolaus Wachsmann, eds. Rewriting German history: new perspectives on modern Germany (Palgrave Macmillan, 2015). kutipan
  • Sheehan, James J. "What is German history? Reflections on the role of the nation in German history and historiography." Journal of Modern History (1981): 2-23. di JSTOR
  • Sperber, Jonathan. "Master Narratives of Nineteenth-century German History." Central European History (1991) 24#1: 69-91. online
  • Stuchtey, Benedikt, and Peter Wende, eds. British and German historiography, 1750-1950: traditions, perceptions, and transfers (2000).

Tema, organisasi, dan pengajaran[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Carlebach, Elishiva, et al. eds. Jewish History and Jewish Memory: Essays in Honor of Yosef Hayim Yerushalmi (1998) kutipan dan teks
  • Charlton, Thomas L. History of Oral History: Foundations and Methodology (2007)
  • Darcy, R. and Richard C. Rohrs, A Guide to Quantitative History (1995)
  • Dawidowicz, Lucy S. The Holocaust and Historians. (1981).
  • Ernest, John. Liberation Historiography: African American Writers and the Challenge of History, 1794–1861. (2004)
  • Evans, Ronald W. The Hope for American School Reform: The Cold War Pursuit of Inquiry Learning in Social Studies(Palgrave Macmillan; 2011) 265 halaman
  • Ferro, Marc, Cinema and History (1988)
  • Hudson, Pat. History by Numbers: An Introduction to Quantitative Approaches (2002)
  • Keita, Maghan. Race and the Writing of History. Oxford UP (2000)
  • Leavy, Patricia. Oral History: Understanding Qualitative Research (2011) kutipan dan teks
  • Loewen, James W. Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong, (1996)
  • Manning, Patrick, ed. World History: Global And Local Interactions (2006)
  • Morris-Suzuki, Tessa. The Past Within Us: Media, Memory, History (2005), ISBN 1-85984-513-4
  • Ritchie, Donald A. The Oxford Handbook of Oral History (2010) kutipan dan teks

Jurnal[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]