Islamofobia

Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
Langsung ke: navigasi, cari

Islamofobia adalah istilah kontroversial[1] yang merujuk pada prasangka dan diskriminasi pada Islam dan Muslim.[2] Istilah itu sudah ada sejak tahun 1980-an,[3] tapi menjadi lebih populer setelah peristiwa serangan 11 September 2001.[4] Pada tahun 1997, Runnymede Trust seorang Inggris mendefinisikan Islamofobia sebagai "rasa takut dan kebencian terhadap Islam dan oleh karena itu juga pada semua Muslim," dinyatakan bahwa hal tersebut juga merujuk pada praktik diskriminasi terhadap Muslim dengan memisahkan mereka dari kehidupan ekonomi, sosial, dan kemasyarakatan bangsa. Di dalamnya juga ada persepsi bahwa Islam tidak mempunyai norma yang sesuai dengan budaya lain, lebih rendah dibanding budaya barat dan lebih berupa ideologi politik yang bengis daripada berupa suatu agama.[5] Langkah-langkah telah diambil untuk peresmian istilah ini dalam bulan Januari 2001 di "Stockholm International Forum on Combating Intolerance". Di sana Islamofobia dikenal sebagai bentuk intoleransi seperti Xenofobia dan Antisemitisme .[6]

Berbagai sumber telah mensugestikan adanya kecenderungan peningkatan dalam Islamofobia, sebagian diakibatkan serangan 11 September,[7] sementara yang lainnya berhubungan dengan semakin banyaknya Muslim di dunia barat.[8] Dalam bulan Mei 2002 European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia (EUMC) mengeluarkan laporan berjudul "Summary report on Islamophobia in the EU after 11 September 2001", yang menggambarkan peningkatan Islamofobia di Eropa setelah 11 September.[9]

Para penyanggah mengkritik konsep itu, diduga ada penyalahgunaan saat menggali kritik Islam yang sah,[10][11] dan menyebutnya sebagai "mitos".[10] Penulis novel Salman Rushdie dan teman-temannya menandatangani manifesto berjudul Together facing the new totalitarianism di bulan Maret 2006 menyebut Islamofobia a "konsep yang buruk yang mencampurkan kritik terhadap Islam sebagai agama dengan stigmatisasi terhadap para penganutnya."[12]


Catatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ * "There really isn't a phenomena like "Islamophobia" - at least no more than there was a "Germanophobia" in hating Hitler or "Russiaphobia" in detesting Stalin." - Historian Victor Davis Hanson, in the The Politically Incorrect Guide to Islam (and the Crusades) By Robert Spencer, ISBN 0-89526-013-1, Regnery Publishing, Pg. 200
    • "All this indicates that "Islamophobia" is virtually useless as an analytical tool. To adopt it is to accept the most virulent form of theological equivalence, and to affirm, against all the evidence, that every religious tradition is equally capable of inspiring violence." - The Politically Incorrect Guide to Islam (and the Crusades) By Robert Spencer, ISBN 0-89526-013-1, Regnery Publishing, Pg. 199
    • "This term is a fabricated and question-begging linguistic manoeuvre designed to present the protection of religious sensibilities as a civil liberty issue." - The "Islamophobia" scam, Oliver Kamm
    • "The pseudo-psychiatric term Islamophobia is a statement that any criticism of Muslims is evidence of clinical pathology. Yet the label is often attached to valid criticisms of particular Muslims whose behaviour has laid them open to legitimate censure." - David Green, Bad Faith VI
    • "The trouble with the idea is that it confuses hatred of, and discrimination against, Muslims on the one hand with criticism of Islam on the other." Malik, Kenan. "Islamophobia Myth", Prospect, February 2005.
    • "... Islamophobia", a wretched concept that confuses criticism of Islam as a religion and stigmatisation of those who believe in it." Rushdie, Salman et al. "Writers' statement on cartoons", BBC News, March 1, 2006
  2. ^
    • Sandra Fredman, Discrimination and Human Rights, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-924603-3, p.121.
    • Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad, Muslims in the West: From Sojourners to Citizens, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-514806-1, p.19
    • Islamophobia: A Challenge for Us All, Runnymede Trust, 1997, p. 1, cited in Quraishi, Muzammil. Muslims and Crime: A Comparative Study, Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 2005, p. 60. ISBN 0-7546-4233-X. Early in 1997, the Commission on British Muslims and Islamophobia, at that time part of the Runnymede Trust, issued a consultative document on Islamophobia under the chairmanship of Professor Gordon Conway, Vice-Chancellor of the University of Sussex. The final report, Islamophobia: A Challenge for Us All, was launched in November 1997 by Home Secretary Jack Straw.
    • Edward Kessler, Neil Wenborn, A Dictionary of Jewish-Christian Relations, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-82692-6 p.429.
    • Abduljalil Sajid. "Islamophobia: A New Word for an Old Fear" in Islamophobia and Antisemitism, Markus Wiener Publishers, 2006, p. 1: defines the term as "anti-Muslim prejudice."
    • Social Inequalities in Comparative Perspective By Mary C. Waters, Fiona Devine, pg. 106
    • Muslims in Western Europe By Jørgen S. Nielsen, pg. 169
  3. ^ Islamophobia: A Challenge for Us All, Runnymede Trust, 1997, p. 1, cited in Quraishi, Muzammil. Muslims and Crime: A Comparative Study, Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 2005, p. 60; Annan, Kofi. "Secretary-General, addressing headquarters seminar on confronting Islamophobia", United Nations press release, December 7 2004.
  4. ^
    • Casciani, Dominic. "Islamophobia pervades UK - report", BBC News, June 2 2004.
    • Rima Berns McGowan writes in Muslims in the Diaspora (University of Toronto Press, 1991, p. 268) that the term "Islamophobia" was first used in an unnamed American periodical in 1991.
  5. ^ Runnymede 1997, p. 5, cited in Quraishi 2005, p. 60.
  6. ^ New Muslims in the European Context: The Experience of Scandinavian Converts - p. 53, Brill 2004
  7. ^ Benn, Jawad (2004) p. 111
  8. ^ Steven Vertovec, "Islamophobia and Muslim Recognition in Britain"; in Haddad (2002) pp. 32-33
  9. ^ See:
    • Greaves (2004) p. 133
    • Allen, Chris; Nielsen, Jorgen S.; Summary report on Islamophobia in the EU after 11 September 2001 (May 2002), EUMC.
  10. ^ a b Malik, Kenan. "Islamophobia Myth", Prospect, February 2005,
  11. ^
    • "There really isn't a phenomena like "Islamophobia" - at least no more than there was a "Germanophobia" in hating Hitler or "Russiaphobia" in detesting Stalin." - Historian Victor Davis Hanson, in the The Politically Incorrect Guide to Islam (and the Crusades) By Robert Spencer, ISBN 0-89526-013-1, Regnery Publishing, Pg. 200
    • "All this indicates that "Islamophobia" is virtually useless as an analytical tool. To adopt it is to accept the most virulent form of theological equivalence, and to affirm, against all the evidence, that every religious tradition is equally capable of inspiring violence." - The Politically Incorrect Guide to Islam (and the Crusades) By Robert Spencer, ISBN 0-89526-013-1, Regnery Publishing, Pg. 199
    • "This term is a fabricated and question-begging linguistic manoeuvre designed to present the protection of religious sensibilities as a civil liberty issue." - The "Islamophobia" scam, Oliver Kamm
    • "The pseudo-psychiatric term Islamophobia is a statement that any criticism of Muslims is evidence of clinical pathology. Yet the label is often attached to valid criticisms of particular Muslims whose behaviour has laid them open to legitimate censure." - David Green, Bad Faith VI
    • "The trouble with the idea is that it confuses hatred of, and discrimination against, Muslims on the one hand with criticism of Islam on the other." Malik, Kenan. "Islamophobia Myth", Prospect, February 2005.
    • "... Islamophobia", a wretched concept that confuses criticism of Islam as a religion and stigmatisation of those who believe in it." Rushdie, Salman et al. "Writers' statement on cartoons", BBC News, March 1, 2006.
  12. ^ Rushdie, Salman et al. "Writers' statement on cartoons", BBC News, March 1, 2006.