Murtad

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Murtad artinya adalah seseorang yang sengaja keluar dari suatu agama.

Etimologi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Murtad berasal dari bahasa Arab yang bermakna "keluar".

Murtad dalam Islam[sunting | sunting sumber]

Dari segi istilah bermaksud meninggalkan atau keluar dari agama Islam dan memeluk agama selain Islam. Murtad bisa melalui perkataan atau melalui perbuatan atau itikad, kepercayaan dan keyakinan hati.

Hukuman bagi orang murtad adalah dibunuh[butuh rujukan], apabila sudah dinasehati untuk kembali ke pangkuan Islam dan tetap tidak mau kembali ke Islam.

Murtad dalam Kristen[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kemurtadan dalam kekristenan mengacu pada penolakan Kekristenan oleh seseorang yang sebelumnya adalah seorang pengikut perjuangan Yesus. Istilah Apostasy berasal dari kata Yunani apostasia ("ἀποστασία") yang berarti pembelotan, pemberontakan atau pemberontakan. Istilah ini juga digambarkan sebagai "sengaja keluar, atau memberontak melawan kebenaran Kristen. Murtad adalah penolakan terhadap Kristus dengan orang yang telah menjadi Kristen ...." [1] "Murtad adalah kategori teologis menggambarkan mereka yang dengan sukarela dan sadar meninggalkan iman mereka kepada perjanjian Allah, dalam Yesus Kristus "[2]". Peristiwa Yudas Iskariot ketika bersekongkol dan memberi tahu tempat Yesus dan murid-muridnya kepada pasukan Romawi dan orang Yahudi yang sudah diramalkan oleh Yesus Kristus juga menjadi icon kemurtadan dalam Kekristenan.

Dalam pandangan teologi umum, murtad juga diartikan sebagai melepas iman Kristen demi sebuah nafsu, keinginan, kepuasan, ambisi, dan kekuasaan duniawi yang dianggap tidak setia mengikut perjuangan Yesus.


Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Richard A. Muller, Dictionary of Greek and Latin Theological Terms: Drawn Principally from Protestant Scholastic Theology, 41. The Tyndale Bible Dictionary defines apostasy as a "Turning against God, as evidenced by abandonment and repudiation of former beliefs. The term generally refers to a deliberate renouncing of the faith by a once sincere believer . . ." ("Apostasy," Walter A. Elwell and Philip W. Comfort, editors, 95).
  2. ^ Scot McKnight, Dictionary of Theological Interpretation of the Bible, "Apostasy," 58.

Bacaan lebih lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Bromley, David G. 1988. Falling From the Faith: The Causes and Consequences of Religious Apostasy. Beverly Hills: Sage.
  • Dunlop, Mark, The culture of Cults, 2001 [1]
  • Introvigne, Massimo Defectors, Ordinary Leavetakers and Apostates: A Quantitative Study of Former Members of New Acropolis in France – paper delivered at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Religion, San Francisco, November 23, 1997 [2]
  • The Jewish Encyclopedia (1906). The Kopelman Foundation. [3]
  • Lucas, Phillip Charles, The Odyssey of a New Religion: The Holy Order of MANS from New Age to Orthodoxy Indiana University press;
  • Lucas, Phillip Charles, Shifting Millennial Visions in New Religious Movements: The case of the Holy Order of MANS in The year 2000: Essays on the End edited by Charles B. Strozier, New York University Press 1997;
  • Lucas, Phillip Charles, The Eleventh Commandment Fellowship: A New Religious Movement Confronts the Ecological Crisis, Journal of Contemporary Religion 10:3, 1995:229–41;
  • Lucas, Phillip Charles, Social factors in the Failure of New Religious Movements: A Case Study Using Stark's Success Model SYZYGY: Journal of Alternative Religion and Culture 1:1, Winter 1992:39–53
  • Wright, Stuart A. 1988. "Leaving New Religious Movements: Issues, Theory and Research," pp. 143–165 in David G. Bromley (ed.), Falling From the Faith. Beverly Hills: Sage.
  • Wright, Stuart A. 1991. "Reconceptualizing Cult Coercion and Withdrawal: A Comparative Analysis of Divorce and Apostasy." Social Forces 70 (1):125–145.
  • Wright, Stuart A. and Helen R. Ebaugh. 1993. "Leaving New Religions," pp. 117–138 in David G. Bromley and Jeffrey K. Hadden (eds.), Handbook of Cults and Sects in America. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
  • Zablocki, Benjamin et al., Research on NRMs in the Post-9/11 World, in Lucas, Phillip Charles et al. (ed.), NRMs in the 21st Century: legal, political, and social challenges in global perspective, 2004, ISBN 0-415-96577-2
Testimonies, memoirs, and autobiographies
  • Babinski, Edward (editor), Leaving the Fold: Testimonies of Former Fundamentalists. Prometheus Books, 2003. ISBN 1-59102-217-7; ISBN 978-1-59102-217-6
  • Dubreuil, J. P. 1994 L'Église de Scientology. Facile d'y entrer, difficile d'en sortir. Sherbrooke: private edition (ex-Church of Scientology)
  • Huguenin, T. 1995 Le 54e Paris Fixot (ex-Ordre du Temple Solaire who would be the 54th victim)
  • Kaufmann, Inside Scientology/Dianetics: How I Joined Dianetics/Scientology and Became Superhuman, 1995 [4]
  • Lavallée, G. 1994 L'alliance de la brebis. Rescapée de la secte de Moïse, Montréal: Club Québec Loisirs (ex-Roch Thériault)
  • Pignotti, Monica, My nine lives in Scientology, 1989, [5]
  • Wakefield, Margery, Testimony, 1996 [6]
  • Lawrence Woodcraft, Astra Woodcraft, Zoe Woodcraft, The Woodcraft Family, Video Interviews [7]
Writings by others
  • Carter, Lewis, F. Lewis, Carriers of Tales: On Assessing Credibility of Apostate and Other Outsider Accounts of Religious Practices published in the book The Politics of Religious Apostasy: The Role of Apostates in the Transformation of Religious Movements edited by David G. Bromley Westport, CT, Praeger Publishers, 1998. ISBN 0-275-95508-7
  • Elwell, Walter A. (Ed.) Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible, Volume 1 A–I, Baker Book House, 1988, pages 130-131, "Apostasy". ISBN 0-8010-3447-7
  • Malinoski, Peter, Thoughts on Conducting Research with Former Cult Members , Cultic Studies Review, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2001 [8]
  • Palmer, Susan J. Apostates and their Role in the Construction of Grievance Claims against the Northeast Kingdom/Messianic Communities [9]
  • Wilson, S.G., Leaving the Fold: Apostates and Defectors in Antiquity. Augsburg Fortress Publishers, 2004. ISBN 0-8006-3675-9; ISBN 978-0-8006-3675-3
  • Wright, Stuart. "Post-Involvement Attitudes of Voluntary Defectors from Controversial New Religious Movements". ''Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 23 (1984):172–182.