Senussi

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Senussi atau Sanussi (Arab: السنوسية‎) adalah tarekat Sufi di Libya dan wilayah Sahara yang didirikan di Mekkah pada tahun 1837 oleh Senussi Agung (Arab: السنوسي الكبير‎) Muhammad bin Ali as-Senussi dari Aljazair. Senussi mendirikan tarekat ini karena merasa khawatir dengan kemunduran Islam. Tarekat Senussi berupaya melawan penjajahan Perancis di Sahara dari tahun 1902 hingga 1913 dan penjajahan Italia di Libya pada tahun 1911. Pada masa Perang Dunia I, mereka melancarkan kampanye militer Senussi melawan Britania di Mesir dan Sudan. Pada masa Perang Dunia II, suku Senussi memberikan bantuan kepada Angkatan Darat Kedelapan Britania Raya di Afrika Utara dalam peperangan melawan pasukan Jerman Nazi dan Italia. Cucu Senussi Agung lalu menjadi raja dengan nama Idris dari Libya pada tahun 1951. Namun, pada tahun 1969, Idris I dijatuhkan oleh Kolonel Muammar Gaddafi. Pergerakan ini tetap aktif meskipun ditindas oleh Gaddafi.

Daftar pustaka[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • E. E. Evans-Pritchard, The Sanusi of Cyrenaica (1949, repr. 1963)
  • N. A. Ziadeh, Sanusiyah (1958, repr. 1983).
  • Bianci, Steven, ''Libya: Current Issues and Historical Background New York: Nova Science Publishers, INc, 2003
  • L. Rinn, Marabouts et Khouan, a good historical account up to the year 1884
  • 0. Depont and X. Coppolani, Les Confrèries religieuses musulmanes (Algiers, 1897)
  • Si Mohammed el Hechaish, Chez les Senoussia et les Touareg, in "L'Expansion cot. française" for 1900 and the "Revue de Paris" for 1901. These are translations from the Arabic of an educated Mahommedan who visited the chief Senussite centres. An obituary notice of Senussi el Mahdi by the same writer appeared in the Arab journal El Iladira of Tunis, Sept. 2, 1902; a condensation of this article appears in the "Bull. du Corn. de l'Afriue française" for 5902; Les Senoussia, an anonymous contribution to the April supplement of the same volume, is a judicious summary of events, a short bibliography being added; Capt. Julien, in "Le Dar Ouadai" published in the same Bulletin (vol. for 1904), traces the connection between Wadai and the Senussi
  • L. G. Binger, in Le Peril de l'Islam in the 1906 volume of the Bulletin, discusses the position and prospects of the Senussite and other Islamic sects in North Africa. Von Grunau, in "Verhandlungen der Gesellschaft für Erdkunde" for 1899, gives an account of his visit to Siwa
  • M.G.E. Bowman–Manifold, An Outline of the Egyptian and Palestine Campaigns, 1914 to 1918 2nd Edition (Chatham: The Institution of Royal Engineers, W. & J. Mackay & Co Ltd, 1923)
  • Russell McGuirk The Sanusi's Little War The Amazing Story of a Forgotten Conflict in the Western Desert, 1915–1917 (London, Arabian Publishing: 2007)
  • Field Marshal Earl Wavell, The Palestine Campaigns 3rd Edition thirteenth Printing; Series: A Short History of the British Army 4th Edition by Major E.W. Sheppard (London: Constable & Co., 1968)
  • Sir F. R. Wingate, in Mahdiism and the Egyptian Sudan (London, 1891), narrates the efforts made by the Mahdi Mahommed Ahmed to obtain the support of the Senussi
  • Sir W. Wallace, in his report to the Colonial Office on Northern Nigeria for 1906-1907, deals with Senussiism in that country.
  • H. Duveyrier, La Confrèrie musulmane de Sidi Mohammed ben Au es Senoussi (Paris, 1884), a book containing much exaggeration, and A. Silva White, From Sphinx to Oracle (London, 1898), which, while repeating the extreme views of Duveyrier, contains useful information.
  • Public Domain Artikel ini menyertakan teks dari suatu terbitan yang sekarang berada pada ranah publikChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "perlu nama artikel ". Encyclopædia Britannica (edisi ke-11). Cambridge University Press.