Emanuel Tov

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Emanuel Tov

Emanuel Tov (bahasa Ibrani: עמנואל טוב; lahir di Amsterdam, Belanda, tahun 1941) adalah seorang profesor emeritus pada Department of Bible pada Hebrew University di Yerusalem.

Biografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Emanuel Tov dilahirkan di Amsterdam, Belanda selama masa pendudukan Jerman (1941). Ketika berusia setahun, orangtuanya menitipkannya pada sebuah keluarga Kristen. Orangtuanya meninggal akibat Holocaust, dan setelah perang ia dibesarkan paman dan bibinya seperti anak sendiri. Ia belajar pada sebuah “gymnasium”, di mana ia belajar bahasa Eropa klasik dan modern, dan pada saat yang sama ia belajar bahasa Ibrani pada Talmud Torah. Sejak usia 14 tahun, ia aktif dalam gerakan pemuda Zionisme, “Ichud Habonim” dan menjadi salah satu ketuanya. Pada usia 18 tahun, gerakan mengirimkannya ke Israel untuk dilatih sebagai seorang pemimpin dan pada tahun 1960 ia menjadi sekretaris jenderal gerakan itu di Belanda. Pada tahun 1961, ia berimigrasi ke Israel. Ia kuliah di Hebrew University (B.A. Bible; M.A. Bible dan sastra Yunani), sementara bekerja sebagai seorang asisten pada Bible Dept. dan pada "Hebrew University Bible Project". Pada tahun 1967-1969, ia meneruskan studinya pada Dept. for Near Eastern Studies and Languages di Universitas Harvard. Disertasinya, ditulis di bawah bimbingan para profesor Shemaryahu Talmon (Hebrew University) dan Frank Moore Cross (Universitas Harvard), diserahkan pada Hebrew University pada tahun 1973 dengan judul “The Septuagint Translation of Jeremiah and Baruch” ("Terjemahan Kitab Yeremia dan Kitab Barukh pada Septuaginta"). Sepulangnya ke Israel, ia menjabat sebagai seorang “assistant” pada Universitas Haifa dan pada Hebrew University.

Pada tahun 1986, ia ditunjuk menjadi Profesor pada Hebrew University dan pada tahun 1990 ia menjadi J. L. Magnes Professor of Bible Studies. Pernah menjadi profesor tamu pada universitas-universitas Oxford, Uppsala, Doshisha (Kyoto), Macquarie and Sydney (Australia), Stellenbosch (South Africa), Vrije Universiteit (Amsterdam), Universitas Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, Amerika Serikat, AS), Pontifical Gregorian University (Roma, Italia), dan Halle (Germany). Ia menjadi pengajar tetap pada Institutes for Advanced Studies at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, NIAS (the Netherlands), Annenberg (Philadelphia), Oxford Centre for Postgraduate Hebrew Studies dan the Lichtenberg Kolleg (Göttingen, Germany). [1] [2] [3] Emanuel Tov menikah dengan Lika (née Aa). Mereka dikaruniai tiga anak dan empat cucu perempuan.

Penghargaan dan gelar kehormatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Riset[sunting | sunting sumber]

Septuaginta[sunting | sunting sumber]

Emanuel Tov mempelajari Septuaginta dengan fokus pertama-tama pada perkembangan inner-translational dan perlahan ke arah pentingnya terjemahan ini untuk studi Alkitab: revisi awal Septuaginta, teknik terjemahan, rekonstruksi teks Ibrani induk dari terjemahan Yunani, nilai Septuaginta untuk studi Alkitab Ibrani, pentingnya buku-buku Septuaginta tertentu untuk eksegesis buku-buku Ibrani dan pemahaman perkembangan sastra, tempat sumber Ibrani pada perkembangan Septuaginta dalam perkembangan teks Alkitab.[6]

Perkembangan teks Alkitab[sunting | sunting sumber]

Emanuel Tov tidak menggambarkan perkembangan teks Alkitab berdasarkan teori-teori abstrak, tetapi berdasarkan bukti naskah-naskah dan versi kuno. Jelas bahwa pada zaman dulu banyak versi Alkitab yang beredar, terbukti dari keragaman tekstual di Qumran. Semua naskah berbeda dari yang lain, tetapi di dalam keragaman dapat dikenal sejumlah grup (families). Tov mengkualifikasi keragaman ini dengan statistik internal berbagai jenis naskah-naskah Qumran. Ia juga menggambarkan latar belakang socio-religious dari sejumlah kelompok naskah-naskah Judean Desert (padang gurun Yudea).[7]

Perkembangan teks Taurat[sunting | sunting sumber]

Dalam studi yang dilakukan terutama pada tahun 2010-an, Tov berfokus pada status tekstual Taurat khusus.[8]

Naskah-naskah Laut Mati dan penulis-penulis Qumran[sunting | sunting sumber]

Emanuel Tov meneliti berbagai aspek naskah-naskah Qumran, tetapi publikasi-publikasi utamanya adalah mengenai para penulis Qumran. Pada tahun 2004, ia menerbitkan suatu monograf detail mengenai praktik-praktik penulisan yang tercermin dari naskah-naskah Qumran, dan berpendapat bahwa informasi praktik-praktik ini dapat membuka pemahaman lebih baik mengenai naskah-naskah Qumran.[9] -->

Computer-assisted research of the Bible and the Dead Sea Scrolls[sunting | sunting sumber]

Emanuel Tov percaya bahwa penelitian Alkitab dan Naskah-naskah Laut Mati membutuhkan bantuan komputer dan karenanya program database dan komputer perlu dikembangkan. Ia mengawasi pengkodean elektronik Leningrad Codex pada tahun 1980-an.[10] Pada waktu itu, ia juga melakukan proyek riset bersama dengan Prof. Robert A. Kraft dari University of Pennsylvania (CATSS = Computer Assisted Tools for Septuagint Studies). Proyek itu, berpusat di Philadelphia, Amerika Serikat dan Yerusalem, menghasilkan suatu database komparatif dari seluruh kata dalam Teks Masoret dan Septuaginta. Telah dipublikasikan sebagai sebuah modul di dalam program Accordance (selanjutnya juga di dalam Bible Works dan Logos). Dengan bantuan program itu, yang membantu riset lanjutan dan riset statistik, beberapa penelitian telah dilakukan oleh Tov dan pakar-pakar lain.[11] Database lain yang disunting oleh Tov memuat seluruh teks dan gambar dari Naskah-naskah Laut Mati yang tidak memuat teks Alkitab, dalam bahasa asli dan terjemahan, dengan analisis morfologis dan program pencarian. Semua program ini terbuka untuk komunitas internasional.[12]

Volume kehormatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Emanuel, Studies in Hebrew Bible, Septuagint, and Dead Sea Scrolls in Honor of Emanuel Tov (ed. S. M. Paul, R. A. Kraft, L. H. Schiffman, and W. W. Fields, with the assistance of E. Ben-David; VTSup 94; Leiden/Boston: E. J. Brill, 2003).
  • From Qumran to Aleppo: A Discussion with Emanuel Tov about the Textual History of Jewish Scriptures in Honor of his 65th Birthday (ed. A. Lange et al.; FRLANT 230; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2009)

Buku karangan[sunting | sunting sumber]

1. The Book of Baruch also Called I Baruch (Greek and Hebrew) (Texts and Translations 8, Pseudepigrapha Series 6; Missoula, Mont.: Scholars Press, 1975).

2. The Septuagint Translation of Jeremiah and Baruch: A Discussion of an Early Revision of Jeremiah 29–52 and Baruch 1:1–3:8 (HSM 8; Missoula, Mont.: Scholars Press, 1976).

3. The Text-Critical Use of the Septuagint in Biblical Research (Jerusalem Biblical Studies 3; Jerusalem: Simor, 1981).

3*. The Text-Critical Use of the Septuagint in Biblical Research (Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged; Jerusalem Biblical Studies 8; Jerusalem: Simor, 1997).

3**. The Text-Critical Use of the Septuagint in Biblical Research (Third Edition, Completely Revised and Enlarged; Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2015).

4. With J. R. Abercrombie, W. Adler, and R. A. Kraft: Computer Assisted Tools for Septuagint Studies (CATSS), Volume 1, Ruth (SCS 20; Atlanta, Georgia: Scholars Press, 1986).

5. A Computerized Data Base for Septuagint Studies: The Parallel Aligned Text of the Greek and Hebrew Bible (CATSS Volume 2; JNSLSup 1; 1986).

6. With D. Barthélemy, D. W. Gooding, and J. Lust: The Story of David and Goliath, Textual and Literary Criticism, Papers of a Joint Venture (OBO 73; Fribourg/Göttingen: Éditions universitaires/Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1986).

7. Textual Criticism of the Bible: An Introduction (Heb.; Jerusalem: Bialik Institute, 1989).

7*. Second corrected printing of: Textual Criticism of the Bible: An Introduction (Heb.; Jerusalem: Bialik Institute, 1997).

7**. Textual Criticism of the Bible: An Introduction (2nd ed., revised and expanded; The Biblical Encyclopaedia Library 31; Heb.; Jerusalem: Bialik Institute, 2013).

7a. Expanded and updated version of 7: Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible (Minneapolis and Assen/Maastricht: Fortress Press and Van Gorcum, 1992).

7a*. Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible (2d rev. ed.; Minneapolis and Assen: Fortress Press/Royal Van Gorcum, 2001).

7a**. Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible (3rd ed., revised and expanded; Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2012).

7b. German version of 7a (revised and updated): Der Text der Hebräischen Bibel: Handbuch der Textkritik (trans. H.-J. Fabry; Stuttgart/Berlin/Cologne: Kohlhammer, 1997).

7c. Russian version of 7b (revised and updated): Tekstologiya Vetchoga Zaveta (trans. K. Burmistrov and G. Jastrebov; Moscow: Biblisko-Bagaslovski Institut Sv. Apostola Andrjeya [St. Andrews Theological Seminary], 2001).

8. With the collaboration of R. A. Kraft: The Greek Minor Prophets Scroll from Nahal Hever (8HevXIIgr) (The Seiyal Collection I) (DJD VIII; Oxford: Clarendon, 1990).

8*. Revised edition of 8: The Greek Minor Prophets Scroll from Nahal Hever (8HevXIIgr) (The Seiyal Collection I) (DJD VIII; Oxford: Clarendon, “Reprinted with corrections 1995”).

9. With the collaboration of S. J. Pfann: The Dead Sea Scrolls on Microfiche: A Comprehensive Facsimile Edition of the Texts from the Judean Desert, with a Companion Volume (Leiden: E. J. Brill/IDC, 1993).

9*. Revised edition of 9: Companion Volume to The Dead Sea Scrolls Microfiche Edition (2d rev. ed.; Leiden: E. J. Brill/IDC, 1995).

10. With C. Rabin and S. Talmon: The Hebrew University Bible, The Book of Jeremiah (Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1997).

11. The Greek and Hebrew Bible—Collected Essays on the Septuagint (VTSup 72; Leiden/ Boston/Cologne: E. J. Brill, 1999).

11.* Unchanged paperback edition of The Greek and Hebrew Bible— Collected Essays on the Septuagint (Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2006).

12a. With D. W. Parry: The Dead Sea Scrolls Reader, Part 1, Texts Concerned with Religious Law) (Leiden/Boston: E. J. Brill, 2004)

12b. With D. W. Parry: The Dead Sea Scrolls Reader, Part 2, Exegetical Texts (Leiden/ Boston: E. J. Brill, 2004).

12c. With D. W. Parry: The Dead Sea Scrolls Reader, Part 3, Parabiblical Texts (Leiden/ Boston: E. J. Brill, 2005).

12d. With D. W. Parry: The Dead Sea Scrolls Reader, Part 4, Calendrical and Sapiential Texts (Leiden/Boston: E. J. Brill, 2004).

12e. With D. W. Parry: The Dead Sea Scrolls Reader, Part 5, Poetic and Liturgical Texts (Leiden/Boston: E. J. Brill, 2005).

12f. With D. W. Parry: The Dead Sea Scrolls Reader, Part 6, Additional Genres and Unclassified Texts (Leiden/Boston: E. J. Brill, 2005).

12*. With D.W. Parry, and in association with G.I. Clements: The Dead Sea Scrolls Reader, Volumes 1–2 (2nd edition, revised and expanded; Leiden: Brill, 2014).

13. Scribal Practices and Approaches Reflected in the Texts Found in the Judean Desert (STDJ 54; Leiden/Boston: E. J. Brill, 2004).

14. Hebrew Bible, Greek Bible, and Qumran—Collected Essays (TSAJ 121; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2008).

15. Revised Lists of the Texts from the Judaean Desert (Leiden/Boston: Brill, 2010).

16. Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible, Qumran, Septuagint: Collected Writings, Volume 3 (VTSup 167; Leiden: Brill, 2015).

Publikasi elektronik[sunting | sunting sumber]

1. The Dead Sea Scrolls Database (Non-Biblical Texts) (The Dead Sea Scrolls Electronic Reference Library, vol. 2; Prepared by the Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies [FARMS]) (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1999).

2. In collaboration with A. Groves: The Hebrew text in ˚nt, JPS Hebrew–English Tanakh: The Traditional Hebrew Text and the New JPS Translation (2d. ed.; Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society, 1999).

3. The Parallel Aligned Text of the Greek and Hebrew Bible (division of the CATSS database, directed by R. A. Kraft and E. Tov), module in the Accordance computer program, 2002 (with updates 2003 – ).

3a. The Parallel Aligned Text of the Greek and Hebrew Bible (division of the CATSS database, directed by R. A. Kraft and E. Tov), module in the Logos computer program, 2004 (with updates, 2005 – ).

3b. With F. H. Polak: The Parallel Aligned Text of the Greek and Hebrew Bible (division of the CATSS database, directed by R. A. Kraft and E. Tov), module in the Bible Works computer program, version 7, 2005 (with updates, 2006 – ).

4. “Electronic Resources Relevant to the Textual Criticism of Hebrew Scripture,” TC: A Journal of Biblical Textual Criticism 8 (2003)

5. The Dead Sea Scrolls Electronic Library, Brigham Young University, Revised Edition 2006, part of the Dead Sea Scrolls Electronic Reference Library of E. J. Brill Publishers (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 2006).

6. “Electronic Tools for the Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible – 2013 Introduction and List

7. “Electronic Bible Editions on the Internet (2014)”

Buku suntingan[sunting | sunting sumber]

1. The Hebrew and Greek Texts of Samuel, 1980 Proceedings IOSCS, Vienna (Jerusalem: Academon, 1980).

2. A Classified Bibliography of Lexical and Grammatical Studies on the Language of the Septuagint and Its Revisions (3rd ed.; Jerusalem: Academon, 1982).

3. With C. Rabin: Textus, Studies of the Hebrew University Bible Project, vol. 11 (Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1984).

4. Textus, Studies of the Hebrew University Bible Project, vol. 12 (Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1985).

5. Textus, Studies of the Hebrew University Bible Project, vol. 13 (Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1986).

6. With M. Klopfenstein, U. Luz, and S. Talmon: Mitte der Schrift? Ein jüdisch-christliches Gespräch. Texte der Berner Symposions 1985 (Judaica et Christiana 11; Bern: Peter Lang, 1987).

7. Textus, Studies of the Hebrew University Bible Project, vol. 14 (Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1988). 183 pp.

8. Textus, Studies of the Hebrew University Bible Project, vol. 15 (Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1990).

9. With M. Fishbane and with the assistance of W. Fields: “Sha’arei Talmon”: Studies in the Bible, Qumran, and the Ancient Near East Presented to Shemaryahu Talmon (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1992).

10. With A. Hurvitz and S. Japhet: I. L. Seeligmann, Studies in Biblical Literature (Heb.; Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1992).

10*. With A. Hurvitz and S. Japhet: I. L. Seeligmann, Studies in Biblical Literature (Heb.; 2d rev. ed.; Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1996).

11. Max L. Margolis, The Book of Joshua in Greek, Part V: Joshua 19:39–24:33 (Monograph Series, Annenberg Research Institute; Philadelphia 1992).

12. J. Jarick with the collaboration of G. Marquis, A Comprehensive Bilingual Concordance of the Hebrew and Greek Texts of the Book of Ecclesiastes (CATSS: Basic Tools Volume 3; SCS 36; Atlanta, GA: Scholars Press, 1993).

13. Area editor (Dead Sea Scrolls) in The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion (ed. R. J. Z. Werblowsky and G. Wigoder; New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997).

14. Area editor in Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, vols. 1–2 (ed. L. H. Schiffman and J. C. VanderKam; Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 2000).

15. With L. H. Schiffman and J. VanderKam: The Dead Sea Scrolls: Fifty Years After Their Discovery—Proceedings of the Jerusalem Congress, July 20–25, 1997 (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society/The Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, 2000).

16. F. H. Polak and G. Marquis, A Classified Index of the Minuses of the Septuagint, Part I: Introduction; Part II: The Pentateuch (CATSS Basic Tools 4, 5; Stellenbosch: Print24.com, 2002).

17. With E. D. Herbert: The Bible as Book—The Hebrew Bible and the Judaean Desert Discoveries (London: British Library & Oak Knoll Press in association with The Scriptorium: Center for Christian Antiquities, 2002).

18. With P. W. Flint and J. VanderKam: Studies in the Hebrew Bible, Qumran and the Septuagint Presented to Eugene Ulrich (VTSup 101; Leiden: E. J. Brill, 2006).

19. With M. Bar-Asher: Meghillot, Studies in the Dead Sea Scrolls V-VI, A Festschrift for Devorah Dimant (Haifa/Jerusalem: University of Haifa, The Publication Project of the Qumran Scrolls/The Bialik Institute, 2007).

20. With M. Bar-Asher, D. Rom-Shiloni, and N. Wazana: Shai le-Sara Japhet (Jerusalem: Bialik Institute, 2007).

21. With C. A. Evans: Exploring the Origins of the Bible—Canon Formation in Historical, Literary, and Theological Perspective (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2008).

22. With A. Lange, M. Weigold, and B.H. Reynolds III: The Dead Sea Scrolls in Context: Integrating the Dead Sea Scrolls in the Study of Ancient Texts, Languages, and Cultures, Vols. I-II (VTSup 140/I-II; Leiden/Boston: Brill, 2011)

Editor-in-Chief, Discoveries in the Judaean Desert[sunting | sunting sumber]

1. P. W. Skehan, E. Ulrich, and J. E. Sanderson, Qumran Cave 4.IV: Palaeo-Hebrew and Greek Biblical Manuscripts (DJD IX; Oxford: Clarendon, 1992).

2. E. Qimron and J. Strugnell, Qumran Cave 4.V: Miqsat Ma’ase ha-Torah (DJD X; Oxford: Clarendon, 1994).

3. E. Eshel et al., in consultation with J. VanderKam and M. Brady, Qumran Cave 4.VI: Poetical and Liturgical Texts, Part 1 (DJD XI; Oxford: Clarendon, 1998).

4. E. Ulrich and F. M. Cross, eds., Qumran Cave 4.VII: Genesis to Numbers (DJD XII; Oxford: Clarendon, 1994 [repr. 1999]).

5. H. Attridge et al., in consultation with J. VanderKam, Qumran Cave 4.VIII: Parabiblical Texts, Part 1 (DJD XIII; Oxford: Clarendon, 1994).

6. E. Ulrich and F. M. Cross, eds., Qumran Cave 4.IX: Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Kings (DJD XIV; Oxford: Clarendon, 1995 [repr. 1999]).

7. E. Ulrich et al., Qumran Cave 4.X: The Prophets (DJD XV; Oxford: Clarendon, 1997).

8. E. Ulrich et al., Qumran Cave 4.XI: Psalms to Chronicles (DJD XVI; Oxford: Clarendon, 2000).

9. F. M. Cross, D. W. Parry, R. Saley, E. Ulrich, Qumran Cave 4.XII: 1–2 Samuel (DJD XVII; Oxford: Clarendon, 2005).

10. J. M. Baumgarten, Qumran Cave 4.XIII: The Damascus Document (4Q266–273) (DJD XVIII; Oxford: Clarendon, 1996).

11. M. Broshi et al., in consultation with J. VanderKam, Qumran Cave 4.XIV: Parabiblical Texts, Part 2 (DJD XIX; Oxford: Clarendon, 1995).

12. T. Elgvin et al., in consultation with J. A. Fitzmyer, S.J., Qumran Cave 4.XV: Sapiential Texts, Part 1 (DJD XX; Oxford: Clarendon, 1997).

13. S. Talmon, J. Ben-Dov, and U. Glessmer, Qumran Cave 4.XVI: Calendrical Texts (DJD XXI; Oxford: Clarendon, 2001).

14. G. Brooke et al., in consultation with J. VanderKam, Qumran Cave 4.XVII: Parabiblical Texts, Part 3 (DJD XXII; Oxford: Clarendon, 1996).

15. F. García Martínez, E. J. C. Tigchelaar, and A. S. van der Woude, Qumran Cave 11.II: 11Q2–18, 11Q20–31 (DJD XXIII; Oxford: Clarendon, 1998).

16. M. J. W. Leith, Wadi Daliyeh I: The Wadi Daliyeh Seal Impressions (DJD XXIV; Oxford: Clarendon, 1997).

17. É. Puech, Qumran Cave 4.XVIII: Textes hébreux (4Q521–4Q528, 4Q576–4Q579) (DJD XXV; Oxford: Clarendon, 1998).

18. P. Alexander and G. Vermes, Qumran Cave 4.XIX: 4QSerekh Ha-Yah≥ad and Two Related Texts (DJD XXVI; Oxford: Clarendon, 1998).

19. H. M. Cotton and A. Yardeni, Aramaic, Hebrew, and Greek Documentary Texts from Nah≥al H≥ever and Other Sites, with an Appendix Containing Alleged Qumran Texts (The Seiyâl Collection II) (DJD XXVII; Oxford: Clarendon, 1997).

20. D. M. Gropp, Wadi Daliyeh II: The Samaria Papyri from Wadi Daliyeh; E. Schuller et al., in consultation with J. VanderKam and M. Brady, Qumran Cave 4.XXVIII: Miscellanea, Part 2 (DJD XXVIII; Oxford: Clarendon, 2001).

21. E. Chazon et al., in consultation with J. VanderKam and M. Brady, Qumran Cave 4.XX: Poetical and Liturgical Texts, Part 2 (DJD XXIX; Oxford: Clarendon, 1999).

22. D. Dimant, Qumran Cave 4.XXI: Parabiblical Texts, Part 4: Pseudo-Prophetic Texts (DJD XXX; Oxford: Clarendon, 2001).

23. É. Puech, Qumran Cave 4.XXII: Textes araméens, première partie: 4Q529–549 (DJD XXXI; Oxford: Clarendon, 2001).

24. D. Pike and A. Skinner, in consultation with J. VanderKam and M. Brady, Qumran Cave 4.XXIII: Unidentified Fragments (DJD XXXIII; Oxford: Clarendon, 2001).

25. J. Strugnell, D. J. Harrington, S.J., and T. Elgvin, in consultation with J. A. Fitzmyer, S.J., Qumran Cave 4.XXIV: 4QInstruction (Musar leMevîn): 4Q415 ff. (DJD XXXIV; Oxford: Clarendon, 1999).

26. J. Baumgarten et al., Qumran Cave 4.XXV: Halakhic Texts (DJD XXXV; Oxford: Clarendon, 1999).

27. S. J. Pfann, Cryptic Texts; P. Alexander et al., in consultation with J. VanderKam and M. Brady, Qumran Cave 4.XXVI: Miscellanea, Part 1 (DJD XXXVI; Oxford: Clarendon, 2000).

28. H. Cotton et al., in consultation with J. VanderKam and M. Brady, Miscellaneous Texts from the Judaean Desert (DJD XXXVIII; Oxford: Clarendon, 2000).

29. E. Tov (ed.), The Texts from the Judaean Desert: Indices and an Introduction to the Discoveries in the Judaean Desert Series (DJD XXXIX; Oxford: Clarendon, 2002).

30. M. G. Abegg, Jr., with J. E. Bowley and E. M. Cook, in consultation with E. Tov, The Dead Sea Scrolls Concordance I. The Non-Biblical Texts from Qumran (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 2003).

31. H. Stegemann with E. Schuller, and C. Newsom (translations), Qumran Cave 1.III: 1QHodayota with Incorporation of 1QHodayotb and 4QHodayota–f (DJD XL; Oxford: Clarendon, 2009).

32. É. Puech, Qumran Cave 4.XXVII: Textes araméens, deuxième partie: 4Q550–575a, 580–587 et Appendices (DJD XXXVII; Oxford: Clarendon, 2009).

33. E. Ulrich and P. W. Flint, Qumran Cave 1.II: The Isaiah Scrolls (DJD XXXII; Oxford: Clarendon, 2010).

See also[sunting | sunting sumber]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Emanuel Tov at Emet Prize site
  2. ^ Bibliography at his homepage
  3. ^ Emanuel Tov homepage
  4. ^ "Israel Prize Official Site (in Hebrew) - Recipient's C.V.". 
  5. ^ "Israel Prize Official Site (in Hebrew) - Judges' Rationale for Grant to Recipient". 
  6. ^ See items 3*, 7a*, 65, 181, 207 in Tov's bibliography
  7. ^ Lihat nomor 171 dan 178 dalam pustaka Tov.
  8. ^ Lihat nomor 210, 224, 244, 260, 261, 264, 283, 290 pada daftar pustaka di situs web.
  9. ^ Scribal Practices and Approaches Reflected in the Texts Found in the Judean Desert (STDJ 54; Leiden/Boston: E. J. Brill, 2004)
  10. ^ Pengkodean ini telah dipublikasikan antara lain pada: JPS Hebrew–English Tanakh: The Traditional Hebrew Text and the New JPS Translation (2d. ed.; Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society, 1999).
  11. ^ Untuk daftarnya, dapat dilihat pada situs web Tov pada daftar pustaka, CATSS
  12. ^ The Dead Sea Scrolls Electronic Library, Brigham Young University, Revised Edition 2006, part of the Dead Sea Scrolls Electronic Reference Library of E. J. Brill Publishers

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]