Daftar perang dan bencana menurut korban jiwa

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Berikut adalah daftar peperangan dan bencana berdasarkan jumlah korban jiwa. Data mencakup perkiraan jumlah korban jiwa, nama peristiwa, lokasi, dan waktu terjadinya peristiwa tersebut. Sebuah peristiwa bisa saja masuk dalam lebih dari satu kategori, beberapa peristiwa bisa beririsan dengan yang lain.

Perang, konflik bersenjata, dan genosida[sunting | sunting sumber]

Angka di bawah dituliskan dalam jutaan dan mencakup kematian dari penyakit, kelaparan, dan kematian dalam pertempuran, pembantaian, ataupun genosida. Angka yang ditulis merupakan angka perkiraan. Bila hanya ada satu perkiraan, maka perkiraan terendah dan tertinggi ditulis dengan nilai sama.

Perkiraan kematian dalam jutaan
Perkiraan
terendah
Perkiraan Log. mean[1] Perkiraan
Tertinggi
Peristiwa Lokasi Mulai Akhir Durasi (tahun) Catatan, Lihat pula
700140000000000000040[2] 58 700185000000000000085[3] Perang Dunia 2 Seluruh dunia 1939 1945 6 tahun 1 hari Korban Perang Dunia II and Perang Tiongkok-Jepang Kedua[4] (termasuk Holocaust dan kematian di kamp konsentrasi)
700136000000000000036[5] 37 700140000000000000040[6] Tiga Kerajaan Tiongkok 184 280 96
30[7] 35 40[8] Ekspansi mongol Eurasia 1206 1368 163 Kekaisaran Mongol
25[9] 25 25 Ekspansi Manchu China 1616 1662 47 Dinasti Qing
20[10] 32 100[11][12][13] Pemberontakan Taiping Tiongkok 1851 1864 14
15[14] 31 65[15] Perang Dunia I Seluruh dunia 1914 1918 4 tahun, 3 bulan, 1 minggu Kematian akibat flu Spanyol dimasukan dalam angka perkiraan tertinggi.
15[16] 17 20[16] Penaklukan Timur-e-Lang Asia Barat, Asia Selatan, Asia Tengah, Rusia 1369 1405 37 Dinasti Timurid
13[8] 21 36[17] Pemberontakan An Lushan China 755 763 9 Peperangan pada Abad Pertengahan
8[18] 8 8 Perang Sipil Tiongkok Tiongkok 1927 1949 22
5[butuh rujukan] 6.7 9[19] Perang Sipil Rusia Rusia 1917 1921 5
4.194[20] 8.4 17
[21][22][23]
Holocaust Eropa 1941 1945 4 Angka perkiraan terendah berasal dari jumlah orang Yahudi yang tewas dalam peristiwa ini sementara angka tertinggi mencakup semua kebijakan pembunuhan Jerman yang berbasis ras dan politik, baik langsung maupun tidak langsung.
3.5
[butuh rujukan]
4.9 7.0[24] Perang Napoleon Eropa, Atlantik, Pasifik, dan Samudra Hindia 1803 1815 13
3.0 5.9 11.5[25] Perang Tiga Puluh Tahun Kekaisaran Romawi Suci 1618 1648 31 Perang agama
3.0[26] 4.6 7.0[26] Pemberontakan Serban Kuning China 184 205 22 bagian dari Perang Tiga Kerajaan
2.5[27] 3.7 5.4[28] Perang Kongo Kedua Republik Demokratik Kongo 1998 2003 6 Perang Kongo Pertama
2.582[29][30][31] 4.5 8.0[32] Holodomor (and Soviet famine of 1932–1933) Ukrainian SSR (and other areas of southern USSR, western Siberia) 1932 1933 1 Targeted famine and forced relocation of Soviet ethnic groups, especially landed Ukrainian peasants, by Stalin Regime.
2.3[33] 2.8 3.3[34] Hundred Years' War Western Europe 1337 1453 107 Edwardian War (1337-1360), Caroline War (1369-1389), Lancastrian War (1415–53)
2.0
[35]
14 100
[36]
European colonization of the Americas Americas 1492 1900 408 Colonization, disease, ethnic cleansing and war.
2.0 2.8 4.0[37] French Wars of Religion France 1562 1598 37 Religious war
1.5[8] 1.7 2.0[38] Shaka's conquests Southern Africa 1816 1828 13 Ndwandwe–Zulu War
1.5[39] 1.7 2.0[39] War in Afghanistan Afghanistan 1979 2000 22 Soviet-Afghan War, Taliban Era. Death toll estimates through 1999 (2M) and 2000 (1.5M and 2M).
1.0 1.7 3.0 Nigerian Civil War Nigeria 1966 1970 4 Ethnic cleansings of the Igbo people followed by Civil War.
1.0[40] 1.7 3.0[40] Cambodian Genocide Cambodia 1975 1979 4 War casualties, famine, health system collapse, executions and ethnic cleansing during the Khmer Rouge regime.
1.0[41] 1.7 3.0[42] Crusades Holy Land, Europe 1095 1291 197 Christian military excursions against the Muslim Conquests.
1.0[43] 1.4 2.0 Second Sudanese Civil War Sudan 1983 2005 23 First Sudanese Civil War
0.9 0.94 1.0 Gallic Wars France 58 BC 50 BC 9 Roman Empire
0.8 0.89 1.0 Du Wenxiu Rebellion China 1856 1873 18
0.8[44] 1.5 3.0[45] Vietnam War Southeast Asia 1955 1975 21 Cold War and First Indochina War
0.67[46] 0.75 0.85[47] American Civil War United States of America 1861 1865 4 Estimates include civilian deaths
0.6[39] 1.1 2.0[39] Soviet War in Afghanistan Afghanistan 1980 1988 9 Sometimes categorized as a proxy war during the Cold War.
0.5[48] 1.2 3.0[49] Expulsion of Germans after World War II Europe 1945 1950 5 Both direct and indirect deaths of ethnic German civilians and POWs during the redrawing of national borders after World War II.
0.5[50] 1 2.0[50] Mexican Revolution Mexico, United States 1911 1920 10 Includes Pancho Villa's raids and the Columbus Raid.
0.5[51][52] 1.0 2.0[butuh rujukan]||Iran–Iraq War||Iran, Iraq||1980||1988||9|| Includes the Al-Anfal Campaign and the Invasion of Kuwait.
0.5[53] 0.71 1.0[53] Rwandan genocide Rwanda 1994 1994 1 Part of the Rwandan Civil War.
0.5 0.71 1.0 Spanish Civil War Spain 1936 1939 4
0.4[54] 0.45 0.5[55] Circassian Genocide Circassia 1864 1867 3 Deaths during the ethnic cleansing of Circassia by the Russian Empire in the aftermath of the Russo–Circassian War (1763–1864).
0.4[56] 1.34 4.5[56] Korean War Korean Peninsula 1950 1953 4 Categorized as part of the Cold War.
0.3[57] 0.67 1.5[58] Armenian Genocide Anatolia 1915 1923 8 Called the First Genocide of the 20th century and officially recognized by 21 countries as such, though modern Turkey disputes the use of this term and some associated claims.
0.3[59] 0.6 1.2[60] Paraguayan War South America 1864 1870 7 Military history of South America, Francisco Solano López and Luís Alves de Lima e Silva, Duke of Caxias
0.3[61] 0.24 0.4[61] Deluge Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth 1655 1660 6 The Second Northern War, including subsequent campaigns by the same powers through the 1650s, and skirmishes between Catholic and Protestant partisans.
0.272[62] 0.585 1.260[62][63][64] War on Terror Greater Middle East 2001 2013 12 Includes Iraq War, War in Afghanistan (2001–present), and War in North-West Pakistan.
0.2[65] 0.45 1.0[65] Greek genocide Anatolia 1915 1923 8 The use of the term "genocide" is disputed by modern Turkey.
0.097207[66][67][68] 0.31 0.2[69] Bosnian War Bosnia 1992 1995 3 During the Bosnian War, at least 97,207 people were killed.
0.075[70][71] 0.099 0.13[70][71] Massacres of Poles by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army Volhyn and Eastern Galicia 1943 1944 1 Killings conducted by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army on Polish civilians.
0.2[72] 0.77 3.0[72] 1971 Bangladesh genocide East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) 1971 1971 1 Killings by the Pakistani Armed Forces in East Pakistan leading to the Bangladesh Liberation War and Indo-Pakistani War of 1971; widely regarded as a genocide against the Bengali people.

Kematian di penjara dan kamp[sunting | sunting sumber]

Deaths Name Run by Location Date Notes, References
800,000–1,500,000 Auschwitz-Birkenau Nazi Germany Oświęcim, Poland 1940–1945 [73][74]
700,000–1,000,000 Treblinka Nazi Germany Treblinka, Poland 1942–1943 [75][76]
480,000–600,000 Bełżec Nazi Germany Bełżec, Poland 1942–1943 [77][78][79]
130,000–500,000 Kolyma Gulag Soviet Union Kolyma, Soviet Union 1932–1954 [80]
100,000–700,000 Jasenovac NDH Ustaše Croatia 1941–1945 [81][82][83]
85,000 Stutthof Nazi Germany Stuttof, Third Reich 1939-1945 Second World War

[84]

12,790–75,000 Stara Gradiška NDH Ustaše Croatia 1941–1945 primarily for women and children[85][86]
26,000 - 40,000 Second Boer War United Kingdom South African Republic 1900–1902 116,000 boer women and children; 26,370 died

Second Boer War#Concentration camps .281900.E2.80.931902.29 115,000 black people 15,000 died Second Boer War [87] 81% of the total fatalities in the camps were children Emily Hobhouse

17,000 Tuol Sleng Democratic Kampuchea Phnom Penh, Cambodia 1975–1979 [88]
13,171 Camp Sumter Confederate States of America Andersonville, Georgia, USA 1864–1865 [89]
12,000 Crveni Krst Nazi regime, Gestapo Niš, Serbia 1941 [90]
2,963 Elmira Prison United States of America Elmira, New York, USA 1864–1865 [91]

Bencana kelaparan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Catatan: beberapa dari peristiwa di bawah disebabkan oleh alam

Lowest estimate Highest estimate Event Location From To Notes
700715000000000000015.000.000[92] 700755000000000000055.000.000[93] Great Chinese Famine Tiongkok 1958 1962 During the Great Leap Forward under Mao Zedong tens of millions of Chinese starved to death.[94] State violence during this period further exacerbated the death toll, and some 2.5 million people were beaten or tortured to death in connection with Great Leap policies.[95]
70069000000000000009.000.000 700713000000000000013.000.000 Northern Chinese Famine of 1876–79 China 1876 1879 ENSO famine. See also: Late Victorian Holocausts
70065500000000000005.500.000 70066000000000000006.000.000 Great Famine of 1876–78 India 1876 1878 ENSO famine. See also: Late Victorian Holocausts
70065000000000000005.000.000[96] 700710000000000000010.000.000[96] Russian famine of 1921 Soviet Russia 1921 1922 See also: Droughts and famines in Russia and the Soviet Union and Russian Civil War with its policy of War communism, especially prodrazvyorstka
70063000000000000003.000.000 70064000000000000004.000.000 Bengal famine of 1943 India 1943 1943 The Japanese conquest of Burma cut off India's main supply of rice imports[97]

However, administrative policies in British India ultimately helped cause the massive death toll.[98]

70062400000000000002.400.000[99] 70062400000000000002.400.000 Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies Indonesia 1944 1945 An estimated 2.4 million Indonesians starved to death during the Japanese occupation of Indonesia. The problem was partly caused by failures of the main 1944–45 rice crop, but mainly by the compulsory rice purchasing system that the Japanese authorities put in place to secure rice for distribution to the armed forces and urban population.[99]
70062000000000000002.000.000 70063000000000000003.000.000 Indian famine of 1896–97, Indian famine of 1899–1900 India 1896 1900 ENSO famines. See also: Late Victorian Holocausts
7002800000000000000800,000[100] 7002950000000000000950,000[101] Cambodian Genocide Cambodia 1975 1979 An estimated 2 million Cambodians lost their lives to murder, forced labor and famine perpetrated by the Khmer Rouge, of which nearly half was caused by forced starvation. Came to an end due to invasion by Vietnam in 1979.
7005750000000000000750.000[102][103] 70061500000000000001.500.000[104] Great Irish Famine[105] Ireland 1846 1849 Although blight ravaged potato crops throughout Europe during the 1840s, the impact and human cost in Ireland—where a third of the population was significantly dependent on the Irish Lumper potato for food—was exacerbated by a host of political, social and economic factors which remain the subject of historical debate.[106][107]
7005400000000000000400.000[108] 70062000000000000002.000.000[109] Vietnamese Famine of 1945 Vietnam 1944 1945 The Japanese occupation during World War II caused the famine in North Vietnam.[109]
7005400000000000000400.000[110] 70061000000000000001.000.000[111] 1983–85 famine in Ethiopia Ethiopia 1983 1985 The famines that struck Ethiopia between 1961 and 1985, and in particular the one of 1983–5, were in large part created by government policies.[110]
700470000000000000070.000[112] 700470000000000000070.000 Sudan famine Sudan 1998 1998 The famine was caused almost entirely by human rights abuse and the war in Southern Sudan.[113]

Banjir dan tanah longsor[sunting | sunting sumber]

Note: These are floods and landslides that have been partially caused by humans, for example by failure of dams, levees, seawalls or retaining walls.

Rank Death toll Event Location Date
1. 2,500,000–3,700,000[114] 1931 China floods China 1931
2. 900,000–2,000,000 1887 Yellow River (Huang He) flood China 1887
3. 500,000–700,000 1938 Yellow River (Huang He) flood China 1938
4. 26,000[115]-230,000[116] The failure of 62 dams in Zhumadian Prefecture, Henan, the largest of which was Banqiao Dam, caused by Typhoon Nina. China August 1975
5. 145,000 1935 Yangtze river flood China 1935
6. more than 100,000 St. Felix's Flood, storm surge Netherlands 1530
7. 100,000 Hanoi and Red River Delta flood North Vietnam 1971
8. 100,000 1911 Yangtze river flood China 1911
9. 50,000–80,000 St. Lucia's flood, storm surge Netherlands, England 1287
10. 10,000–50,000 Vargas Tragedy, landslide Venezuela 1999
11. 2,400 North Sea flood, storm surge Netherlands, Scotland, England, Belgium 31 January 1953
12. 2,209 Johnstown Flood Pennsylvania 31 May 1889

Pengorbanan manusia dan ritual[sunting | sunting sumber]

This section lists deaths from the systematic practice of human sacrifice or suicide. For notable individual episodes, see Human sacrifice and mass suicide.

Lowest estimate Highest estimate Description Group Location From To Notes
7005300000000000000300.000[butuh rujukan] || 70061500000000000001.500.000[butuh rujukan] || Human sacrifice in Aztec culture || Aztecs || Mexico || 14th century || 1521 || Up to 3,000 sacrificed yearly[117]
13,000[118] 13,100 Human sacrifice Shang dynasty China BC1300 BC1050 Last 250 years of rule
70037941000000000007.941[119] 70037941000000000007.941 Ritual suicides Sati , India 1815 1828
70033912000000000003.912 70033912000000000003.912 Kamikaze suicide pilots, see note[120] Imperial Japanese air forces Pacific theatre 1944 1945
7002913000000000000913 7002913000000000000913 Jonestown murder-suicide[121] Followers of The Peoples Temple cult Jonestown November 18, 1978 November 19, 1978
967 967 Mass suicide motivated religious and political. Judean rebels Masada Spring 73

Peristiwa mematikan lainnya[sunting | sunting sumber]

Events with a large anthropogenic death toll not fitting any of the above classifications. May include deaths caused by famine, genocide, and other events listed above, as a portion of the total.

Lowest
estimate
Highest
estimate
Event Location From To Notes
700749000000000000049.000.000 700778000000000000078.000.000 Mao Zedong era 1949–1976 Tiongkok 1949 1976 Millions of people died as a result of Mao Zedong's reforms,[122] with most of these deaths due to the Great Chinese Famine caused by mismanagement of agricultural resources during the Great Leap Forward. Millions more died as a result of human rights abuses. The total includes those who died during the Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries, the Three-anti and Five-anti Campaigns, human rights abuses in Tibet, The Great Leap Forward (especially the resulting famine), and the Cultural Revolution. See also Mass killings under communist regimes.
70068000000000000008.000.000 700761000000000000061.000.000 Soviet crimes 1917–1953 Soviet Republics (1917–1922), the Soviet Union (1922–1953), the East and Center of Europe, Mongolia 1917 1953 War, forced collectivization, and poor central planning in the Soviet Republics and Soviet Union led to enormous famines in 1921, 1932–33, and 1946–47. Mass murders were also perpetrated by the Communist leaders of the Soviet Republics between 1917 and 1922 and later on in The Soviet Union during a period of 1922–1953 (until the death of Joseph Stalin). This includes terrors unleashed by Cheka during the Russian Civil War against nations and 'enemies of The Revolution',[123] deaths in Gulags,[124] forced resettlement,[125] Holodomor,[126] Dekulakization,[127] Great Purge,[128] National operations of the NKVD.[129] See also Mass killings under communist regimes.
70065000000000000005.000.000[130] 700722000000000000022.000.000[131] Crimes during Congo Free State 1885–1908 Now the Democratic Republic of the Congo 1885 1908 Private forces under the control of Leopold II of Belgium carried out mass murders, mutilations, and other crimes against the Congolese in order to encourage the gathering of valuable raw materials, principally rubber. Significant deaths also occurred due to major disease outbreaks and starvation, caused by population displacement and poor treatment.[132] Estimates of the death toll vary considerably because of the lack of a formal census before 1924, but a commonly cited figure of 10 million deaths was obtained by estimating a 50% decline in the total population during the Congo Free State and applying it to the total population of 10 million in 1924.[133]
7005175000000000000175.000[134] 7005576000000000000576.000[135] Sanctions against Iraq Iraq 1990 1998 Sanctions imposed by the United Nations Security Council indirectly caused excess deaths of young children.
7005100000000000000100.000 70062000000000000002.000.000 Indonesian killings of 1965–1966 Indonesia 1965 1966 Massacres of people connected to the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) were carried out in 1965 and 1966. Death tolls are difficult to estimate.[136]
7005100000000000000100.000[137][138] 7005250000000000000250.000[139][140] War in the Vendée France 1793 1796 Described as genocide by some historians[138] but this claim has been widely discounted.[141] See also French Revolution.
7002100000000000000100,000[142] 7002120000000000000120,000 Manila Massacre Manila, Philippines 1945 1945 During the Battle of Manila, at least 100,000 civilians were killed.
700490800000000000090.800 7005202600000000000202.600 Indonesian occupation of East Timor East Timor 1974 1999 Civilian deaths under the Indonesian occupation of East Timor, including killings, disappearances, and deaths caused by conflict-related hunger and illness.[143]
700450000000000000050.000 700480000000000000080.000[144] Operation Condor South America 1975 1983 A campaign of political repression by right-wing dictatorships in South America, sponsored by the United States
700450000000000000050.000 700460000000000000060.000[145][146][147] Warsaw Uprising Occupied Poland 5 August 1944 12 August 1944 Systematic killing of Polish civilian population (mostly children and women regardless of age (the latter usually raped before death)) in district Wola and Ochota committed by the German Army during Warsaw Uprising
700140000000000000040,000[148] 7002350000000000000350,000[149] Nanking Massacre Nanking, China 1937 1938 The Nanking Massacre, commonly known as the Rape of Nanking, was a war crime committed by the Japanese military in Nanjing, then capital of the Republic of China, after it fell to the Imperial Japanese Army on 13 December 1937.
700415000000000000015.000 700415000000000000015.000[150] First Sack of Thessalonica Byzantine Empire 904 904 The sack of the second city of the Byzantine Empire by a Muslim fleet under the command of Leo of Tripoli. In addition to the thousands killed the Saracen fleet also took 20,000 Greek slaves.
700410000000000000010.000[151][152] 7005100000000000000100.000[153][154] Great Fire of Smyrna İzmir, Turkey September 9, 1922 September 24, 1922 Fires set during attacks on Greeks and Armenians by Turkish mobs and military forces in Smyrna at the end of the Greco-Turkish War (1919–22). The violence and fires resulted in the destruction of the Greek and Armenian portions of the city and the evacuation of their former populations by British and American military forces. After the attacks 30,000 Greek and Armenian men left behind were deported by Turkish forces, many of whom were subsequently killed.
70039000000000000009.000[155] 700430000000000000030.000[156] Dirty War Argentina 1976 1983 At least 9,000 people were tortured and killed in Argentina from 1976 to 1983, carried out primarily by the Argentinean military Junta (part of Operation Condor).

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

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  55. ^ Charles King: "The Ghost of Freedom: A History of the Caucasus", Oxford University Press, 2008. Page 96.
  56. ^ a b Rummel, R.J., Statistics Of North Korean Democide: Estimates, Calculations, And Sources, Statistics of Democide, 1997.
  57. ^ Kamuran Gürün: Ermeni Soykirmi. 3rd Volume, Ankara 1985, p. 227
  58. ^ French in Armenia 'massacre' row BBC
  59. ^ Jurg Meister, Francisco Solano López Nationalheld oder Kriegsverbrecher?, Osnabrück: Biblio Verlag, 1987. 345, 355, 454–5
  60. ^ Another estimate is that from the pre-war population of 1,337,437, the population fell to 221,709 (28,746 men, 106,254 women, 86,079 children) by the end of the war (War and the Breed, David Starr Jordan, p. 164. Boston, 1915; Applied Genetics, Paul Popenoe, The Macmillan Company, New York, 1918)
  61. ^ a b Jan Wróbel, Odnaleźć przeszłość 1 (2002)"Odnaleźć przeszłość 1". 
  62. ^ a b "Human costs of war: Direct war death in Afghanistan, Iraq and Pakistan October 2001 - February 2013" (PDF). Costs of War. February 2013. Diakses tanggal 14 June 2013. 
  63. ^ "Update on Iraqi Casualty Data" by Opinion Research Business. January 2008.
  64. ^ "Revised Casualty Analysis. New Analysis 'Confirms' 1 Million+ Iraq Casualties". January 28, 2008. Opinion Research Business. Word Viewer for.doc files.
  65. ^ a b Henry Morgenthau, Ambassador Morgenthau's Story, Doubleday, Page & Company, Garden City, New York, 1919.
  66. ^ Research and Documentation Center: Rezultati istraživanja "Ljudski gubici '91–'95"
  67. ^ Lara J. Nettelfield (2010). Courting Democracy in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Cambridge University Press. Diakses tanggal 22 July 2013. , pp. 96–98
  68. ^ "After years of toil, book names Bosnian war dead". Reuters. 2013-02-15. 
  69. ^ Statement by Dr. Haris Silajdžić, Chairman of the Presidency Bosnia and Herzegovina, Head of the Delegation of Bosnia and Herzegovina at the 63rd Session of the General Assembly on the occasion of the General Debate, Summary, 23 September 2008.
  70. ^ a b Massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia
  71. ^ a b pl (Rzeź wołyńska)
  72. ^ a b White, Matthew. "Death Tolls for the Major Wars and Atrocities of the 20th Century: Bangladesh". Users.erols.com.  "History: The Bangali Genocide, 1971". Virtualbangladesh.com. 
  73. ^ Wellers, Georges. Essai de determination du nombre de morts au camp d'Auschwitz (attempt to determine the number of dead at the Auschwitz camp), Le Monde Juif, Oct–Dec 1983, pp. 127–159
  74. ^ Brian Harmon, John Drobnicki, Historical sources and the Auschwitz death toll estimates
  75. ^ "Operation Reinhard: Treblinka Deportations". Nizkor.org. Diakses tanggal 2013-08-23. 
  76. ^ Encyclopedia Americana
  77. ^ Peter Witte and Stephen Tyas, A New Document on the Deportation and Murder of Jews during "Einsatz Reinhardt" 1942, Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Vol. 15, No. 3, Winter 2001, ISBN 0-19-922506-0
  78. ^ Raul Hilberg (2003). The Destruction of the European Jews: Third Edition. ISBN 978-0-300-09557-9. 
  79. ^ Yitzhak Arad, Bełżec, Sobibor, Treblinka. The Operation Reinhard Death Camps, Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis, 1987, NCR 0-253-34293-7
  80. ^ Ludwik Kowalski: Alaska notes on Stalinism Retrieved 18 January 2007. Case Study: Stalin's Purges from Genderside Watch. Retrieved 19 January 2007. George Bien, Gulag Survivor in the Boston Globe, June 22, 2005, Kolyma
  81. ^ "Jewish virtual library". Jewish virtual library. Diakses tanggal 2013-08-23. 
  82. ^ "Croatian holocaust still stirs controversy". BBC News. 2001-11-29. Diakses tanggal 2010-09-29. 
  83. ^ "Balkan 'Auschwitz' haunts Croatia". BBC News. 2005-04-25. Diakses tanggal 2010-09-29. No one really knows how many died here. Serbs talk of 700,000. Most estimates put the figure nearer 100,000. 
  84. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stutthof_concentration_camp.  Tidak memiliki atau tanpa |title= (bantuan)Templat:Circular-inline
  85. ^ Jelka Smreka. "STARA GRADIŠKA Ustaški koncentracijski logor". Spomen područja Jasenovac. Diakses tanggal 2010-08-25. 
  86. ^ Davor Kovačić (2004). "Iskapanja na prostoru koncentracijskog logora Stara Gradiška i procjena broj žrtava". Diakses tanggal 2010-08-25. 
  87. ^ "15 000 black people died in the black concentration camps". 
  88. ^ A History of Democratic Kampuchea (1975–1979). Documentation Center of Cambodia. hlm. 74. ISBN 99950-60-04-3. 
  89. ^ The Andersonville Prison Trial: The Trial of Captain Henry Wirz, by General N.P. Chipman, 1911.
  90. ^ "On the killing of Roma in World War II". Mrc.org.rs. 2013-03-13. Diakses tanggal 2013-08-23. 
  91. ^ Horigan, Michael (2002). Death Camp of the North: The Elmira Civil War Prison Camp. Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books. ISBN 0-8117-1432-2. 
  92. ^ Stéphane Courtois; Mark Kramer (1999-10-15). Livre Noir Du Communisme: Crimes, Terreur, Répression. ISBN 978-0-674-07608-2. 
  93. ^ Wemheuer, Felix (July 2011). "Sites of horror: Mao's Great Famine [with response]". The China Journal (66): 155–164. JSTOR 41262812.  on p.163 Frank Dikötter, in his response, quotes Yu Xiguang's figure of 55 million
  94. ^ Becker, Jasper (1998). Hungry Ghosts: Mao's Secret Famine. Holt Paperbacks p.xi.
  95. ^ Dikötter, Frank. Mao's Great Famine: The History of China's Most Devastating Catastrophe, 1958–62. Walker & Company, 2010. p. 298.
  96. ^ a b "How the U.S. saved a starving Soviet Russia: PBS film highlights Stanford scholar's research on the 1921–23 famine". Stanford University. April 4, 2011.
  97. ^ Nicholas Tarling (Ed.) The Cambridge History of SouthEast Asia Vol.II Part 1 pp139-40
  98. ^ Madhusree Mukerjee, Churchill's Secret War: The British Empire and the Ravaging of India During World War II. See also Book review: Churchill's secret war in India by Susannah York
  99. ^ a b Van der Eng, Pierre (2008) 'Food Supply in Java during War and Decolonisation, 1940–1950.' MPRA Paper No. 8852, pp.35–38. http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/8852/
  100. ^ Bruce Sharp (2008), Counting Hell 2.Ben Kiernan, paragraph 3. Mekong.
  101. ^ Marek Sliwinski (1995), Le Génocide Khmer Rouge: Une Analyse Démographique, L'Harmattan, p. 82.
  102. ^ Foster, R.F. 'Modern Ireland 1600–1972'. Penguin Press, 1988. p324. Foster's footnote reads: "Based on hitherto unpublished work by C. Ó Gráda and Phelim Hughes, 'Fertility trends, excess mortality and the Great Irish Famine'...Also see C.Ó Gráda and Joel Mokyr, 'New developments in Irish Population History 1700–1850', Economic History Review, vol. xxxvii, no.4 (November 1984), pp. 473–488."
  103. ^ Joseph Lee, The Modernisation of Irish Society p. 1. Lee says 'at least 800,000'.
  104. ^ Vaughan, W.E. and Fitzpatrick, A.J.(eds). Irish Historical Statistics, Population, 1821/1971. Royal Irish Academy, 1978
  105. ^ The Great Irish Famine Approved by the New Jersey Commission on Holocaust Education on 10 September 1996, for inclusion in the Holocaust and Genocide Curriculum at the secondary level. Revision submitted 11/26/98.
  106. ^ Cecil Woodham-Smith (1991). The great hunger: Ireland 1845–1849. Penguin Books. hlm. 19. ISBN 978-0-14-014515-1. 
  107. ^ Dr Christine Kinealy (2006). This Great Calamity: The Irish Famine, 1845–52. ISBN 978-0-7171-4011-4. 
  108. ^ Charles Hirschman et al. "Vietnamese Casualties During the American War: A New Estimate". Population and Development Review (December 1995).
  109. ^ a b Koh, David (21 August 2008). "Vietnam needs to remember famine of 1945". The Straits Times. Singapore. Diakses tanggal 25 January 2010. 
  110. ^ a b de Waal, Alex (2002) [1997]. Famine Crimes: Politics & the Disaster Relief Industry in Africa. Oxford: James Currey. ISBN 0-85255-810-4. 
  111. ^ "Flashback 1984: Portrait of a famine". BBC News. April 6, 2000.
  112. ^ Ó Gráda, Cormac (2009), Famine: a short history, Princeton University Press, hlm. 24, ISBN 978-0-691-12237-3. 
  113. ^ Despite aid effort, Sudan famine squeezing life from dozens daily CNN, Accessed May 25, 2006
  114. ^ "Worst Natural Disasters In History". Nbc10.com. Diakses tanggal 2010-08-11. 
  115. ^ Dai Qing (1998). The River Dragon Has Come!: The Three Gorges Dam and the Fate of China's Yangtze River and Its People. M.E. Sharpe. hlm. 36. ISBN 978-0-7656-0206-0. 
  116. ^ 230,000 is the highest of a range of unofficial estimates, including also deaths of ensuing epidemics and famine, in Yi 1998
  117. ^ "The Enigma of Aztec Sacrifice", by Michael Harner. Natural History, April 1977, Vol. 86, No. 4, pages 46–51.
  118. ^ National Geographic, July 2003, cited by White
  119. ^ Sakuntala Narasimhan, Sati: widow burning in India, quoted by Matthew White, "Selected Death Tolls for Wars, Massacres and Atrocities Before the 20th Century", p.2 (July 2005), Historical Atlas of the 20th Century (self-published, 1998–2005).
  120. ^ This toll is only for the number of Japanese pilots killed in Kamikaze suicide missions. It does not include the number of enemy combatants killed by such missions, which is estimated to be around 4,000. Kamikaze pilots are estimated to have sunk or damaged beyond repair some 70 to 80 allied ships, representing about 80% of allied shipping losses in the final phase of the war in the Pacific (see Kamikaze).
  121. ^ The largest single loss of American civilian life in a deliberate act until the September 11, 2001 attacks.
  122. ^ "Did Mao Really Kill Millions in the Great Leap Forward?". Maoists.org. Diakses tanggal 2013-08-23. 
  123. ^ Andrew and Mitrokhin, The Sword and the Shield, paperback ed., Basic books, 1999.
  124. ^ Steven Rosefielde (2010-02-15). Red Holocaust. Taylor & Francis. hlm. 67. ISBN 978-0-415-77757-5. 
  125. ^ Павел Полян, Не по своей воле... (Pavel Polian, Against Their Will... A History and Geography of Forced Migrations in the USSR), ОГИ Мемориал, Moscow, 2001
  126. ^ С. Уиткрофт (Stephen G. Wheatcroft), "О демографических свидетельствах трагедии советской деревни в 1931—1933 гг.
  127. ^ Lynne Viola The Unknown Gulag. The Lost World of Stalin's Special Settlements Oxford University Press 2007,
  128. ^ Soviet Repression Statistics: Some Comments by Michael Ellman, 2002
  129. ^ Vadim Rogovin "The Party of the Executed"
  130. ^ Forbath, Peter. The River Congo: The Discovery, Exploration, and Exploitation of the World's Most Dramatic River, 1991 (Paperback). Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-122490-1. 
  131. ^ R. J. Rummel Exemplifying the Horror of European Colonization:Leopold's Congo"
  132. ^ p.226-232, Hochschild, Adam (1999), King Leopold's Ghost, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, ISBN 0-547-52573-7
  133. ^ Hochschild p.226–232.
  134. ^ Crossette, Barbara. "Iraq Sanctions Kill Children, U.N. Reports=1999". 
  135. ^ Garfield, Richard (1999). "Morbidity and Mortality Among Iraqi Children from 1990 Through 1998: Assessing the Impact of the Gulf War and Economic Sanctions". Diakses tanggal 9 July 2013. 
  136. ^ Cribb, Robert (2002). "Unresolved Problems in the Indonesian Killings of 1965–1966". Asian Survey. 42 (4): 550–563. doi:10.1525/as.2002.42.4.550. 
  137. ^ Donald Greer, The Terror, a Statistical Interpretation, Cambridge (1935)
  138. ^ a b Reynald Secher, La Vendée-Vengé, le Génocide franco-français (1986)
  139. ^ Jean-Clément Martin, La Vendée et la France, Éditions du Seuil, collection Points, 1987 he gives the highest estimate of the civil war, including republican losses and premature death. However, he does not consider it as a genocide.
  140. ^ Jacques Hussenet (dir.), « Détruisez la Vendée ! » Regards croisés sur les victimes et destructions de la guerre de Vendée, La Roche-sur-Yon, Centre vendéen de recherches historiques, 2007, p.148.
  141. ^ Gough, Hugh (December 1987). "Genocide and the Bicentenary: The French Revolution and the Revenge of the Vendee". The Historical Journal. 30 (4). JSTOR 2639130. 
  142. ^ White, Matthew. "Death Tolls for the Man-made Megadeaths of the 20th Century". Users.erols.com. 
  143. ^ "Conflict-related deaths in Timor-Leste 1974–1999" (PDF). Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor. Diakses tanggal 29 December 2013. 
  144. ^ "Background on Chile". The Center for Justice & Accountability. Diakses tanggal 9 July 2013. 
  145. ^ Lukas, Richard C. (2012). The Forgotten Holocaust: The Poles under German Occupation, 1939-1944. Hippocrene Books. p. 197. ISBN 978-0-7818-1302-0.
  146. ^ "The Rape of Warsaw". Stosstruppen39-45.tripod.com. Retrieved 3 February 2009.
  147. ^ Walter Laqueur, Judith Tydor Baumel (2001). "Dirlewanger, Oskar". The Holocaust Encyclopedia. Yale University Press. p. 150. ISBN 0-300-08432-3. Retrieved 24 June 2012.
  148. ^ Bob Tadashi Wakabayashi; Bob Tadashi Wakabayashi (2008). The Naking Atrocity: 1937–38. Berghahn Books. hlm. 362. ISBN 1-84545-180-5. 
  149. ^ Iris Chang (1997). The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II. Basic Books. hlm. 4. ISBN 978-0-7867-2760-5. 
  150. ^ Warren T. Treadgold (1997). A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford University Press. hlm. 572. ISBN 0-8047-2630-2. 
  151. ^ Biondich, Mark. The Balkans: Revolution, War, and Political Violence Since 1878. Oxford University Press, 2011. p. 92 [3]
  152. ^ Naimark, Norman M. Fires of Hatred: Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth-Century Europe. Cambridge: MA: Harvard University Press, 2002, p. 52.
  153. ^ Rudolph J. Rummel, Irving Louis Horowitz (1994). "Turkey's Genocidal Purges". Death by Government. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-1-56000-927-6. , p. 233.
  154. ^ Naimark. Fires of Hatred, pp. 47–52.
  155. ^ Phil Gunson (2009-04-02). "The Guardian, Thursday 2 April 2009". London: Guardian. Diakses tanggal 2013-08-23. 
  156. ^ PBS News Hour, 16 Oct. 1997, et al. Argentina Death Toll, Twentieth Century Atlas

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