Bahasa Ojibwe

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Ojibwe
Anishinaabemowin, ᐊᓂᔑᓈᐯᒧᐎᓐ
Pelafalan [anɪʃɪnaːpeːmowɪn]
Dituturkan di Kanada, Amerika Serikat
Wilayah Kanada: Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, sejumlah orang di Alberta, British Columbia; Amerika Serikat: Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, sejumlah orang di North Dakota, Montana
Etnis Suku Ojibwe
Penutur bahasa
56.531 (47.740 di Kanada; 8.791 di Amerika Serikat)  (date missing)
Alfgik
Alfabet Latin, beberapa ortografi di Kanada dan Amerika Serikat; silabik Ojibwe di Kanada; silabari Algonquin Danau-Danau Besar di Amerika Serikat
Kode bahasa
ISO 639-1 oj
ISO 639-2 oji
ISO 639-3 ojikode inklusif
Kode individual:
ojs – Severn Ojibwa
ojg – Ojibwa Timur
ojc – Ojibwa Tengah
ojb – Ojibwa Barat Laut
ojw – Ojibwa Barat
ciw – Chippewa
otw – Ottawa
alq – Algonquin
Linguasfer 62-ADA-d (Ojibwa+Anissinapek)
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Lokasi semua reservat dan kota Ojibwe yang dihuni suku Ojibwe di Amerika Utara disertai lingkaran difusi tentang komunitas penutur bahasa Ojibwe
Artikel ini mengandung simbol fonetik IPA. Tanpa bantuan render yang baik, Anda akan melihat tanda tanya, kotak, atau simbol lain, bukan karakter Unicode.

Ojibwe (atau Ojibwa, Ojibway, atau Chippewa), juga disebut Anishinaabemowin, adalah bahasa pribumi yang tergolong dalam rumpun bahasa Algonquin.[1][2] Ojibwe ditandai dengan serangkaian dialek yang memiliki nama lokal dan sistem penulisan (non-pribumi) lokal. Tidak ada satu dialek pun yang dianggap lebih unggul dan tidak ada sistem penulisan standar yang mencakup semua dialek.

Dialek-dialek Ojibwe dituturkan di Kanada mulai dari Quebec barat daya hingga Ontario, Manitoba, sebagian Saskatchewan, dan sejumlah komunitas terluar di Alberta,[3][4] dan di Amerika Serikat mulai dari Michigan hingga Wisconsin dan Minnesota, dengan sejumlah komunitas di North Dakota dan Montana, serta kelompok migran di Kansas dan Oklahoma.[4][5]

Dialek agregat Ojibwe menjadikan Ojibwe bahasa First Nations kedua yang paling banyak dituturkan di Kanada (setelah Cree),[6] dan keempat di Amerika Serikat atau Kanada setelah Navajo, Inuit dan Cree.[butuh rujukan]

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Catatan kaki[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Goddard, Ives, 1979.
  2. ^ Bloomfield, Leonard, 1958.
  3. ^ Valentine, J. Randolph, 1994, p. 6.
  4. ^ a b Nichols, John, 1980, pp. 1-2.
  5. ^ Rhodes, Richard, and Evelyn Todd, 1981.
  6. ^ Statistics Canada 2006.

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Bakker, Peter. 1991. "The Ojibwa element in Michif." W. Cowan, ed., Papers of the twenty-second Algonquian conference, 11-20. Ottawa: Carleton University. ISSN 0031-5671
  • Bakker, Peter. 1996. A language of our own: The genesis of Michif, the mixed Cree-French language of the Canadian Métis. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509711-4
  • Bakker, Peter and Anthony Grant. 1996. "Interethnic communication in Canada, Alaska and adjacent areas." Stephen A. Wurm, Peter Muhlhausler, Darrell T. Tyron, eds., Atlas of Languages of Intercultural Communication in the Pacific, Asia, and the Americas, 1107-1170. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-013417-9
  • Bloomfield, Leonard. 1958. Eastern Ojibwa: Grammatical sketch, texts and word list. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
  • Bloomfield, Leonard. 1962. The Menomini language. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  • [Dawes, Charles E.] 1982. Dictionary English-Ottawa Ottawa-English. No publisher given.
  • Canada. Statistics Canada 2006 Retrieved on March 31, 2009.
  • Feest, Johanna, and Christian Feest. 1978. "Ottawa." Bruce Trigger, ed., The Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 15. Northeast, 772-786. Washington, D.C.: The Smithsonian Institution.
  • Goddard, Ives. 1978. "Central Algonquian Languages." Bruce Trigger, ed., Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 15, Northeast, 583-587. Washington: Smithsonian Institution.
  • Goddard, Ives. 1979. "Comparative Algonquian." Lyle Campbell and Marianne Mithun, eds, The languages of Native America, 70-132. Austin: University of Texas Press.
  • Goddard, Ives. 1996. "Introduction." Ives Goddard, ed., The Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 17. Languages, 1-16. Washington, D.C.: The Smithsonian Institution.
  • Gordon Jr., Raymond. 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, 15th edition. Ethnologue entry for Ojibwe. Retrieved March 31, 2009. Dallas: SIL International. ISBN 978-1-55671-159-6
  • Kegg, Maude. 1991. Edited and transcribed by John D. Nichols. Portage Lake: Memories of an Ojibwe Childhood. Edmonton: University of Alberta Press. ISBN 0-8166-2415-1
  • Laverdure, Patline and Ida Rose Allard. 1983. The Michif dictionary: Turtle Mountain Chippewa Cree. Winnipeg, MB: Pemmican Publications. ISBN 0-919143-35-0
  • Nichols, John. 1980. Ojibwe morphology. PhD dissertation, Harvard University.
  • Nichols, John. 1995. "The Ojibwe verb in "Broken Oghibbeway." Amsterdam Creole Studies 12: 1-18.
  • Nichols, John. 1996. "The Cree syllabary." Peter Daniels and William Bright, eds. The world’s writing systems, 599-611. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-507993-0
  • Nichols, John D. and Leonard Bloomfield, eds. 1991. The dog’s children. Anishinaabe texts told by Angeline Williams. Winnipeg: Publications of the Algonquian Text Society, University of Manitoba. ISBN 0-88755-148-3
  • Nichols, John and Earl Nyholm. 1995. A concise dictionary of Minnesota Ojibwe. St. Paul: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-2427-5
  • Ningewance, Patricia. 1993. Survival Ojibwe. Winnipeg: Mazinaate Press. ISBN 0-9697826-0-8
  • Ningewance, Patricia. 1999. Naasaab izhi-anishinaabebii'igeng: Conference report. A conference to find a common Anishinaabemowin writing system. Toronto: Queen's Printer for Ontario. ISBN 0-7778-8695-2
  • Ningewance, Patricia. 2004. Talking Gookom's language: Learning Ojibwe. Lac Seul, ON: Mazinaate Press. ISBN 0-969782-3-2
  • Piggott, Glyne L. 1980. Aspects of Odawa morphophonemics. New York: Garland. (Published version of PhD dissertation, University of Toronto, 1974) ISBN 0-8240-4557-2
  • Rhodes, Richard. 1976. "A preliminary report on the dialects of Eastern Ojibwa – Odawa." W. Cowan, ed., Papers of the seventh Algonquian conference, 129-156. Ottawa: Carleton University.
  • Rhodes, Richard. 1982. "Algonquian trade languages." William Cowan, ed., Papers of the thirteenth Algonquian conference, 1-10. Ottawa: Carleton University. ISBN 0-7709-0123-9
  • Rhodes, Richard A. 1985. Eastern Ojibwa-Chippewa-Ottawa Dictionary. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-013749-6
  • Rhodes, Richard and Evelyn Todd. 1981. "Subarctic Algonquian languages." June Helm, ed., The Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 6. Subarctic, 52-66. Washington, D.C.: The Smithsonian Institution.
  • Smith, Huron H. 1932. "Ethnobotany of the Ojibwe Indians." Bulletin of the Public Museum of Milwaukee 4:327-525.
  • Todd, Evelyn. 1970. A grammar of the Ojibwa language: The Severn dialect. PhD dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.
  • U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census of Population and Housing. Characteristics of American Indians and Alaska Natives by Tribe and Language: 2000 Retrieved on March 31, 2009.
  • Valentine, J. Randolph. 1994. Ojibwe dialect relationships. PhD dissertation, University of Texas, Austin.
  • Valentine, J. Randolph. 1998. Weshki-bimaadzijig ji-noondmowaad. ‘That the young might hear’: The stories of Andrew Medler as recorded by Leonard Bloomfield. London, ON: The Centre for Teaching and Research of Canadian Native Languages, University of Western Ontario. ISBN 0-7714-2091-9
  • Valentine, J. Randolph. 2001. Nishnaabemwin Reference Grammar. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-4870-6
  • Vollom, Judith L. and Thomas M. Vollom. 1994. Ojibwemowin. Series 1. Second Edition. Ramsey, Minnesota: Ojibwe Language Publishing.
  • Walker, Willard. 1996. "Native writing systems." Ives Goddard, ed., The Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 17. Languages, 158-184. Washington, D.C.: The Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 0-16-048774-9

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