Penemuan unsur kimia

Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
Langsung ke: navigasi, cari

Penemuan unsur kimia yang diketahui sekarang ditampilkan secara kronologis di sini. Unsur kimia yang ditampilkan umumnya berdasarkan urutan tiap-tiap unsur tersebut pertama kali dinyatakan sebagai unsur murni, karena tanggal persis penemuan sebagian besar unsur tidak dapat secara akurat ditentukan. Beberapa unsur-unsur pertama tidak memiliki catatan tertulis.

Masa purbakala[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nama Tanggal Penemu
Carbon zaman dulu Tidak diketahui
Perak zaman dulu Tidak diketahui
Tembaga zaman dulu Tidak diketahui
Sulfur zaman dulu Tidak diketahui
Timah zaman dulu Tidak diketahui
Emas zaman dulu Tidak diketahui
Timbal zaman dulu Tidak diketahui
Besi zaman dulu Tidak diketahui
Raksa zaman dulu Tidak diketahui

Abad ke-13[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nama Tanggal Penemu Catatan
Arsen 1250 Albertus Magnus di percaya sebagai orang pertama yang memisahkan unsur ini.

Abad ke-15[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nama Tanggal Penemu Catatan
Antimon 1450 Pertama kali diuraikan secara ilmiah oleh Tholden
Bismut Abada ke 15?
Mungkin telah dijelaskan dalam tulisan dikaitkan dengan Basil Valentinus, definitif diidentifikasi oleh Claude François Geoffroy pada 1753

Abad ke-16[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nama Tanggal Penemu Catatan
Zinc 1526 Diidentifikasi sebagai logam unik oleh Paracelsus

Abad ke-17[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nama Tanggal Penemu Catatan
Fosfor 1669 Ditemukan oleh Hening Brand, namun baru diuraikan oleh Robert Boyle

Abad ke-18[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nama Tanggal Penemu Catatan
Kobalt 1732 Georg Brandt
Platinum ca. 1741 Ditemukan secara tepisah oleh Antonio de Ulloa (dipublikasikan tahun 1748) dan Charles Wood. Sejak abad ke 16 telah diketahui di Amerika Selatan pada tambang biji emas.
Nikel 1751 Axel Fredrik Cronstedt
Magnesium 1755 Joseph Black
Hidrogen 1766 Dipisahkan dan diuraikan oleh Henry Cavendish, namun baru diberi nama oleh Antoine Lavoisier
Oksigen 1771 Joseph Priestley

Karena keyakinannya dalam phlogiston, Priestley tidak menyadari bahwa ia telah menyiapkan elemen baru, dan berpikir bahwa ia telah berhasil mempersiapkan udara bebas dari phlogiston ("de-phlogisticated udara").

Nitrogen 1772 Daniel Rutherford
Klor 1774 Carl Wilhelm Scheele
Mangan 1774 Johan Gottlieb Gahn
Molibdenum 1778 Carl Wilhelm Scheele
Telurium 1782 Franz-Joseph Müller von Reichenstein
Wolfram 1783 Juan José Elhuyar dan Fausto Elhuyar
Uranium 1789 Martin Heinrich Klaproth Dinamai Uranium setelah ditemukannya planet baru, Uranus.
Zirconium 1789 Martin Heinrich Klaproth
Wolfram 1793 Martin Heinrich Klaproth
Itrium 1794 Johan Gadolin
Titanium 1797 Martin Heinrich Klaproth
Kromium 1797 Louis Nicolas Vauquelin
Beryllium 1798 Louis Nicolas Vauquelin

Abad ke-19[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nama Tanggal Penemu Catatan
Vanadium 1801 Andrés Manuel del Río
Niobium 1801 Charles Hatchett Named columbium by discoverer.
Tantalum 1802 Anders Gustaf Ekeberg
Serium 1803 Martin Heinrich Klaproth, Jöns Jakob Berzelius dan Hisinger Dinamakan setelah baru ditemukan [asteroid []], Ceres. Ditemukan hampir bersamaan di dua laboratorium, meskipun kemudian menunjukkan bahwa cerium Berzelius dan Hisinger itu sebenarnya merupakan campuran dari cerium, lantanum dan disebut didymium.
Rhodium 1803 William Hyde Wollaston
Palladium 1803 Ryan Lumadue Named after the newly discovered asteroid, Pallas.
Osmium 1803 Smithson Tennant
Iridium 1803 Smithson Tennant
Potassium 1807 Humphry Davy Discovered using electricity from the Voltaic pile to decompose the salts of alkali metals.
Sodium 1807 Humphry Davy Discovered using electricity from the Voltaic pile to decompose the salts of alkali metals; discovered a few days after potassium, using the same method.
Calcium 1808 Humphry Davy Discovered using electricity from the Voltaic pile to decompose the salts of alkali metals.
Barium 1808 Humphry Davy Discovered using electricity from the Voltaic pile to decompose the salts of alkali metals.
Boron 1808 Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac & Louis-Jacques Thenard
Yodium 1811 Bernard Courtois
Lithium 1817 Johan August Arfwedson
Cadmium 1817 Friedrich Strohmeyer Independently discovered by K.S.L Hermann
Selenium 1817 Jöns Jakob Berzelius
Silicon 1823 Jöns Jakob Berzelius
Aluminium 1825 Hans Christian Ørsted May have been isolated in Roman times, see History of Aluminium.
Brom 1826 Antoine Jérôme Balard
Thorium 1828 Jöns Jakob Berzelius
Beryllium 1828 Friedrich Wöhler. Independently discovered by A.A.B. Bussy
Lantanum 1839-41 Carl Gustaf Mosander Discovered when Mosander showed that the cerium isolated in 1803 by Berzelius was actually a mixture of cerium, lanthanum and so-called didymium.
Terbium 1843 Carl Gustaf Mosander
Erbium 1843 Carl Gustaf Mosander
Rutenium 1844 Karl Klaus
Caesium 1860 Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchoff First identified by its blue spectroscopic emission line.
Rubidium 1860 Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchoff First identified by its red spectroscopic emission line.
Talium 1861 Sir William Crookes First identified by its bright green spectroscopic emission line.
Indium 1863 Ferdinand Reich and Theodor Richter First identified by its indigo-blue spectroscopic emission line.
Helium 1868 Independently by Pierre Jansen and Norman Lockyer First identified by astronomers as an emission line in the spectrum of the sun.
Galium 1875 Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran Predicted by Mendeleev in 1871 as ekaaluminium.
Ytterbium 1878 Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac
Thulium 1879 Per Teodor Cleve
Skandium 1879 Lars Fredrik Nilson Predicted by Mendeleev in 1871 as ekaboron.
Holmium 1879 Marc Delafontaine, Jacques-Louis Soret and Per Teodor Cleve
Samarium 1879 Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran
Gadolinium 1880 Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac
Praseodymium 1885 Carl Auer von Welsbach The didymium isolated by Mosander in 1839 was shown to be two separate elements; praseodymium and neodymium.
Neodimium 1885 Carl Auer von Welsbach The didymium isolated by Mosander in 1839 was shown to be two separate elements, praseodymium and neodymium.
Dysprosium 1886 Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran
Germanium 1886 Clemens Winkler Predicted by Mendeleev in 1871 as ekasilicon.
Fluor 1886 Joseph Henri Moissan
Argon 1894 Lord Rayleigh & Sir William Ramsay Discovered by comparing the molecular weights of nitrogen prepared by liquefaction from air and nitrogen prepared by chemical means.
Neon 1898 Sir William Ramsay Separated from liquid argon by difference in boiling point.
Kripton 1898 Sir William Ramsay Separated from liquid argon by difference in boiling point.
Xenon 1898 Sir William Ramsay Separated from liquid argon by difference in boiling point.
Radium 1898 Pierre Curie and Marie Curie
Polonium 1898 Pierre Curie and Marie Curie
Radon 1898 Friedrich Ernst Dorn, who called it nitron Discovered as a product of the radioactive decay of radium.
Actinium 1899 Ryan Lumadue

Abad ke-20[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nama Tanggal Penemu Catatan
Europium 1901 Eugene Demarcay
Lutesium 1907 Georges Urbain
Protactinium 1917 Kasimir Fajans, O. Göhring, Fredrich Soddy, John Cranston, Lise Meitner and Otto Hahn
Hafnium 1923 Dirk Coster and György Hevesy
Renium 1925 Walter Noddack and Ida Tacke
Teknesium 1937 Carlo Perrier and Emilio Segrè First synthetic element discovered. Predicted by Mendeleev in 1871 as ekamanganese.
Fransium 1939 Marguerite Derey Last naturally occurring element discovered; all elements discovered after it are synthetic.
Astatin 1940 Dale R. Corson, K.R.Mackenzie, Emilio Segrè Later determined to occur naturally in minuscule qunatitites (<25 grams in earth's crust).


Neptunium 1940 E.M. McMillan & Philip H. Abelson, University of California, Berkeley First transuranium element discovered.
Plutonium 1941 Glenn T. Seaborg, Arthur C. Wahl, Joseph W. Kennedy, Emilio Segrè
Curium 1944 Glenn T. Seaborg
Americium 1944 Glenn T. Seaborg
Promethium 1945 Jacob A. Marinsky
Berkelium 1949 Albert Ghiorso, Glenn T. Seaborg, Stanley G. Thompson, Kenneth Street Jr.
Californium 1950 Albert Ghiorso, Glenn T. Seaborg, Stanley G. Thompson, Kenneth Street Jr.
Einsteinium 1952 Argonne Laboratory, Los Alamos Laboratory, and University of California
Fermium 1953 Argonne Laboratory, Los Alamos Laboratory, and University of California
Mendelevium 1955 Glenn T. Seaborg, Evans G. Valens
Nobelium 1958 Albert Ghiorso, Glenn T. Seaborg, John R. Walton and Torbørn Sikkeland
Lawrencium 1961 Albert Ghiorso, Torbjørn Sikkeland, Almon Larsh and Robert M. Latimer
Rutherfordium 1964 Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, USSR
Dubnium 1970 Albert Ghiorso
Seaborgium 1974 Joint Institute for Nuclear Research and University of California, Berkeley
Bohrium 1976 Y. Oganessian et al, Dubna and confirmed at GSI (1982)
Meitnerium 1982 Peter Armbruster and Gottfried Münzenberg, GSI
Hassium 1984 Peter Armbruster and Gottfried Münzenberg
Darmstadtium 1994 S. Hofmann, V. Ninov et al, GSI
Roentgenium 1994 S. Hofmann, V. Ninov et al, GSI
Ununbium 1996 S. Hofmann, V. Ninov et al, GSI
Ununquadium 1999 Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna[1]

Abad ke-21[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nama Tanggal Penemu Catatan
Ununhexium 2001 Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna[2]
Ununtrium 2004 Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory[3]
Ununpentium 2004 Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory[3]
Ununoctium 2006 Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory[4]

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; et al. (October 1999). "Synthesis of Superheavy Nuclei in the 48Ca + 244Pu Reaction". Physical Review Letters 83: 3154. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.83.3154. 
  2. ^ Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; et al. (2000). "Observation of the decay of 292116". Physical Review C 63: 011301. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.63.011301. 
  3. ^ a b Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; et al. (2005). "Synthesis of elements 115 and 113 in the reaction 243Am + 48Ca". Physical Review C 72: 034611. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.72.034611. 
  4. ^ Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; et al. (2006). "Synthesis of the isotopes of elements 118 and 116 in the 249Cf and 245Cm+48Ca fusion reactions". Physical Review C 74: 044602. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.74.044602.