Nepenthes alata

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Nepenthes alata
Nepenthes alata ASR 062007 mt ambucao luzon.jpg
Kantong atas Nepenthes alata di Gunung Ambucao, dekat Banaue dan Sagada, Luzon utara.
Status konservasi
Klasifikasi ilmiah
Kingdom: Plantae
(tanpa takson): Angiospermae
(tanpa takson): Eudikotil
(tanpa takson): Inti eudikotil
Ordo: Caryophyllales
Famili: Nepenthaceae
Genus: Nepenthes
Spesies: N. alata
Nama binomial
Nepenthes alata
Blanco (1837)[1]
Sinonim

Nepenthes alata (/nˈpɛnθz əˈlɑːtə/; Latin: alatus "bersayap") adalah tumbuhan kantong semar yang endemik di Filipina.[6][16]

Nepenthes alata telah lama diperlakukan sebagai spesies yang sangat polimorfik mencakup semua pulau-pulau besar kepulauan Filipina (dengan kemungkinan pengecualian Palawan).[17] Di bawah batasan yang luas ini, N. alata dipahami memiliki berbagai ketinggian dari 0-1.900 m (0-6.234 kaki) di atas permukaan laut[16] dan tercatat dari, antara lain, pulau Bohol, Camiguin, Cebu, Culion, Leyte, Luzon, Mindanao, Mindoro, Negros, Panay, Samar,[18][19] dan Sibuyan. Nepenthes alata dalam arti luas ini (sensu lato) merupakan salah satu Nepenthes termudah dan paling populer untuk dibudidaya.[20]

Pada tahun 2013, N. alata kembali dibatasi oleh Martin Cheek dan Matthew Jebb yang mencakup hanya populasi dari utara dan tengah Luzon dengan kantong berbulu mencolok (takson dikenal di kalangan hortikultura sebagai "N. alata berbulu").[6] N. alata sensu stricto Cheek dan Jebb memiliki penyebaran ketinggian di atas 550 m (1.800 kaki).[6] Berdasarkan penafsiran ini, tumbuhan di selatan yang sebelumnya disebut spesies ini ternyata benar-benar mewakili N. graciliflora baru dikeluarkan (hortikultura "N. alata khas"; ditemukan di Bohol, Leyte, Luzon, Mindanao, Mindoro, Panay, Samar, dan Sibuyan) serta N. negros baru dideskripsikan (Biliran dan Negros) dan N. ramos (Mindanao).[6][21] Nepenthes viridis dari Dinagat dan Samar merupakan kerabat dekat lain,[22] seperti N. ceciliae (Mindanao), N. copelandii (Mindanao), N. extincta (Mindanao), N. hamiguitanensis (Mindanao), N. kitanglad (Mindanao), N. kurata (Mindanao), N. leyte (Leyte), N. mindanaoensis (Dinagat dan Mindanao), N. saranganiensis (Mindanao), dan N. ultra (Luzon).[6][16][21][23][24][25] Bersama dengan spesies ini, membentuk apa yang disebut "kelompok N. alata", yang disatukan oleh sejumlah karakter morfologi, seperti tangkai bersayap, tutup dengan rabung pangkal pada permukaan bawah (sering dijabarkan sebagai alat pelengkap), dan kantong atas yang biasanya meluas di dekat dasar.[23]

Deskripsi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rumus floral untuk bunga jantan adalah ✶ K4 A4+4+1* G0 (mungkin tidak terdapat benang sari apikal /*/) dan ✶ K4 A0 G(4) untuk bunga betina.[26]

Taksonomi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nepenthes alata berkaitan erat dengan beberapa spesies lain, termasuk N. copelandii, N. mindanaoensis, dan N. saranganiensis. Nepenthes eustachya dari Sumatra pernah dianggap termasuk ke dalam variabilitas N. alata, tetapi didasarkan pada jenis spesimen salah tafsir, dua spesies ini tampaknya tidak terkait erat satu sama lain.

Perbedaan morfologi antara N. alata dan N. eustachya (Jebb & Cheek, 1997)
Ciri morfologi N. alata N. eustachya
Helaian daun melanset hingga membundar telur melanset
Ujung daun meruncing atau menirus membulat hingga sub-memerisai
Tangkai bersayap luas hampir tidak atau tidak bersayap
Taji sederhana, berbintik akut sederhana atau menggarpu rangkap
Indumentum berambut kemerahan atau keputihan tidak ada di seluruh bagian
Struktur dasar kantong tekstur mirip pada seluruh kantong, tiba-tiba menirus menuju sulur menyudut, mengayu, bertahap menirus menuju sulur

Taksa bawah jenis[sunting | sunting sumber]

Hibrida alami[sunting | sunting sumber]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ (Spanyol) Blanco, F.M. 1837. Nepenthes. In: Flora de Filipinas. Segun el Sistema sexual de Linneo. Sto. Thomas por D. Candido Lopez, Manila. pp. 805–809.
  2. ^ (Latin) Blume, C.L. 1852. Ord. Nepenthaceae. In: Museum Botanicum Lugduno-Batavum, sive stirpium exoticarum novarum vel minus cognitarum ex vivis aut siccis brevis expositio. Tom. II. Nr. 1. E.J. Brill, Lugduni-Batavorum. pp. 5–10.
  3. ^ Cheek, M. & M. Jebb 2013. Identification and typification of Nepenthes blancoi, with N. abalata sp. nov. from the western Visayas, Philippines. Nordic Journal of Botany 31(2): 151–156. doi:10.1111/j.1756-1051.2012.00012.x
  4. ^ (Prancis) Brongniart, A. 1824. Observations sur les genres Cytinus et Nepenthes. Annales des Sciences Naturelles 1: 29–52.
  5. ^ Danser, B.H. 1928. 1. Nepenthes alata Blanco. [pp. 258–262] In: The Nepenthaceae of the Netherlands Indies. Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de Buitenzorg, Série III, 9(3–4): 249–438.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Cheek, M. & M. Jebb 2013. Typification and redelimitation of Nepenthes alata with notes on the N. alata group, and N. negros sp. nov. from the Philippines. Nordic Journal of Botany 31(5): 616–622. doi:10.1111/j.1756-1051.2012.00099.x
  7. ^ Clarke, C. & C.C. Lee 2012. A revision of Nepenthes (Nepenthaceae) from Gunung Tahan, Peninsular Malaysia. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 64(1): 33–49.
  8. ^ Schlauer, J. N.d. Nepenthes alata. Carnivorous Plant Database.
  9. ^ Smythies, B.E. 1965. The distribution and ecology of pitcher-plants (Nepenthes) in Sarawak. UNESCO Humid Tropics Symposium, June–July 1963, Kuching, Sarawak.
  10. ^ Kurata, S. 1973. Nepenthes from Borneo, Singapore and Sumatra. The Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 26(2): 227–232.
  11. ^ (Indonesia) Tamin, R. & M. Hotta 1986. Nepenthes di Sumatra: The genus Nepenthes of the Sumatra Island. In: M. Hotta (ed.) Diversity and Dynamics of Plant Life in Sumatra: Forest Ecosystem and Speciation in Wet Tropical Environments. Part 1: Reports and Collection of Papers. Kyoto University, Kyoto. pp. 75–109.
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  13. ^ Shivas, R.G. 1984. Pitcher Plants of Peninsular Malaysia & Singapore. Maruzen Asia, Kuala Lumpur.
  14. ^ Jebb, M.H.P. & M.R. Cheek 1997. A skeletal revision of Nepenthes (Nepenthaceae). Blumea 42(1): 1–106.
  15. ^ a b c Cheek, M.R. & M.H.P. Jebb 2001. Nepenthaceae. Flora Malesiana 15: 1–157.
  16. ^ a b c d e McPherson, S.R. 2009. Pitcher Plants of the Old World. 2 volumes. Redfern Natural History Productions, Poole.
  17. ^ a b McPherson, S.R. & V.B. Amoroso 2011. Field Guide to the Pitcher Plants of the Philippines. Redfern Natural History Productions, Poole.
  18. ^ Suarez, W. 2011. Samar's Nepenthes alata. Carnivorous Plants in the tropics, January 12, 2011.
  19. ^ a b Robinson, A. 2012. Nepenthes merrilliana on Samar. Carnivorous Plants in the tropics, June 29, 2012.
  20. ^ Catalano, M. 2009. Nepenthes. In: Growing Carnivores — an Italian perspective. Prague. pp. 50–57.
  21. ^ a b Cheek, M. & M. Jebb 2013. Nepenthes ramos (Nepenthaceae), a new species from Mindanao, Philippines. Willdenowia 43(1): 107–111. doi:10.3372/wi.43.43112
  22. ^ (Jerman) Micheler, M., T. Gronemeyer, A. Wistuba, D. Marwinski, W. Suarez & V. Amoroso 2013. Nepenthes viridis, eine neue Nepenthes-Art von der Insel Dinagat, Philippinen. Das Taublatt 76: 4–21.
  23. ^ a b c Cheek, M. & M. Jebb 2013. Recircumscription of the Nepenthes alata group (Caryophyllales: Nepenthaceae), in the Philippines, with four new species. European Journal of Taxonomy 69: 1–23. doi:10.5852/ejt.2013.69
  24. ^ Cheek, M. & M. Jebb 2013. Nepenthes ultra (Nepenthaceae), a new species from Luzon, Philippines. Blumea, published online on October 24, 2013. doi:10.3767/000651913X675124
  25. ^ Mey, F.S. 2013. The Nepenthes alata group: resurrection of N. graciliflora ; N. ramos and N. negros described as new species. Strange Fruits: A Garden's Chronicle, August 27, 2013.
  26. ^ Ronse De Craene, Louis P. (2010-02-04). Floral Diagrams: An Aid to Understanding Flower Morphology and Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. hlm. 165. ISBN 978-0-521-49346-8. 
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  30. ^ Fleming, R. 1979. Hybrid Nepenthes. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 8(1): 10–12.

Bacaan lanjutan[sunting | sunting sumber]

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Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]