Kuarter

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Kuarter
Subdivisi dari periode Kuarter
Sistem/
Periode
Seri/
Epos
Masa/
Age
Age
Kuarter Holosen Meghalayan 0 4,200
Northgrippium 4,200 8,200
Greenlandium 8,200 11,700
Pleistosen Pleistosen Akhir 11,700 129ka
Chibanium 129ka 774ka
Kalabrium 774ka 1.80Ma
Gelasium 1.80Ma 2.58Ma
Neogen Pliosen Piacenzium 2.58Ma 3.60Ma
Notes and references[1][2]
Subdivision of the Quaternary Period according to the ICS, as of January 2020.[1]

For the Holocene, dates are relative to the year 2000 (e.g. Greenlandian began 11,700 years before 2000). For the beginning of the Northgrippian a date of 8,236 years before 2000 has been set.[2] The Meghalayan has been set to begin 4,250 years before 2000.[1]

'Tarantian' is an informal, unofficial name proposed for a stage/age to replace the equally informal, unofficial 'Upper Pleistocene' subseries/subepoch.

In Europe and North America, the Holocene is subdivided into Preboreal, Boreal, Atlantic, Subboreal, and Subatlantic stages of the Blytt–Sernander time scale. There are many regional subdivisions for the Upper or Late Pleistocene; usually these represent locally recognized cold (glacial) and warm (interglacial) periods. The last glacial period ends with the cold Younger Dryas substage.

Mollweide projection SW.jpg
Proyeksi Mollweide dari Bumi saat ini.
Etimologi
Formalitas namaFormal
Informasi penggunaan
Benda angkasaBumi
Definisi
Satuan stratigrafiSistem
Formalitas rentang waktuFormal
Definisi batas bawah
Batas bawah GSSPBagian Monte San Nicola, Gela, Sisilia, Italia
37°08′49″N 14°12′13″E / 37.1469°N 14.2035°E / 37.1469; 14.2035
GSSP diratifikasi2009 (sebagai dasar Kuarter dan Pleistosen)[3]
Definisi batas atasPresent day
Batas atas GSSPN/A
GSSP diratifikasiN/A
Data atmosfer dan iklim
Rata-rata kandungan O2c. 20.8 vol %
(104 % of modern)
Rata-rata kandungan CO2c. 250 ppm
(1 times pre-industrial)
Rata-rata suhu permukaanc. 14 °C
(0 °C above modern)

Periode Kuarter merupakan periode terakhir dari ketiga periode di era Kenozoikum dalam skala waktu geologi.[4] Periode ini berlangsung setelah periode Neogen dan membentang dari 2,588 ± 0.005 juta tahun yang lalu sampai sekarang. Waktu yang relatif singkat ini ditandai oleh serangkaian glasiasi dan dengan penampilan dan perluasan manusia modern secara anatomis. Kuarter mencakup dua kala geologi: Pleistosen dan Holosen.

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ a b c Cohen, K. M.; Finney, S. C.; Gibbard, P. L.; Fan, J.-X. (January 2020). "International Chronostratigraphic Chart" (PDF). International Commission on Stratigraphy. Diakses tanggal 23 February 2020. 
  2. ^ a b Mike Walker; et al. (December 2018). "Formal ratification of the subdivision of the Holocene Series/Epoch (Quaternary System/Period)" (PDF). Episodes. Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy (SQS). 41 (4): 213–223. doi:10.18814/epiiugs/2018/018016. Diakses tanggal 11 November 2019.  This proposal on behalf of the SQS has been approved by the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) and formally ratified by the Executive Committee of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS).
  3. ^ Gibbard, Philip; Head, Martin (September 2010). "The newly-ratified definition of the Quaternary System/Period and redefinition of the Pleistocene Series/Epoch, and comparison of proposals advanced prior to formal ratification" (PDF). Episodes. 33 (3): 152–158. doi:10.18814/epiiugs/2010/v33i3/002. Diakses tanggal 8 December 2020. 
  4. ^ See the 2009 version of the ICS geologic time scale