Francia Timur

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Pembagian Kekaisaran Carolingian menurut Perjanjian Verdun pada 843. Dari Histoire Et Géographie - Atlas Général Vidal-Lablache, 1898.

Dalam historiografi abad pertengahan, Francia Timur (Latin: Francia orientalis) atau Kerajaan Frank Timur (regnum Francorum orientalium) adalah bentuk terawal dari Kerajaan Jerman, yang berlangsung dari sekitar tahun 840 sampai sekitar tahun 962.[1] Francia Timur dibentuk dari pembagian Kekaisaran Karoling[2] setelah kematian Kaisar Ludwig yang Saleh, namun pembagian timur-barat tersebut "secara perlahan menjadi kerajaan-kerajaan yang terpisah".[3]

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Catatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Goldberg 1999, 41: "the east Frankish kingdom [was] a political entity that laid the foundations for the kingdom of Germany".
  2. ^ Istilah "Francia", tanah Frank, umumnya digunakan untuk merujuk kepada kekaisaran tersebut. Dinasti pemerintahannya adalah Frank, meskipun para penduduknya kebanyakan non-Frank.
  3. ^ Bradbury 2007, 21: "... division which gradually hardened into the establishment of separate kingdoms, notably East and West Francia, or what we can begin to call Germany and France."

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Bernard Bachrach dan David Bachrach. "The Saxon Military Revolution, 912–973: Myth and Reality". Early Medieval Europe 15 (2007), 186–222. DOI:10.1111/j.1468-0254.2007.00203.x
  • Bernard Bachrach and David Bachrach. "Early Saxon Frontier Warfare: Henry I, Otto I, and Carolingian Military Institutions". Journal of Medieval Military History 10 (2012), 17–60.
  • David Bachrach. "Exercise of Royal Power in Early Medieval Europe: The Case of Otto the Great, 936–973". Early Medieval Europe 17 (2009), 389–419. DOI:10.1111/j.1468-0254.2009.00283.x
  • David Bachrach. "The Written Word in Carolingian-Style Fiscal Administration under King Henry I, 919–936". German History 28:4 (2010), 399–423. DOI:10.1093/gerhis/ghq108
  • John W. Bernhardt. Itinerant Kingship and Royal Monasteries in Early Medieval Germany, c. 936–1075. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought, 21. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993. ISBN 0-521-39489-9 DOI:10.1017/CBO9780511562372
  • Jim Bradbury. The Capetians: Kings of France, 987–1328. London: Hambledon Continuum, 2007.
  • Eric J. Goldberg. "'More Devoted to the Equipment of Battle Than the Splendor of Banquets': Frontier Kingship, Military Ritual, and Early Knighthood at the Court of Louis the German". Viator 30 (1999), 41–78. DOI:10.1484/J.VIATOR.2.300829
  • Timothy Reuter. "The Medieval German Sonderweg? The Empire and its Rulers in the Highe Middle Ages". In Kings nd Kingship in Medieval Europe, ed. Anne J. Duggan (London: 1993), 179–211.
  • Susan Reynolds. Kingdoms and Communities in Western Europe, 900–1300. Oxford: Clarendon, 1997.
  • Walter Ullmann. The Carolingian Renaissance and the Idea of Kingship. London: Methuen, 1969.