Anne Rice

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Anne Rice
Rice in 2006
Rice in 2006
LahirHoward Allen Frances O'Brien
(1941-10-04)4 Oktober 1941
New Orleans, Louisiana, Amerika Serikat
Meninggal11 Desember 2021(2021-12-11) (umur 80)
Rancho Mirage, California, Amerika Serikat
Nama pena
  • Anne Rampling
  • A. N. Roquelaure
PekerjaanNovelist
Pendidikan
Genre
Pasangan
(m. 1961; wafat 2002)
Anak2, including Christopher
Kerabat
Website
annerice.com

Books-aj.svg aj ashton 01.svg Portal Sastra

Anne Rice[1] (lahir dengan nama Howard Allen Frances O'Brien; 4 Oktober 1941 – 11 Desember 2021) adalah penulis Amerika Serikat yang menulis karya bergenre fiksi gotik, sastra erotik, dan sastra Kristen. Ia terkenal karena seri novel karyanya The Vampire Chronicles. Buku-buku dari The Vampire Chronicles menjadi subjek dari dua alih wahana film yaitu Interview with the Vampire (1994) dan Queen of the Damned (2002).

Anne menghabiskan banyak masa kecilnya di New Orleans sebelum berpindah ke Texas dan kemudian ke San Francisco, California. Ia dibesarkan dalam keluarga Katolik yang taat, tetapi menjadi agnostik saat remaja. Ia memulai karier menulis profesionalnya dengan penerbitan Interview with the Vampire pada tahun 1976 saat tinggal di California dan mulai menulis sekuel novel itu pada dasawarsa 1980-an. Pada pertengahan dasawarsa 2000-an, setelah kembali memeluk agama Katolik, Anna menerbitkan novel Christ the Lord: Out of Egypt dan Christ the Lord: The Road to Cana, kisah fiksi tentang peristiwa tertentu dalam kehidupan Yesus. Beberapa tahun kemudian ia menjauhkan diri dari agama Kristen dengan alasan ketidaksepakatan dengan sikap Gereja Katolik tentang masalah sosial, tetapi berjanji bahwa iman kepada Tuhan tetap menjadi pusat kehidupannya. Namun, ia kemudian menganggap dirinya seorang humanis sekuler.[2]

Buku karya Anne telah terjual lebih dari 150 juta buku, sehingga menjadikannya salah satu penulis paling populer dan terlaris sepanjang masa.[3][4] Sementara tanggapan terhadap karya-karya awalnya pada awalnya beragam, ia menjadi lebih populer di kalangan kritikus dan pembaca pada dasawarsa 1980-an. Gaya penulisannya dan isi sastra dari karyanya telah dianalisis oleh para komentator sastra. Ia menikah dengan penyair dan pelukis Stan Rice selama 41 tahun, dari tahun 1961 sampai kematian Stan akibat kanker otak pada usia 60 tahun pada tahun 2002.[5][6] Ia dan Stan memiliki dua anak, yaitu Michele yang meninggal karena leukemia pada usia lima tahun dan Christopher yang juga seorang penulis.

Selain novel vampirnya, Anne menulis buku seperti The Feast of All Saints (dialihwahanakan ke televisi pada tahun 2001) dan Servant of the Bones yang menjadi dasar dari miniseri buku komik tahun 2011. Beberapa buku dari The Vampire Chronicles telah dialihwahanakan menjadi komik dan manga oleh pelbagai penerbit. Anne juga menulis fiksi erotis dengan nama pena Anne Rampling dan A. N. Roquelaure, termasuk Exit to Eden, yang kemudian dialihwahanakan menjadi film tahun 1994.

Kehidupan masa kecil[sunting | sunting sumber]

New Orleans dan Texas[sunting | sunting sumber]

Anne Rice lahir sebagai anak kedua dan keempat anak perempuan di New Orleans, Louisiana, pada 4 Oktober 1941 dari pasangan Katolik Irlandia Howard O'Brien dan Katherine "Kay" Allen O'Brien.[7][8] Ayahnya yang menjadi veteran Angkatan Laut Perang Dunia II dan penduduk seumur hidup New Orleans bekerja sebagai eksekutif personalia di Jawatan Pos Amerika Serikat dan menulis sebuah novel berjudul The Impulsive Imp yang diterbitkan selepas kematiannya.[9][10][11] Kakaknya, Alice Borchardt, kemudian menjadi penulis novel fantasi dan percintaan sejarah.[12]

Anne menghabiskan sebagian besar masa mudanya di New Orleans yang menjadi latar dari banyak karyanya. Ia dan keluarganya tinggal di rumah kontrakan nenek dari pihak ibu, Alice Allen, yang dikenal sebagai "Mamma Allen", di 2301 St. Charles Avenue di Irish Channel, yang menurut Rice secara luas dianggap sebagai "Ghetto Katolik".[13][14] Katherine yang mulai bekerja sebagai pembantu rumah tangga tak lama setelah berpisah dari suaminya yang pecandu alkohol merupakan pengaruh awal yang penting dalam kehidupan Anne, menjaga keluarga dan rumah tangga tetap kokoh saat ibu dari Anne semakin tenggelam dalam alkoholisme. Katherine meninggal pada tahun 1949, tetapi keluarga Howard tetap tinggal di rumahnya sampai tahun 1956, ketika mereka pindah ke 2524 St. Charles Avenue, yang merupakan bekas pastoran, biara, dan sekolah milik paroki, agar lebih dekat dengan gereja dan berupaya menyemangati Katherine yang kecanduan alkohol.[15] Semasa kecil, Anne bersekolah di St. Alphonsus School, sebuah lembaga Katolik tempat ayahnya bersekolah.[13]

Perihal nama pemberiannya yang tak biasa, Anne berkata:

Betul, nama lahir saya ialah Howard Allen karena tampaknya ibu saya berpikir itu adalah gagasan yang baik untuk menamai saya Howard. Ayah saya bernama Howard, ibu saya ingin menamai saya Howard dan ibu saya pikir itu adalah hal yang sangat menarik untuk dilakukan. Kepribadiannya sedikit seperti seorang Bohemia, sedikit gila, sedikit cerdas, dan seorang guru yang hebat. Dan ia memiliki gagasan bahwa menamai seorang wanita Howard akan memberikan wanita itu keuntungan yang tidak biasa di dunia.[16]

Namun, menurut biografi resmi Prism of the Night karya Katherine Ramsland, ayah Anne adalah sumber nama lahir putrinya, dengan menyebutkan, "Berpikir kembali ke hari-hari ketika namanya sendiri dikaitkan dengan anak perempuan dan mungkin dalam upaya untuk memberikan nama gadis kecil itu, Howard menamainya Howard Allen Frances O'Brien."[17] Anne menggunakan nama "Anne" pada hari pertama sekolahnya ketika seorang biarawati menanyai siapa namanya. Dia mengatakan "Anne" kepada biarawati itu yang ia anggap nama yang cantik. Ibunya yang bersamanya membiarkannya pergi tanpa memperbaiki nama itu mengetahui betapa sadar diri putrinya akan nama aslinya. Sejak hari itu, semua orang yang ia kenal memanggilnya dengan "Anne",[18][19] dan namanya diubah secara resmi pada tahun 1947.[1] Anne dikukuhkan di Gereja Katolik ketika berusia 12 tahun dan menggunakan nama lengkap Howard Allen Frances Alphonsus Liguori O'Brien, dengan menambahkan nama seorang santo dan bibinya yang adalah seorang biarawati. Katanya, "Saya merasa terhormat memiliki nama bibi saya, tetapi merupakan beban dan kegembiraan saya sebagai seorang anak untuk memiliki nama yang aneh."[20]

Ketika Anne menginjak usia 15 tahun, ibunya meninggal dunia karena kecanduan minuman beralkohol.[8][21][22] Segera setelah itu, ia dan saudaranya ditempatkan oleh ayah mereka di St. Joseph Academy. Anne menganggap St. Joseph Academy dengan berkata, "[St. Joseph Academy] ialah sesuatu yang keluar dari Jane Eyre ... jenis tempat abad pertengahan yang bobrok lagi mengerikan. Saya benar-benar membencinya dan ingin pergi. Saya merasa dikhianati oleh ayah saya."[23]

Pada November 1957, ayah Anne menikahi Dorothy Van Bever.[9] Tentang pertemuan pertama pasangan itu, Anne mengenang, "Ayah saya menulis surat resmi untuk mengundangnya makan siang yang saya antar ke rumahnya... saya sangat gugup. Dalam catatan itu, ayah saya menyertakan pin yang akan dikenakannya jika ia menerima undangan itu. Hari berikutnya Dorothy memakai pin.[9] Pada tahun 1958, ketika Anne berusia 16 tahun, keluarganya berpindah ke utara Texas dan membeli rumah pertama mereka di Richardson.[24] Anne pertama kali bertemu dengan calon suaminya, Stan Rice, di kelas jurnalisme saat mereka berdua masih menjadi siswa di Sekolah Menengah Atas Richardson.[25]

San Francisco dan Berkeley[sunting | sunting sumber]

Setelah lulus dari Sekolah Menengah Atas Richardson pada tahun 1959, Anne menyelesaikan tahun pertamanya di Universitas Wanita Texas di Denton dan dipindahkan ke North Texas State College pada tahun keduanya. Ia berhenti berkuliah ketika ia kehabisan uang dan tidak dapat menemukan pekerjaan.[26] Segera setelah itu, ia pindah ke San Francisco dan tinggal bersama keluarga seorang teman sampai menemukan pekerjaan sebagai pemproses klaim asuransi. Ia membujuk mantan teman sekamarnya dari Universitas Wanita Texas, Ginny Mathis, untuk bergabung dengannya dan mereka menemukan sebuah apartemen di distrik Haight-Ashbury. Ginny memperoleh pekerjaan di perusahaan asuransi yang sama dengan Anne. Segera setelah itu, mereka mulai mengambil kursus malam di Universitas San Francisco, sebuah sekolah Yesuit yang semuanya laki-laki yang mengizinkan perempuan untuk mengambil kursus malam. Semasa liburan Paskah, Anne pulang ke Texas dan menghidupkan kembali hubungannya dengan Stan. Setelah kembali ke San Francisco, Stan datang untuk kunjungan selama seminggu selama liburan musim panas. Beberapa waktu kemudian, Anne menerima surat pengantar khusus dari Stan yang memintanya menikahinya. Mereka menikah pada 14 Oktober 1961 di Denton segera setelah ia berusia 20 tahu dan terjadi ketika ia baru saja merayakan ulang tahunnya ke-19 tahun beberapa minggu sebelumnya.[27]

Keluarga Rice pindah kembali ke San Francisco pada tahun 1962 yang mengalami kelahiran gerakan hippie secara langsung saat mereka tinggal di distrik Haight-Ashbury yang akan segera menjadi dongeng, California, dan kemudian Distrik Castro.[28] Anne mnegatakan kepada The New York Times, "Saya orang yang benar-benar konservatif, di tengah Haight-Ashbury pada dasawarsa 1960-an, saya mengetik sementara semua orang menumpahkan asam dan merokok ganja. Saya dikenal sebagai kotak saya sendiri."[29] Anne berkuliah di Universitas Negara Bagian San Francisco dan memperoleh gelar B.A. dalam bidang ilmu politik pada tahun 1964.[30] Anak perempuan mereka bernama Michele yang kemudian dijuluki "Mouse" lahir dari pasangan itu pada 21 September 1966 dan Anne kemudian menghentikan pendidikan pascasarjananya di Universitas Negara Bagian San Francisco untuk menjadi calon Ph.D. di Universitas California, Berkeley. Ia segera kecewa dengan penekanan kepada kritik sastra dan persyaratan bahasa. Dalam perkataan Anne, "Saya ingin menjadi penulis, bukan mahasiswa sastra."[31]

Anne kembali ke Universitas Negara Bagian San Francisco pada tahun 1970 untuk menyelesaikan perkuliahannya di bidang penulisan kreatif dan lulus dengan gelar M.A. pada tahun 1972. Stan menjadi instruktur di Universitas Negara Bagian San Francisco tak lama setelah menerima gelar M.A. di bidang penulisan kreatif dan kemudian memimpin bagian kreatif departemen penulisan sebelum pensiun pada tahun 1988.[31][32] Anaknya didiagnosis menderita leukemia granulositik akut pada tahun 1970 ketika Anne masih melanjutkan pendidikan pascasarjana. Berbulan-bulan sebelum Michele jatuh sakit, Anne kemudian menjelaskan bahwa ia mengalami mimpi kenabian bahwa putrinya sekarat karena terdapat sesuatu yang salah dengan darahnya. Michele meninggal pada tahun 1972 tak lama sebelum berusia 6 tahun.[33][34]

Anne kemudian melahirkan Christopher di Berkeley, California pada tahun 1978,[35] yang kemudian menjadi penulis terlaris dengan caranya sendiri. Ia menerbitkan novel pertamanya pada usia 22 tahun.[36] Anne yang mengakui dirinya pecandu alkohol dan suaminya berhenti minum alkohol pada pertengahan tahun 1979 sehingga anak mereka tidak akan memiliki kehidupan yang sama seperti Anne saat kecil.[37]

Karier kepenulisan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pengaruh[sunting | sunting sumber]

Anne menyebut Charles Dickens,[38] Virginia Woolf,[39] John Milton,[38] Ernest Hemingway,[39] William Shakespeare,[39] Brontë bersaudari,[38] Jean-Paul Sartre,[13] Henry James,[21] Arthur Conan Doyle, H. Rider Haggard,[40] dan Stephen King[41] memiliki pengaruh terhadap karyanya. Ia berulang kali membaca novel Firestarter karya Stephen untuk mendapatkan ilham, dengan mengatakan, "saya mempelajari novel itu, Firestarter setiap kali saya tersekat. Membaca beberapa halaman pertama Firestarter membantu saya untuk terus maju."[41]

Interview with the Vampire[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pada tahun 1973, saat masih berduka karena kehilangan putrinya (1966–1972), Anne mengambil cerita pendek yang ditulis sebelumnya dan mengubahnya menjadi novel pertamanya berjudul Interview with the Vampire yang laris. Ia mendasarkan vampirnya kepada tokoh Gloria Holden dalam Dracula's Daughter dengan mengatakan, "Bagi saya Interview with the Vampire menetapkan apa itu vampir, yaitu orang-orang yang elegan, tragis, dan peka ini. Saya benar-benar hanya mengikuti perasaan itu ketika menulis Interview With the Vampire. Saya tidak melakukan banyak penelitian apa pun."[42] Setelah menuntaskan novel itu dan mendapat banyak penolakan dari penerbit, Anne menderita gangguan obsesif kompulsif (OCD). Ia menjadi terobsesi dengan kuman dengan berpikir bahwa ia mencemari semua yang ia sentuh, sering mencuci tangan, dan obsesif memeriksa kunci di jendela dan pintu. Terkait masa itu, Anne berkata, "Apa yang Anda lihat saat berada dalam keadaan itu adalah setiap kekurangan dalam kebersihan kami dan Anda tidak dapat mengendalikannya sehingga Anda menjadi gila."[43]

Setelah menyelesaikan terapi OCD selama setahun, Anne menghadiri Konferensi Penulis Squaw Valley di Squaw Valley yang dipimpin oleh penulis Ray Nelson.[44] Semasa konferensi, Anne bertemu dengan Phyllis Seidel yang kemudian menjadi agen sastranya. Pada bulan Oktober 1974, Phyllis menjual hak penerbitan Interview with the Vampire kepada Alfred A. Knopf dengan uang muka sebesar $12.000 dari hak sampul keras pada saat kebanyakan penulis baru menerima uang muka $2.000.[45] Interview with the Vampire diterbitkan pada Mei 1976. Pada tahun 1977, keluarga Rice melakukan perjalanan ke Eropa dan Mesir untuk pertama kalinya.[22]

Karya lain[sunting | sunting sumber]

Setelah penerbitan Interview with the Vampire, Anne menulis dua novel sejarah yaitu The Feast of All Saints dan Cry to Heaven bersama dengan tiga novel erotik (The Claiming of Sleeping Beauty, Beauty's Punishment, dan Beauty's Release) di bawah nama samaran AN Roquelaure, dan dua lagi dengan nama samaran Anne Rampling (Exit to Eden dan Belinda) saat tinggal di California.[46]

Tak lama selepas ia kembali ke New Orleans pada bulan Juni 1988, Anne menulis The Witching Hour sebagai ekspresi kegembiraannya saat pulang ke rumah. Anne juga melanjutkan seri Vampire Chronicles yang populer, yang kemudian berkembang menjadi sepuluh novel, dan melanjutkan The Witching Hour dengan Lasher dan Taltos sehingga menuntaskan trilogi Lives of the Mayfair Witches. Pada tahun 1997, ia juga menerbitkan Violin yang bercerita tentang hantu yang menghantui.[47]

Anne menulis Christ the Lord: Out of Egypt yang diterbitkan pada tahun 2005. Novel ini ialah awal dari seri yang mencatat kehidupan Yesus.[46] Setelah pindah ke Rancho Mirage pada tahun 2006,[48] Anne menulis jilid kedua yaitu Christ the Lord: The Road to Cana yang diterbitkan pada bulan Maret 2008 dan sedang mengerjakan jilid ketiga yaitu Christ the Lord: Kingdom of Heaven pada bulan November 2008. Ia juga menulis dua buku pertama dalam seri Songs of the Seraphim, yaitu Angel Time dan Of Love and Evil, serta memoarnya berjudul Called Out of Darkness: A Spiritual Confession.[46][49]

Pada 9 Maret 2014, Anne mengumumkan bahwa ia telah menuntaskan buku lain dalam seri Vampire Chronicles berjudul Prince Lestat yang dikatakan sebagai sekuel sejati dari 'Queen of the Damned di acara radio The Dinner Party with Christopher Rice dan Eric Shaw Quinn yang dibawakan anaknya. [50] Buku ini diterbitkan pada 28 Oktober 2014.[51] Pada tahun 2015, sekuel dari trilogi Sleeping Beauty yaitu Beauty's Kingdom diterbitkan.ref name=":0" />

Penerimaan dan analisis[sunting | sunting sumber]

Setelah memulai debutnya pada tahun 1976, Interview with the Vampire menerima banyak ulasan negatif dari para pengkritik, sehingga Anne mundur sementara dari genre supernatural. Ketika The Vampire Lestat memulai debutnya pada tahun 1985, tanggapan dari kritikus maupun pembaca lebih positif, dan edisi sampul keras pertama buku ini terjual 75.000 buku. Setelah diterbitkan pada tahun 1988, versi sampul keras awal The Queen of the Damned dicetak sebanyak 405.000 buku.[21] Novel ini adalah pilihan utama dari Persekutuan Sastra Amerika untuk tahun 1988 dan mencapai posisi #1 di daftar The New York Times Best Seller dan bertahan di daftar itu selama lebih dari empat bulan.[52][21]

Novel Rice diterima dengan baik oleh banyak anggota komunitas LGBT+, beberapa anggota di antaranya menganggap tokoh vampirnya sebagai simbol alegori dari isolasi dan keterasingan sosial.[21] Demikian pula, seorang pengulas menulis untuk The Boston Globe mengamati bahwa vampir dari novel-novelnya mewakili "yang berjalan teralienasi, orang-orang dari kita yang, karena pilihan atau tidak, berdiam di pinggiran."[53] Mengenai masalah ini, Anne sendiri berkomentar, "Sejak awal, saya memiliki penggemar gay, dan pembaca gay yang merasa bahwa karya saya melibatkan alegori gay yang berkelanjutan ... Saya tidak berniat melakukan itu, tetapi itulah yang mereka rasakan. Jadi, bahkan ketika Christopher adalah seorang sayang, saya memiliki pembaca gay dan teman gay dan mengenal orang gay, dan tinggal di distrik Castro di San Francisco, yang merupakan lingkungan gay."[54]

Rice's writings have also been identified as having had a major impact on later developments within the genre of vampire fiction.[53] "Rice turns vampire conventions inside out," wrote Susan Ferraro of The New York Times. "Because Rice identifies with the vampire instead of the victim (reversing the usual focus), the horror for the reader springs from the realization of the monster within the self. Moreover, Rice's vampires are loquacious philosophers who spend much of eternity debating the nature of good and evil."[21]

In addition, Rice's writing style has been heavily analyzed.[52] Ferraro, in a statement typical of many reviewers, described Rice's prose as "florid, both lurid and lyrical, and full of sensuous detail". However, others have criticized her writing style as both verbose and overly philosophical.[52] Author William Patrick Day comments that her writing is often "long, convoluted, and imprecise".[55] The New York Times critic Michiko Kakutani wrote that "Anne Rice has what might best be described as a Gothic imagination crossed with a campy taste for the decadent and the bizarre."[56]

Kehidupan pribadi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kembali ke New Orleans dan memeluk Katolik[sunting | sunting sumber]

In June 1988, following the success of The Vampire Lestat and with The Queen of the Damned about to be published, the Rices purchased a second home in New Orleans, the Brevard–Rice House, built in 1857 for Albert Hamilton Brevard. Stan took a leave of absence from his teaching, and together they moved to New Orleans. Within months, they decided to make it their permanent home.[47]

Rice returned to the Catholic Church in 1998 after decades of atheism. On December 14, 1998, she fell into a coma, later determined to be caused by diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), and nearly died.[57] She was later diagnosed with diabetes mellitus type 1, and was insulin-dependent.[58][59][60] In 2003, following the recommendation of her husband and carried out shortly after his death, Rice underwent gastric bypass surgery and shed 103 pounds.[61][62]

In 2004, Rice nearly died again from an intestinal blockage or bowel obstruction, a common complication of gastric bypass surgery. In 2005, Newsweek reported, "[Rice] came close to death last year, when she had surgery for an intestinal blockage, and also back in 1998, when she went into a sudden diabetic coma; that same year she returned to the Roman Catholic Church, which she'd left at 18."[63] Her return did not come with a full embrace of the Church's stances on social issues; Rice remained a vocal supporter of equality for gay men and lesbians (including marriage rights), as well as abortion rights and birth control,[64] writing extensively on such issues.[65]

In October 2005, while promoting her book, Christ the Lord: Out of Egypt, she announced in Newsweek that she would now use her life and talent of writing to glorify her belief in God, but she did not renounce her earlier works, citing a connection in her earlier work with the state of her spiritual life.[63]

In the Author's Note from Christ the Lord: Out of Egypt, Rice states:

I had experienced an old-fashioned, strict Roman Catholic childhood in the 1940s and 1950s ... we attended daily Mass and Communion in an enormous and magnificently decorated church.... Stained-glass windows, the Latin Mass, the detailed answers to complex questions on good and evil—these things were imprinted on my soul forever.... I left this church at age 18.... I wanted to know what was happening, why so many seemingly good people didn't believe in any organized religion yet cared passionately about their behavior and value of their lives.... I broke with the church.... I wrote many novels that without my being aware that they reflected my quest for meaning in a world without God.[66]

In her memoir Called Out of Darkness: A Spiritual Confession, Rice stated:

In the moment of surrender, I let go of all the theological or social questions which had kept me from [God] for countless years. I simply let them go. There was the sense, profound and wordless, that if He knew everything I did not have to know everything, and that, in seeking to know everything, I'd been, all of my life, missing the entire point. No social paradox, no historic disaster, no hideous record of injustice or misery should keep me from Him. No question of Scriptural integrity, no torment over the fate of this or that atheist or gay friend, no worry for those condemned and ostracized by my church or any other church should stand between me and Him. The reason? It was magnificently simple: He knew how or why everything happened; He knew the disposition of every single soul. He wasn't going to let anything happen by accident! Nobody was going to go to Hell by mistake.[67]

Meninggalkan New Orleans[sunting | sunting sumber]

On January 18, 2004, Rice announced on her website that she had made plans to leave New Orleans.[68] She cited living alone since the death of her husband and her son moving to California as the reasons for her move. On January 30, 2004, Rice put the largest of her three homes up for sale and moved to a gated community in Kenner, Louisiana.[69] "Simplifying my life, not owning so much, that's the chief goal", said Rice. "I'll no longer be a citizen of New Orleans in the true sense."[68] She sold two New York City condominiums in March and April 2005.[70] In 2005, after completing Christ the Lord: Out of Egypt, Rice left New Orleans, shortly before the events of Hurricane Katrina in August. None of her former New Orleans properties were flooded, and Rice remained a vocal advocate for the city and related relief projects.[71][72]

California[sunting | sunting sumber]

After leaving New Orleans, Rice settled first in La Jolla, California. In November 2005, she described the weather in La Jolla as "like heaven."[73][74] However, she left La Jolla less than a year after moving there, stating in January 2006 that the weather was too cold.[75] She purchased a six-bedroom home in Rancho Mirage, California in late 2005 and moved there in 2006, allowing her to be closer to her son in Los Angeles.[76][48]

On July 18, 2010, Rice auctioned off her large collection of antique dolls[77] at Thierault's in Chicago.[78] Beginning in mid-2010 and continuing through early 2011, Rice also began auctioning off her household possessions, collectibles featured in her many books, jewelry, and wardrobe on eBay.[79] She also sold a large portion of her library collection to Powell's Books.[80]

Menjaga jarak dari Kristen[sunting | sunting sumber]

On July 28, 2010, Rice publicly announced her disdain for the current state of Christianity on her Facebook page, stating, "Today I quit being a Christian.... I remain committed to Christ as always but not to being 'Christian' or to being part of Christianity. It's simply impossible for me to 'belong' to this quarrelsome, hostile, disputatious, and deservedly infamous group. For ten years, I've tried. I've failed. I'm an outsider. My conscience will allow nothing else."[81][82] Shortly thereafter, she clarified her statement: "My faith in Christ is central to my life. My conversion from a pessimistic atheist lost in a world I didn't understand, to an optimistic believer in a universe created and sustained by a loving God is crucial to me. But following Christ does not mean following His followers. Christ is infinitely more important than Christianity and always will be, no matter what Christianity is, has been, or might become."[83]

Following her announcement, Rice's critique of Christianity was commented upon by numerous journalists and pundits.[54][84] In an interview with the Los Angeles Times, Rice elaborated on her view regarding being a member of a Christian church: "I feel much more morally comfortable walking away from organized religion. I respect that there are all kinds of denominations and all kinds of churches, but it's the entire controversy, the entire conversation that I need to walk away from right now."[85] In response to the question, "how do you follow Christ without a church?" Rice replied: "I think the basic ritual is simply prayer. It's talking to God, putting things in the hands of God, trusting that you're living in God's world and praying for God's guidance. And being absolutely faithful to the core principles of Jesus' teachings."[85] In 2011, Rice participated in the "I Am Second" project, with a short documentary about her spiritual journey. On April 14, 2013, Rice stated in a Facebook post that she was a secular humanist.[2] On July 28, 2014, Rice stated in a Facebook post that Christ is still central to her life, but not in the way he is presented by organized religion.[86][87]

Kematian[sunting | sunting sumber]

Anne meninggal dunia karena komplikasi stroke di sebuah rumah sakit di Rancho Mirage, California pada 11 Desember 2021, dua bulan selepas ulang tahunnya ke-80.[88][34] Menurut pernyataan dari anak Anne, keluarganya berencana memakamkannya di pemakaman keluarga di Metairie Cemetery, New Orleans.[88][34][89][90]

Alih wahana[sunting | sunting sumber]

Film[sunting | sunting sumber]

In 1994, Neil Jordan directed a motion picture adaptation of Interview with the Vampire, based on Rice's own screenplay. The movie starred Tom Cruise as Lestat, Brad Pitt as the guilt-ridden Louis, and a young Kirsten Dunst in her breakout role as the deceitful child vampire Claudia.[91]

A second film adaptation, Queen of the Damned, was released in February 2002, starring Stuart Townsend as the vampire Lestat and singer Aaliyah as Akasha.[92] The movie combined plot points from both the novel The Queen of the Damned, as well as from The Vampire Lestat. Produced on a budget of $35 million, the film recouped only $30 million at the U.S. box office. On her Facebook page, Rice distanced herself from the film, and stated that she feels the filmmakers "mutilated" her work in adapting the novel.[93]

The 1994 film Exit to Eden, based loosely on the book Rice published as Anne Rampling, stars Rosie O'Donnell and Dan Aykroyd. The work was transformed from a BDSM-themed love story into a police comedy, and was widely considered a box-office failure, receiving near-universal negative reviews.[94]

A film adaptation of Christ the Lord was reported to be in the early stages of development in February 2012. It was reported that Chris Columbus had signed on to produce, and that Cyrus Nowrasteh had already completed the script.[95] On November 8, 2014, during an interview with her long-time editor, Victoria Wilson, at the Chicago Humanities Festival, Rice revealed that filming had finished on the movie and was going into post-production.[96] The film, titled The Young Messiah, was released in 2016.[97]

In August 2014, Universal Pictures had acquired the rights to Rice's Vampire Chronicles.[98] However, in November 2016, when Universal Pictures did not renew the contract, the film and television rights reverted to Rice, who began developing The Vampire Chronicles into a television series with her son, Christopher.[99][100]

Televisi[sunting | sunting sumber]

In 1997, Rice wrote the story for a television pilot entitled Rag and Bone, featuring elements of both horror and crime fiction. Screenwriter James D. Parriott penned the screenplay, and the pilot ultimately aired on CBS, starring Dean Cain and Robert Patrick.[101]

The Feast of All Saints was made into a Showtime original miniseries in 2001, directed by Peter Medak and starring James Earl Jones and Gloria Reuben.[102][103] As of 2002, NBC had plans to adapt Rice's Lives of the Mayfair Witches trilogy into a miniseries, but the project never entered production.[104]

Earth Angels was a presentation pilot written by Rice, produced by Imagine Television and 20th Century Fox Television, and picked up by NBC. Set in New York City, it followed angels in human form battling against evil.[105][106] Four parts of Anne Rice's story treatment for the series were published in 1999 as a bonus in the comic book series called Anne Rice's Tale of the Body Thief.[107][108][109][110]

In November 2016, Rice announced on Facebook that the rights to her novels were reverted to her despite earlier plans for other adaptations. Rice said that she and her son, author Christopher Rice, would be developing and executive producing a potential television series based on the novels.[111] In April 2017, they teamed up with Paramount Television and Anonymous Content to develop a series.[112] As of early 2018, Bryan Fuller was involved with the creation of a potential TV series based on the novels.[113] On July 17, 2018, it was announced that the series was in development at streaming service Hulu and that Fuller had departed the production.[114] As of December 2019, Hulu's rights had expired and Rice was shopping a package including all film and TV rights to the series.[115] In May 2020, it was announced that AMC had acquired the rights to The Vampire Chronicles and Lives of the Mayfair Witches for developing film and television projects.[116] Anne and Christopher Rice were to serve as executive producers on any projects developed.[116]

Teater[sunting | sunting sumber]

On April 25, 2006, the musical Lestat, based on Rice's Vampire Chronicles books, opened at the Palace Theatre on Broadway after having its world premiere and preview run at the Curran Theatre in San Francisco, California, in December 2005. With music by Elton John and lyrics by Bernie Taupin, it was the inaugural production of the newly established Warner Brothers Theatre Ventures. Despite Rice's own overwhelming approval and praise,[117] the show received disappointing attendance and largely negative reviews from critics.[118][119] Lestat closed a month later on May 28, 2006, after just 33 previews and 39 regular performances. The release of the cast recording of the show is reportedly on hold indefinitely.[120]

Komik dan manga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Beberapa novel Anne telah dialihwahanakan ke komik dan manga. Berikut ialah daftar alih wahana berikut penerbit dan tahun penerbitan.

  • Anne Rice's The Vampire Lestat #1–12 by Innovation Comics (1990–1991),[121] compiled into one volume by Ballantine Books (1991)[122]
  • Anne Rice's The Mummy or Ramses the Damned #1–12 by Millennium Publications (1990–1992)[123]
  • Anne Rice's The Queen of the Damned #1–11 (#12 was never published) by Innovation Comics (1991)[124]
  • Anne Rice's The Master of Rampling Gate (one-shot) by Innovation Comics (1991)[123]
  • Anne Rice's The Vampire Companion #1–3 by Innovation Comics (1991)[124]
  • Anne Rice's Interview with the Vampire #1–12 by Innovation Comics (1991–1994)[123]
  • Anne Rice's The Witching Hour #1–13 by Millennium Publications (1992–1993),[123] #1–3 compiled into Anne Rice's The Witching Hour: The Beginning by Millennium Publications (1994)[125]
  • (Jepang) by Animage (1995)[126]
  • Anne Rice's The Tale of the Body Thief #1–4 (numbers 5–12 were never published) by Sicilian Dragon (1999), completed in one volume by Sicilian Dragon (2000)[127][128]
  • Anne Rice's Servant of the Bones #1–6 by IDW Publishing (2011), compiled into one volume by IDW (2012)[129][130]
  • Interview with the Vampire: Claudia's Story by Yen Press (2012)[131]
  • The Wolf Gift: The Graphic Novel by Yen Press (2014)[132]

Fiksi penggemar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rice initially expressed an adamant stance against fan fiction based on her works, and particularly in opposition to such fiction based on The Vampire Chronicles, releasing a statement on April 7, 2000, that disallowed all such efforts, citing copyright issues.[133] She subsequently requested that FanFiction.Net remove stories featuring her characters.[134] In 2012, Metro reported that Rice developed a milder stance on the issue. "I got upset about 20 years ago because I thought it would block me," she said. "However, it's been very easy to avoid reading any, so live and let live. If I were a young writer, I'd want to own my own ideas. But maybe fan fiction is a transitional phase: whatever gets you there, gets you there."[135]

Daftar pustaka[sunting | sunting sumber]

The Vampire Chronicles[sunting | sunting sumber]

New Tales of the Vampires[sunting | sunting sumber]

Lives of the Mayfair Witches[sunting | sunting sumber]

Ramses the Damned[sunting | sunting sumber]

Christ the Lord[sunting | sunting sumber]

Songs of the Seraphim[sunting | sunting sumber]

The Wolf Gift Chronicles[sunting | sunting sumber]

Novel berdiri sendiri[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sleeping Beauty (nama samaran A. N. Roquelaure)[sunting | sunting sumber]

Menggunakan nama samaran Anne Rampling[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nonfiksi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Called Out of Darkness: A Spiritual Confession (2008)[46]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ a b Bowman 1995, hlm. 607.
  2. ^ a b Rice, Anne (April 14, 2013). "Anne Rice". Facebook. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal January 24, 2016. Diakses tanggal April 26, 2014. What do the words, "secular humanism," mean to you? Can you explain? (I am a secular humanist myself and I am thankful to be living in what I believe to be a secular humanist country, but I welcome your thoughts on this.) 
  3. ^ "Anne Rice". FantasticFiction. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal March 21, 2011. Diakses tanggal June 10, 2012. 
  4. ^ "PreachingToday.com & Christianity Today". PreachingToday.com & Christianity Today. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal June 19, 2012. Diakses tanggal June 10, 2012. 
  5. ^ Rice, Anne. "Phone Message Transcript: December 9, 2002". AnneRice.com. Anne Rice. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal May 10, 2012. Diakses tanggal June 10, 2012. 
  6. ^ "Stan Rice Obituary". Legacy.com. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal October 21, 2012. Diakses tanggal June 10, 2012. 
  7. ^ "Anne Rice". Encyclopædia Britannica. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal October 6, 2021. Diakses tanggal October 3, 2021. 
  8. ^ a b Husband, Stuart (November 2, 2008). "Anne Rice: interview with the vampire writer". London: The Daily Telegraph. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal December 13, 2017. Diakses tanggal September 11, 2010. 
  9. ^ a b c "O Obituaries Orleans Parish Louisiana". USGenWeb Archives. USGenWeb. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal May 31, 2012. Diakses tanggal June 22, 2012. 
  10. ^ "THE IMPULSIVE IMP by Howard O'Brien". Kirkus Reviews. Diakses tanggal June 10, 2012. [pranala nonaktif permanen]
  11. ^ Rice, Anne. "The Impulsive Imp". AnneRice.com. Anne Rice. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal July 16, 2012. Diakses tanggal June 10, 2012. 
  12. ^ "Rourke, Mary (August 3, 2007). "Alice Borchardt, 67; author wrote historical romance novels in second career after nursing". Los Angeles Times. Diakses tanggal December 13, 2021. 
  13. ^ a b c McGarvey, Bill (November 22, 2005). "Busted: Anne Rice". Busted Halo. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal July 22, 2012. Diakses tanggal June 10, 2012. 
  14. ^ "Special-Interest Sightseeing: Anne Rice's New Orleans". John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal March 22, 2011. Diakses tanggal June 19, 2011. 
  15. ^ Ramsland 1991, hlm. 34–35.
  16. ^ Rice, Anne. "You Asked, Anne Answered". AnneRice.com. Kith and Kin, LLC. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal December 5, 1998. Diakses tanggal June 15, 2012. 
  17. ^ Ramsland 1991, hlm. 10.
  18. ^ Interview "Called Out Of Darkness: Part 1: An Anne Rice Memoir" annerice.com channel, September 19, 2008 di YouTube
  19. ^ Rice, Anne. "Biography". AnneRice.com. Anne Rice. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal February 23, 2011. Diakses tanggal June 22, 2012. 
  20. ^ Ramsland 1991, hlm. 28, 44.
  21. ^ a b c d e f Ferraro, Susan (October 14, 1990). "Novels You Can Sink Your Teeth Into". The New York Times Magazine. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal December 13, 2012. Diakses tanggal July 3, 2012. 
  22. ^ a b "Anne Rice Biography". Biography. AETN UK. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal May 10, 2012. Diakses tanggal June 22, 2012. 
  23. ^ Ramsland 1991, hlm. 53.
  24. ^ ""The high school home," annerice.com YouTube Channel, March 17, 2011". YouTube. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal August 28, 2014. Diakses tanggal August 21, 2014. 
  25. ^ ""Returning to high school," annerice.com YouTube channel, March 17, 2011". YouTube. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal August 28, 2014. Diakses tanggal August 21, 2014. 
  26. ^ Ramsland 1991, hlm. 66–67.
  27. ^ Ramsland 1991, hlm. 67–77.
  28. ^ "Anne Rice". IMDb. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal July 25, 2018. Diakses tanggal August 3, 2017. 
  29. ^ Kellerman, Stewart (November 7, 1988). "Other Incarnations Of the Vampire Author". The New York Times. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal May 24, 2013. Diakses tanggal June 30, 2012. 
  30. ^ "An Interview with Anne Rice". San Francisco State University. 2006. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal November 19, 2011. Diakses tanggal December 13, 2021. 
  31. ^ a b Metcalfe, Anna (November 15, 2010). "Small talk: Anne Rice". Financial Times. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal May 15, 2012. Diakses tanggal December 13, 2021. 
  32. ^ Ramsland 1991, hlm. 112–113.
  33. ^ Wadler, Joyce; Greene, Johnny (December 5, 1998). "Anne Rice's Imagination May Roam Among Vampires and Erotica, but Her Heart Is Right at Home". People. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal March 30, 2011. Diakses tanggal December 13, 2021. 
  34. ^ a b c Peltier, Elian (December 12, 2021). "Anne Rice, Who Spun Gothic Tales of Vampires, Dies at 80". The New York Times. Diakses tanggal December 12, 2021. 
  35. ^ Riley, Michael (April 1996). "Chronology". Conversations with Anne Rice (Soft cover). New York: Ballantine Books. hlm. xvi. ISBN 0-345-39636-7. 
  36. ^ "About Christopher". Christopher Rice, New York Times Best Selling Novelist. Christopher Rice. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal March 9, 2014. Diakses tanggal April 26, 2014. Christopher's first novel, A DENSITY OF SOULS, was published when he was just 22. 
  37. ^ "Don't Drink" Diarsipkan August 28, 2014, di Wayback Machine., annerice.com YouTube channel
  38. ^ a b c Rice, Anne. "Essay on Earlier Works". AnneRice.com. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal June 1, 2012. Diakses tanggal June 11, 2012. 
  39. ^ a b c Rice, Anne. "Anne's Chamber: Recommendations". AnneRice.com. Anne Rice. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal May 27, 2012. Diakses tanggal June 11, 2012. 
  40. ^ Cardin 2015, hlm. 358.
  41. ^ a b Cooper, Alice (March 11, 2016). "Alice Cooper Interviews Anne Rice on Religion, Vampires, Tom Cruise & Pot". Billboard. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal August 13, 2017. Diakses tanggal January 2, 2020. 
  42. ^ Stern, Marlow (November 23, 2011). "Anne Rice on Sparkly Vampires, 'Twilight,' 'True Blood,' and Werewolves". Book Beast. The Newsweek/Daily Beast Company LLC. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal July 25, 2012. Diakses tanggal August 7, 2012. 
  43. ^ Ramsland 1991, hlm. 157–158.
  44. ^ Mackay, Kathleen (February 11, 1997). "A Literary Friendship: Life Is Not A Footrace" (Paperback). Dalam Ramsland, Katherine. The Anne Rice Reader. Ballantine Books. ISBN 978-0345402677. Diakses tanggal April 26, 2014. 'I remember what you were wearing,' Anne said recently, recalling our first meeting in August 1974. It was the first night of the weeklong writers' conference at Squaw Valley, California, and we were at a party welcoming us to the writers' community. 
  45. ^ Ramsland 1991, hlm. 159–160.
  46. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Anne Rice". Encyclopaedia Britannica (dalam bahasa Inggris). Diakses tanggal December 12, 2021. 
  47. ^ a b Ramsland 1991, hlm. 312–317.
  48. ^ a b Dean, Jennifer (December 12, 2009). "Q&A with Anne Rice on 'Angel Time'". The Press-Enterprise. Retrieved December 13, 2009.
  49. ^ Rice, Anne. "Anne's Messages to Fans". AnneRice.com. Anne Rice. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal December 30, 2008. Diakses tanggal December 12, 2021. 
  50. ^ "Prince Lestat (Book)". January 5, 2015. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal January 6, 2015. Diakses tanggal January 5, 2015. 
  51. ^ Seikaly, Andrea (March 10, 2014). "Anne Rice Announces New 'Vampire Chronicles' Book". Variety. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal March 23, 2014. Diakses tanggal April 26, 2014. Rice said Prince Lestat will be a 'true sequel' to her 1988 novel Queen of the Damned.... 
  52. ^ a b c Hunter, Jeffrey W. (2000). Contemporary Literary Criticism. 128. Gale Cengage. ISBN 0787632031. 
  53. ^ a b Day 2002, hlm. 43.
  54. ^ a b "Writer Anne Rice: 'Today I Quit Being A Christian'". NPR.org. NPR. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal June 1, 2012. Diakses tanggal July 3, 2012. 
  55. ^ Day 2002, hlm. 45.
  56. ^ Kakutani, Michiko (October 19, 1985). "Books of the Times; Vampire for Out Times". The New York Times. hlm. 16. Diarsipkan dari versi asliAkses gratis dibatasi (uji coba), biasanya perlu berlangganan tanggal October 15, 2020. Diakses tanggal May 20, 2020. 
  57. ^ "Anne Rice Says Diabetes Nearly Killed Her". ABC. June 26, 2004. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal February 2, 2017. Diakses tanggal January 21, 2017. 
  58. ^ Anne Rice telephone message to fans about diabetic coma Diarsipkan September 26, 2011, di Wayback Machine. annerice.com, February 1, 1999.
  59. ^ Burke, Anne. "An Interview with Anne Rice" Diarsipkan November 19, 2011, di Wayback Machine. SFSU Magazine Online, Spring 2006.
  60. ^ Ayres, Chris. "The conversation: Anne Rice" Diarsipkan April 22, 2011, di Wayback Machine. The Sunday Times, December 7, 2009.
  61. ^ Anne Rice telephone message to fans about gastric bypass surgery Diarsipkan September 26, 2011, di Wayback Machine. annerice.com, February 17, 2003.
  62. ^ Adato, Allison. "Chapter Two: In a Newly Trim Body, Author Anne Rice Is Starting a New Life—One Without Her Beloved Husband or Favorite Vampire" Diarsipkan March 30, 2011, di Wayback Machine. People Magazine, Vol. 60, No. 25, December 22, 2003.
  63. ^ a b Gates, David. "The Gospel According to Anne" Diarsipkan October 29, 2021, di Wayback Machine. Newsweek, October 31, 2005.
  64. ^ O'Connor, Anne-Marie. "Twists of faith; Anne Rice's vision of Christianity is reflected in her new book" Diarsipkan August 3, 2010, di Wayback Machine. Los Angeles Times, December 26, 2005.
  65. ^ Examples from her blog at AnneRice.com include:
  66. ^ Rice, Anne (2008). Christ the Lord: Out of Egypt: A Novel (trade paperback) New York: Ballantine Books. pp. 323–325. ISBN 978-0-345-49273-9.
  67. ^ Rice, Anne (2005). Called Out of Darkness: A Spiritual Confession. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 183. ISBN 978-0-307-26827-3.
  68. ^ a b "Anne Rice announces she is leaving New Orleans, annerice.com, January 18, 2004". Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal April 13, 2004. Diakses tanggal April 13, 2004. 
  69. ^ "Author Anne Rice sells a four-bedroom house she owned in Kenner, LA for $2.265M". BergProperties.com. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal July 24, 2011. 
  70. ^ McMullen, Troy (December 2, 2005). "The Price-Rise Chronicles". Wall Street Journal. Diakses tanggal December 13, 2021. 
  71. ^ Rice, Anne (September 2005). "Anne's New Orleans: Hurricane Katrina" Diarsipkan March 2, 2010, di Wayback Machine.. annerice.com.
  72. ^ Rice, Anne (September 4, 2005). "Do You Know What It Means to Lose New Orleans?" Diarsipkan May 22, 2015, di Wayback Machine. The New York Times.
  73. ^ "The Gospel According to Anne". Newsweek. October 30, 2005. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal January 26, 2011. Diakses tanggal June 18, 2011. 
  74. ^ "Anne Rice's rebirth". The San Diego Union-Tribune. November 3, 2005. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal November 19, 2011. Diakses tanggal June 18, 2011. 
  75. ^ Showley, Roger M. (January 11, 2006). "Author Rice puts her La Jolla home up for sale for $11.5 million" Diarsipkan May 10, 2012, di Wayback Machine.. U-T San Diego.
  76. ^ Beale, Lauren (May 12, 2010). "Anne Rice puts Rancho Mirage home on the market". LA Times. Diakses tanggal December 12, 2021. 
  77. ^ Anne Rice Doll Collection di YouTube, annerice.com YouTube channel, November 22, 2008
  78. ^ Denise Van Patten. ""Celebrated Author Anne Rice Discusses Her Beloved Doll Collection And Its Sale," About.com". About. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal June 6, 2010. Diakses tanggal June 18, 2011. 
  79. ^ Kellogg, Carolyn (March 23, 2011). "Going fast: Anne Rice's Ebay auction". Los Angeles Times Blog. Tribune Company. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal December 10, 2011. Diakses tanggal July 3, 2012. 
  80. ^ Giegerich, Andy (October 26, 2010). "Powell's Books buys Anne Rice collection". Portland Business Journal. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal March 16, 2012. Diakses tanggal July 1, 2012. 
  81. ^ "Anne Rice no longer Christian on publishednow.net". Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal August 2, 2010. Diakses tanggal August 2, 2010. 
  82. ^ Kunhardt, Jessie (July 29, 2010). "Anne Rice: 'I Quit Being A Christian'". The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, Inc. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal July 6, 2012. Diakses tanggal July 1, 2012. 
  83. ^ ""Anne Rice leaves Christianity" on CNN's Marquee Blog". Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal August 1, 2010. Diakses tanggal July 30, 2010. 
  84. ^ Grossman, Cathy Lynn (July 30, 2010). "Novelist Anne Rice ditches Christianity for Christ". USA Today. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal January 24, 2012. Diakses tanggal July 1, 2012. 
  85. ^ a b Mitchell Landsberg, "Anne Rice discusses her decision to quit Christianity." Diarsipkan August 11, 2010, di Wayback Machine. Los Angeles Times. August 7, 2010.
  86. ^ "Writer Anne Rice: 'Today I Quit Being A Christian'". NPR.org (dalam bahasa Inggris). Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal February 21, 2018. Diakses tanggal August 3, 2017. 
  87. ^ "Alice Cooper Interviews Anne Rice on Religion, Vampires, Tom Cruise & Pot". Billboard. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal August 13, 2017. Diakses tanggal August 3, 2017. 
  88. ^ a b "Anne Rice, author of gothic novels, dead at 80". Associated Press. December 12, 2021. Diakses tanggal December 12, 2021. 
  89. ^ de los Reyes, Lisa (December 12, 2021). "Anne Rice, Author and Screenwriter of 'Interview With the Vampire,' Dies at 80". The Hollywood Reporter. Diakses tanggal December 12, 2021. 
  90. ^ Rice, Christopher [@chrisricewriter] (December 12, 2021). "Earlier tonight, my mother, Anne Rice, passed away due to complications resulting from a stroke. She left us almost nineteen years to the day my father, her husband Stan, died. Below is a statement I posted to her Facebook page moments ago" (Tweet) – via Twitter. 
  91. ^ Interview with the Vampire: The Vampire Chronicles (1994), November 11, 1994, diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal November 29, 2017, diakses tanggal August 3, 2017 
  92. ^ Queen of the Damned (2002), February 22, 2002, diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal December 30, 2018, diakses tanggal August 3, 2017 
  93. ^ Rice, Anne: Wall – Just Fans Diarsipkan July 20, 2014, di Wayback Machine., Facebook.com
  94. ^ "Exit to Eden (1994)". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster, Inc. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal April 15, 2012. Diakses tanggal June 23, 2012. 
  95. ^ Herr, Claudia (January 19, 2012). "Christ the Lord Coming to Theaters, with Anne Rice's Blessing". Wordandfilm.com. Word & Film. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal February 24, 2012. Diakses tanggal February 24, 2012. 
  96. ^ Anne Rice: Vampire Chronicler. YouTube. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal May 15, 2015. Diakses tanggal December 6, 2014. 
  97. ^ "Film Review: 'The Young Messiah'". Variety. March 11, 2016. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal December 12, 2021. Diakses tanggal December 12, 2021. 
  98. ^ "Anne Rice's 'Vampire Chronicles' Takes Flight at Universal". Variety. August 7, 2014. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal November 15, 2017. Diakses tanggal December 9, 2017. 
  99. ^ Rice, Anne (November 27, 2016). "Anne Rice statement on her Official Facebook Fan Page". Facebook. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal February 2, 2017. Diakses tanggal February 13, 2017. 
  100. ^ "Anne Rice Is Bringing Her Vampire Chronicles to Television". Vanity Fair. November 27, 2016. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal December 1, 2016. Diakses tanggal February 13, 2017. 
  101. ^ Parkinson, David. "Rag and Bone". Radio Times. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal May 22, 2013. Diakses tanggal June 22, 2012. 
  102. ^ "The Feast of All Saints: Overview". MSN.com. Microsoft. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal February 8, 2012. Diakses tanggal June 22, 2012. 
  103. ^ Fries, Laura (November 8, 2001). "Review: 'Anne Rice's The Feast of All Saints'". Variety (dalam bahasa Inggris). Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal August 3, 2017. Diakses tanggal August 3, 2017. 
  104. ^ Smith, Christopher Allan. "NBC planning huge Anne Rice MAYFAIR series". Mania. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal November 30, 2012. Diakses tanggal June 23, 2012. 
  105. ^ Snierson, Dan (January 12, 2001). "On the Air". Entertainment Weekly. Diakses tanggal December 12, 2021. 
  106. ^ Adalian, Josef (February 1, 2001). "Dances with Wolf". Variety. Diakses tanggal December 12, 2021. 
  107. ^ "Anne Rice's The Tale of the Body Thief #1". www.comics.org. Grand Comics Database. Diakses tanggal December 13, 2021. 
  108. ^ "Anne Rice's The Tale of the Body Thief #2". www.comics.org. Grand Comics Database. Diakses tanggal December 13, 2021. 
  109. ^ "Anne Rice's The Tale of the Body Thief #3". www.comics.org. Grand Comics Database. Diakses tanggal December 13, 2021. 
  110. ^ "Anne Rice's The Tale of the Body Thief #4". www.comics.org. Grand Comics Database. Diakses tanggal December 13, 2021. 
  111. ^ "Anne Rice Plotting The Vampire Chronicles TV Series Adaptation". Entertainment Weekly. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal November 29, 2016. Diakses tanggal December 4, 2016. 
  112. ^ Otterson, Joe (April 28, 2017). "Vampire Chronicles Series in Development at Paramount TV, Anonymous Content". Variety. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal April 28, 2017. Diakses tanggal April 28, 2017. 
  113. ^ Brockington, Ariana (January 12, 2018). "Bryan Fuller Joins The Vampire Chronicles TV Series". Variety. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal May 26, 2020. Diakses tanggal May 9, 2018. 
  114. ^ Petski, Denise (July 17, 2018). "Anne Rice's The Vampire Chronicles In The Works At Hulu". Deadline Hollywood. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal July 17, 2018. Diakses tanggal July 17, 2018. 
  115. ^ Schneider, Michael (December 20, 2019). "Anne Rice's The Vampire Chronicles No Longer at Hulu; Is Being Shopped Elsewhere". Variety. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal March 8, 2021. Diakses tanggal May 14, 2020. 
  116. ^ a b Otterson, Joe (May 13, 2020). "Anne Rice's Vampire Chronicles, Lives of the Mayfair Witches Rights Land at AMC". Variety. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal June 25, 2021. Diakses tanggal May 14, 2020. 
  117. ^ "Lestat on Broadway on annerice.com". Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal July 28, 2012. Diakses tanggal January 22, 2010. 
  118. ^ Brook, Tom (April 26, 2006). "Disappointing start for Elton musical". BBC News. BBC. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal May 9, 2013. Diakses tanggal July 1, 2012. 
  119. ^ "Critics lay into Elton's musical". BBC News. BBC. April 26, 2006. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal April 26, 2014. Diakses tanggal July 1, 2012. 
  120. ^ "No Plans for Release of Lestat Original Cast Recording". Wisdom Digital Media. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal October 1, 2012. Diakses tanggal June 23, 2012. 
  121. ^ Overstreet, Robert M. (1993). Overstreet Comic Book Price Guide (edisi ke-23rd). New York: Avon Books. hlm. 431. ISBN 9780380772209. 
  122. ^ "Books, Listed by Author". Locus. Diakses tanggal December 13, 2021. 
  123. ^ a b c d Overstreet, Robert M. (2015). Overstreet Comic Book Price Guide (edisi ke-45th (2015-2016)). Timonium, MD. hlm. 429. ISBN 9781603601757. 
  124. ^ a b Melton, J. Gordon (2011). The Vampire Book: The Encyclopedia of the Undead (edisi ke-3rd). Detroit: Visible Ink Press. hlm. 575. ISBN 9781578593484. 
  125. ^ Anne Rice's The Witching Hour: The Beginning. Millennium Publications. 1994. OCLC 39333135. 
  126. ^ Mangaka, anime sakka jinmei jiten [Writers of comics in Japan] (dalam bahasa Japanese). Tokyo: Nichigai Asoshiet̄su. 1997. hlm. 202. ISBN 9784816914232. OCLC 37468558. 
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  140. ^ "Ramses the Damned: The Reign of Osiris by Anne Rice, Christopher Rice: 9781101970331 | PenguinRandomHouse.com: Books". PenguinRandomhouse.com. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal August 9, 2021. Diakses tanggal August 9, 2021. 
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