Volkssturm

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Volkssturm
Volkssturm marching, November 1944
Barisan Volkssturm, November 1944
Aktif 18 Oktober 1944–1945
Negara Jerman Nazi
Cabang Partai Nazi
Komandan tempur
Tokoh berjasa Joseph Goebbels

Volkssturm (pengucapan bahasa Jerman: [ˈfɔlks.ʃtʊɐ̯m], "penggempur rakyat")[1][2] adalah kelompok milisi Jerman Nazi pada tahun-tahun terakhir Perang Dunia II. Kelompok ini tidak didirkan oleh Wehrmacht (Angkatan Darat Jerman), tetapi oleh Partai Nazi atas arahan Adolf Hitler. Pendiriannya baru diumumkan secara resmi pada tanggal 18 Oktober 1944.[3] Milisi ini mengerahkan laki-laki yang berumur 13 hingga 60 tahun yang belum mengabdi dalam satuan-satuan militer dan garda nasional. Volkssturm merupakan salah satu komponen terakhir dalam konsep perang total yang dirumuskan oleh Menteri Propaganda Joseph Goebbels, yang merupakan salah satu upaya Nazi untuk mengalahkan musuh-musuh mereka melalui semangat kuat kenegaraan.[4]

Catatan kaki[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Fritz (2004). Endkampf: Soldiers, Civilians, and the Death of the Third Reich, hlm. ix.
  2. ^ Kershaw (2011). The End: The Defiance and Destruction of Hitler's Germany, 1944-1945, hlm. 86-88.
  3. ^ Burleigh (2001). The Third Reich: A New History, hlm. 786.
  4. ^ Kershaw (2001). Hitler: 1936-1945, Nemesis, hlm. 713-714.

Daftar pustaka[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Benz, Wolfgang (2007). A Concise History of the Third Reich. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
  • Bessel, Richard (2010). Germany 1945: From War to Peace. New York: Harper Perennial.
  • Burleigh, Michael (2001). The Third Reich: A New History. New York: Hill and Wang.
  • Duffy, Christopher (2002). Red Storm on the Reich: The Soviet March on Germany, 1945. Edison, NJ: Castle Books.
  • Fritz, Stephen G. (2004). Endkampf: Soldiers, Civilians, and the Death of the Third Reich. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.
  • Guderian, Heinz (2001) [1952]. Panzer Leader. New York and Boston: Da Capo Press.
  • Herzstein, Robert E. (1986). The War That Hitler Won: Goebbels and the Nazi Media Campaign. St Paul, MN: Paragon House.
  • Hildebrand, Klaus (1984). The Third Reich. Florence, KY: Routledge.
  • Irving, David (1991) [1977]. Hitler’s War and the War Path. London: Focal Point Publications.
  • Kater, Michael H. (2004). Hitler Youth. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Kershaw, Ian (2001). Hitler: 1936-1945, Nemesis. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.
  • Kershaw, Ian (2011). The End: The Defiance and Destruction of Hitler's Germany, 1944-1945. New York: Penguin Books.
  • Kissel, Hans (1962). Der Deutsche Volkssturm 1944/45: Eine territoriale Miliz im Rahmen der Landesverteidung.. Frankfurt am Main: Verlag E. S. Mittler und Sohn.
  • Le Tissier, Tony (2008). Berlin Battlefield Guide: Third Reich & Cold War. South Yorkshire: Pen & Sword Military.
  • Le Tissier, Tony (2003). Death was our Companion: The Final Days of the Third Reich. Stroud: Sutton Publishing.
  • Massaquoi, Hans J. (1990). Destined to Witness: Growing Up Black in Nazi Germany. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
  • Moorhouse, Roger (2012). Berlin at War. New York: Basic Books.
  • Sorge, Martin K. (1986). The Other Price of Hitler's War: German Military and Civilian Losses Resulting from World War II. New York: Greenwood Press.
  • Trevor-Roper Hugh R. (1964). Blitzkrieg to Defeat. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
  • Yelton, David K. (2002). Hitler's Home Guard: Volkssturmmann Western Front 1944-45. Oxford: Osprey Publishing.
  • Yelton, David K. (2003). "The SS, NSDAP, and the Question of Volkssturm Expansion". In Steinweis, Alan E., and Daniel Rogers, The Impact of Nazism: New Perspectives on the Third Reich and Its Legacy. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
  • Ziemke, Earl F. (1968). Stalingrad to Berlin: The German Defeat in the East. Washington, DC: Office of the Chief of Military History, U.S. Army.

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]