Tujuh Hukum Nuh

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Tujuh Hukum Nuh ((bahasa Ibrani: שבע מצוות בני נח Sheva mitzvot B'nei Noach, bahasa Inggris: Seven Laws of Noah atau Noahide Laws, Noachide Laws) adalah sekumpulan perintah yang menurut Talmud, diberikan oleh Allah [1] sebagai hukum yang mengikat bagi "anak-anak Nuh" – yaitu, seluruh umat manusia.[2][3]

Dengan demikian, semua orang bukan-Yahudi yang menuruti hukum ini karena diberikan oleh Musa[4] dianggap sebagai ger toshav ("orang asing yang saleh"; "righteous gentile"), dan dipastikan mendapat tempat dalam akhirat atau "dunia mendatang" (bahasa Ibrani: עולם הבא Olam Haba), hadiah terakhir orang saleh.[5][6]

Tujuh Hukum Nuh secara tradisional diurutkan:[7]

  1. Jangan menyangkal Allah (Do not deny God).
  2. Jangan menghujat Allah (Do not blaspheme God).
  3. Jangan membunuh (Do not murder).
  4. Jangan berhubungan seksual yang tidak patut (Do not engage in illicit sexual relations).
  5. Jangan mencuri (Do not steal).
  6. Jangan makan binatang hidup (Do not eat of a live animal).
  7. Bentuklah sistem hukum/pengadilan untuk menjaga ketaatan hukum (Establish courts/legal system to ensure obedience to the law).

Menurut Talmud,[7] para rabbi sepakat bahwa ketujuh hukum itu diberikan kepada putra-putra Nuh. Namun, mereka tidak sepakat hukum-hukum mana yang diberikan kepada Adam dan Hawa. Enam dari tujuh hukum secara eksegesis diturunkan dari bagain Kitab Kejadian,[8] ditambah ketujuh yaitu pembentukan pengadilan.

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ According to Encyclopedia Talmudit (Hebrew edition, Israel, 5741/1981, Entry Ben Noah, page 349), most medieval authorities consider that all seven commandments were given to Adam, although Maimonides (Mishneh Torah, Hilkhot M'lakhim 9:1) considers the dietary law to have been given to Noah.
  2. ^ Encyclopedia Talmudit (Hebrew edition, Israel, 5741/1981, entry Ben Noah, introduction) states that after the giving of the Torah, the Jewish people were no longer in the category of the sons of Noah; however, Maimonides (Mishneh Torah, Hilkhot M'lakhim 9:1) indicates that the seven laws are also part of the Torah, and the Talmud (Bavli, Sanhedrin 59a, see also Tosafot ad. loc.) states that Jews are obligated in all things that Gentiles are obligated in, albeit with some differences in the details.
  3. ^ Compare [[]] Genesis:9:4–6-HE.
  4. ^ "Melachim uMilchamot 8:11". www.chabad.org. last two sentences of the three. Diakses tanggal 2015-06-24. 
  5. ^ Mishneh Torah, Hilkhot M'lakhim 8:14
  6. ^ Encyclopedia Talmudit (Hebrew edition, Israel, 5741/1981, entry Ben Noah, end of article); note the variant reading of Maimonides and the references in the footnote
  7. ^ a b "The Seven Noachide Laws - Jewish Virtual Library". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Diakses tanggal 8 November 2014. 
  8. ^ Rabbinical authorities disputed whether there was only one or several commandments given to Adam: see 56a/b

Pustaka tambahan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Barre Elisheva. "Torah for Gentiles – the Messianic and Political Implications of the Bnei Noah Laws", 2008, ISBN 978-965-91329-0-4.

Edisi kedua online pada: http://www.scribd.com/my_document_collections/3551340

  • Bleich, J. David. "Judaism and natural law" in Jewish law annual, vol. VII 5–42
  • Bleich, J. David. "Tikkun Olam: Jewish Obligations to Non-Jewish Society" in: Tikkun olam: social responsibility in Jewish thought and law. Edited by David Shatz, Chaim I. Waxman and Nathan J. Diament. Northvale, N.J.: Jason Aronson, 1997. ISBN 0-7657-5951-9.
  • Broyde, Michael J. "The Obligation of Jews to Seek Observance of Noahide Laws by Gentiles: A Theoretical Review" in Tikkun olam: social responsibility in Jewish thought and law. Edited by David Shatz, Chaim I. Waxman and Nathan J. Diament. Northvale, N.J. : Jason Aronson, 1997. ISBN 0-7657-5951-9.
  • Cecil, Alan W. "The Noahide Code: A Guide to the Perplexed Christian." (Aventura: Academy of Shem Press, 2006). ISBN 0-9779885-0-3.
  • Cohen, Yakov Dovid. "Divine Image " Insights into the Laws of Noah, published by The Institute of Noahide Code 2006 ISBN 1-4243-1000-8 online www.Noahide.org
  • Cowen, Shimon Dovid. "Perspectives on the Noahide Laws – Universal ethics". The Institute of Judaism and Civilization (3rd edition) 2008 ISBN 0-9585933-8-8 www.ijc.com.au
  • Clorfene C and Rogalsky Y. The Path of the Righteous Gentile: An Introduction to the Seven Laws of the Children of Noah. Targum Press, 1987. ISBN 0-87306-433-X. Online version.
  • Dallen, Michael. The Rainbow Covenant: Torah and the Seven Universal Laws ISBN 0-9719388-2-2 Library of Congress Control Number 2003102494 and online excerpts and comics
  • Lichtenstein, Aaron. "The Seven Laws of Noah". New York: The Rabbi Jacob Joseph School Press and Z. Berman Books, 2d ed. 1986. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 80-69121.
  • Novak, David. The image of the non-Jew in Judaism: an historical and constructive study of the Noahide Laws. New York : E. Mellen Press, 1983.
  • Novak, David. Natural law in Judaism. Cambridge ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 1998.
  • Rakover, Nahum. Law and the Noahides: law as a universal value. Jerusalem: Library of Jewish Law, 1998.

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