The White Man's Burden

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Untuk buku karya William Easterly, lihat William Easterly.
"White Man's Burden" beralih ke halaman ini. Untuk film tahun 1995, lihat White Man's Burden (film).
Kartun karya William H. Walker yang menggambarkan konsep beban orang kulit putih di majalah Life tahun 1899
Iklan sabun tahun 1890-an ini mengambil tema beban orang kulit putih dan meminta orang kulit putih mengajarkan kebersihan.

"The White Man's Burden" adalah puisi karya penyair Inggris Rudyard Kipling.

Puisi ini awalnya diterbitkan di majalah McClure's tahun 1899 dengan subjudul The United States and the Philippine Islands.[1] Puisi ini juga awalnya ditulis dalam rangka Diamond Jubilee Ratu Victoria, tetapi diganti dengan puisi "Recessional"; Kipling memasukkan kata "Burden" untuk mencerminkan kolonisasi Amerika Serikat di Filipina yang baru saja mengalahkan Spanyol dalam Perang Spanyol–Amerika Serikat.[2] Puisi ini terdiri dari tujuh stanza dengan skema rima yang teratur. Secara gamblang, puisi ini tampak seperti perintah retoris kepada orang kulit putih untuk mengkoloni dan menguasai negara lain demi keuntungan orang kulit putih (baik rakyat maupun tugasnya dianggap mewakili kata "burden" atau "beban" di judul puisi).

Meski puisi Kipling mencampurkan desakan kolonisasi dengan peringatan akan biaya kolonisasi, kaum imperialis di Amerika Serikat menafsirkan frasa "beban orang kulit putih" sebagai pembenaran bahwa imperialisme adalah hal yang terhormat.[3][4][5][6][7] Karena tema dan judulnya, puisi ini menjadi lambang rasisme Eurosentris dan aspirasi Barat untuk mendominasi negara-negara berkembang.[8][9][10] Satu abad setelah terbit, puisi ini masih membangkitkan emosi yang kuat dan dapat dianalisis dari berbagai sudut pandang.

Puisi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Judul asli: "The White Man's Burden: The United States and The Philippine Islands"[11][12][13]

Take up the White Man's burden, Send forth the best ye breed
  Go bind your sons to exile, to serve your captives' need;
To wait in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild—
  Your new-caught, sullen peoples, Half-devil and half-child.

Take up the White Man's burden, In patience to abide,
  To veil the threat of terror And check the show of pride;
By open speech and simple, An hundred times made plain
  To seek another's profit, And work another's gain.

Take up the White Man's burden, The savage wars of peace—
  Fill full the mouth of Famine And bid the sickness cease;
And when your goal is nearest The end for others sought,
  Watch sloth and heathen Folly Bring all your hopes to nought.

Take up the White Man's burden, No tawdry rule of kings,
  But toil of serf and sweeper, The tale of common things.
The ports ye shall not enter, The roads ye shall not tread,
  Go mark[14] them with your living, And mark them with your dead.

Take up the White Man's burden And reap his old reward:
  The blame of those ye better, The hate of those ye guard—
The cry of hosts ye humour (Ah, slowly!) toward the light:—
  "Why brought he us from bondage, Our loved Egyptian night?"

Take up the White Man's burden, Ye dare not stoop to less—
  Nor call too loud on Freedom To cloke your weariness;
By all ye cry or whisper, By all ye leave or do,
  The silent, sullen peoples Shall weigh your gods and you.

Take up the White Man's burden, Have done with childish days—
  The lightly proferred laurel, The easy, ungrudged praise.
Comes now, to search your manhood, through all the thankless years
  Cold, edged with dear-bought wisdom, The judgment of your peers!

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Catatan kaki[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ "The White Man's Burden". McClure's Magazine 12 (Feb. 1899).
  2. ^ Stephen Greenblatt (ed.), Norton Anthology of English Literature, New York 2006 ISBN 0-393-92532-3.
  3. ^ Zwick, Jim (December 16, 2005). Anti-Imperialism in the United States, 1898–1935. [pranala nonaktif]
  4. ^ Miller, Stuart Creighton (1982). Benevolent Assimilation: The American Conquest of the Philippines, 1899–1903. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-03081-9.  p. 5: "...imperialist editors came out in favor of retaining the entire archipelago (using) higher-sounding justifications related to the "white man's burden."
  5. ^ Judd, Denis (June 1997). "Diamonds are forever: Kipling's imperialism; poems of Rudyard Kipling". History Today 47 (6): 37. : "Theodore Roosevelt...thought the verses 'rather poor poetry, but good sense from the expansionist stand-point'. Henry Cabot Lodge told Roosevelt in turn: 'I like it. I think it is better poetry than you say'."
  6. ^ Examples of justification for imperialism based on Kipling's poem include the following (originally published 1899–1902):
  7. ^ Pimentel, Benjamin (October 26, 2003). The Philippines; "Liberator" Was Really a Colonizer; Bush's revisionist history. The San Francisco Chronicle. hlm. D3. : charactising the poem as a "call to imperial conquest".
  8. ^ "Eurocentrism". In Encyclopedia of the Developing World. Ed. Thomas M. Leonard, Taylor & Francis, 2006, ISBN 0-415-97662-6, p. 636.
  9. ^ Chisholm, Michael (1982). Modern World Development: A Geographical Perspective. Rowman & Littlefield, 1982, ISBN 0-389-20320-3, p.12.
  10. ^ Mama, Amina (1995). Beyond the Masks: Race, Gender, and Subjectivity. Routledge, 1995, ISBN 0-415-03544-9, p. 39.
  11. ^ Modern History Sourcebook: Rudyard Kipling, The White Man's Burden, 1899. New York: Fordham University. 
  12. ^ Kipling, Rudyard (1929). Rudyard Kipling’s Verse: Definitive Edition. Garden city, New York: Doubleday. 
  13. ^ Original published version
  14. ^ In the original published version, this word is "make". http://www.unz.org/Pub/McClures-1899feb-00290

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • A Companion to Victorian Poetry, Alison Chapman; Blackwell, Oxford, 2002.
  • Chisholm, Michael (1982). Modern World Development: A Geographical Perspective. Rowman & Littlefield, 1982, ISBN 0-389-20320-3.
  • Cody, David. The growth of the British Empire. The Victorian Web, University Scholars Program, National University of Singapore, November 2000.
  • Crosby, Ernest (1902). The Real White Man's Burden. Funk and Wagnalls Company, 32–35.
  • Dixon, Thomas (1902). The Leopard's Spots – A Romance of the White Man's Burden 1865–1900.
  • Encyclopedia of India. Ed. Stanley Wolpert. Vol. 3. Detroit: charles Scribner's Sons, 2006, p. 35–36. 4 vols.
  • "Eurocentrism". In Encyclopedia of the Developing World. Ed. Thomas M. Leonard, Taylor & Francis, 2006, ISBN 0-415-97662-6.
  • Greenblatt, Stephen (ed.). Norton Anthology of English Literature, New York 2006 ISBN 0-393-92532-3
  • Kipling. Fordham University. Full text of the poem.
  • Labouchère, Henry (1899). "The Brown Man's Burden".
  • Mama, Amina (1995). Beyond the Masks: Race, Gender, and Subjectivity. Routledge, 1995, ISBN 0-415-03544-9.
  • Miller, Stuart Creighton (1982). Benevolent Assimilation: The American Conquest of the Philippines, 1899–1903. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-03081-9.
  • Murphy, Gretchen (2010). Shadowing the White Man’s Burden: U.S. Imperialism and the Problem of the Color Line. NYU Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-9619-1
  • Pimentel, Benjamin (October 26, 2003). "The Philippines; "Liberator" Was Really a Colonizer; Bush's revisionist history". The San Francisco Chronicle: D3.
  • Sailer, Steve (2001). "What Will Happen In Afghanistan?". United Press International, 26 September 2001.
  • "The White Man's Burden." McClure's Magazine 12 (Feb. 1899).
  • The Shining. Jack Nicholson's character Jack, uses the phrase to refer to whiskey.

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]