The Federalist Papers

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"The Federalist" beralih ke halaman ini. Untuk kegunaan lain, lihat Federalist (disambiguasi).
Halaman judul koleksi pertama The Federalist Papers (1788)

The Federalist (kelak disebut The Federalist Papers) adalah kumpulan 85 artikel dan esai yang ditulis (di bawah nama samaran Publius) oleh Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, dan John Jay yang mendukung ratifikasi Konstitusi Amerika Serikat. 77 artikel diterbitkan secara berseri di The Independent Journal dan The New York Packet antara Oktober 1787 dan Agustus 1788. 77 artikel tersebut dan 8 artikel lainnya dengan judul The Federalist; or, The New Constitution diterbitkan dalam dua volume pada tahun 1788 oleh J. dan A. McLean.[1] Judul aslinya adalah The Federalist; judul The Federalist Papers baru muncul pada abad ke-20.

Meski para penulis The Federalist Papers hendak memengaruhi pemegang hak suara agar mendukung ratifikasi Konstitusi, mereka merumuskan perdebatannya secara luas dari sudut pandang politik dalam Federalist No. 1:

It has been frequently remarked, that it seems to have been reserved to the people of this country, by their conduct and example, to decide the important question, whether societies of men are really capable or not, of establishing good government from reflection and choice, or whether they are forever destined to depend, for their political constitutions, on accident and force.[2]

Highlights abound in the essays of The Federalist. Dalam Federalist No. 10, Madison membahas cara mencegah faksi mayoritas penguasa dan mendukunng republik besar yang komersial. Federalist No. 10 umumnya diakui sebagai artikel terpenting dari 85 artikel Federalis dari sudut pandang filsafat. Artikel ini dilengkapi oleh Federalist No. 14; Madison menggambarkan ukuran Amerika Serikat dan menganggapnya cocok untuk dijadikan republik besar. Selain itu, Madison juga mempertahankan kreativitas konstitusi dan politik Konvensi Federal.[3] Dalam Federalist No. 84, Hamilton menyatakan bahwa Konstitusi tidak perlu diamendemen dengan menambahkan Deklarasi Hak dan bahwa berbagai pasal dalam Konstitusi yang melindungi kebebasan sudah setara dengan "deklarasi hak". Federalist No. 78, juga ditulis oleh Hamilton, menjadi dasar doktrin peninjauan yudisial undang-undang federal atau keputusan presiden oleh pengadilan federal. Federalist No. 70 menjelaskan alasan Amerika Serikat perlu dipimpin seorang kepala eksekutif. Dalam Federalist No. 39, Madison memaparkan penjelasannya tentang "Federalisme". Dalam Federalist No. 51, Madison mengutarakan pemeriksaan dan penyeimbangan (checks and balances) lewat sebuah esai yang sering dikutip karena menyebut pemerintah sebagai "cerminan terbaik sifat manusia."

Menurut sejarawan Richard B. Morris, The Federalist Papers adalah "pembahasan Konstitusi yang tiada bandingnya, sebuah karya klasik dalam ilmu politik yang tidak dapat ditandingi kekayaan dan kedalamannya oleh penulis manapun di Amerika Serikat."[4]

Daftar lengkap[sunting | sunting sumber]

Warna baris disesuaikan dengan penulisnya.

# Tanggal Judul Penulis
1 October 27, 1787 General Introduction Alexander Hamilton
2 October 31, 1787 Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence John Jay
3 November 3, 1787 The Same Subject Continued: Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence John Jay
4 November 7, 1787 The Same Subject Continued: Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence John Jay
5 November 10, 1787 The Same Subject Continued: Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence John Jay
6 November 14, 1787 Concerning Dangers from Dissensions Between the States Alexander Hamilton
7 November 15, 1787 The Same Subject Continued: Concerning Dangers from Dissensions Between the States Alexander Hamilton
8 November 20, 1787 The Consequences of Hostilities Between the States Alexander Hamilton
9 November 21, 1787 The Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection Alexander Hamilton
10 November 22, 1787 The Same Subject Continued: The Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection James Madison
11 November 24, 1787 The Utility of the Union in Respect to Commercial Relations and a Navy Alexander Hamilton
12 November 27, 1787 The Utility of the Union In Respect to Revenue Alexander Hamilton
13 November 28, 1787 Advantage of the Union in Respect to Economy in Government Alexander Hamilton
14 November 30, 1787 Objections to the Proposed Constitution From Extent of Territory Answered James Madison
15 December 1, 1787 The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union Alexander Hamilton
16 December 4, 1787 The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union Alexander Hamilton
17 December 5, 1787 The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union Alexander Hamilton
18 December 7, 1787 The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union James Madison[5]
19 December 8, 1787 The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union James Madison[5]
20 December 11, 1787 The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union James Madison[5]
21 December 12, 1787 Other Defects of the Present Confederation Alexander Hamilton
22 December 14, 1787 The Same Subject Continued: Other Defects of the Present Confederation Alexander Hamilton
23 December 18, 1787 The Necessity of a Government as Energetic as the One Proposed to the Preservation of the Union Alexander Hamilton
24 December 19, 1787 The Powers Necessary to the Common Defense Further Considered Alexander Hamilton
25 December 21, 1787 The Same Subject Continued: The Powers Necessary to the Common Defense Further Considered Alexander Hamilton
26 December 22, 1787 The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense Considered Alexander Hamilton
27 December 25, 1787 The Same Subject Continued: The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense Considered Alexander Hamilton
28 December 26, 1787 The Same Subject Continued: The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense Considered Alexander Hamilton
29 January 9, 1788 Concerning the Militia Alexander Hamilton
30 December 28, 1787 Concerning the General Power of Taxation Alexander Hamilton
31 January 1, 1788 The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation Alexander Hamilton
32 January 2, 1788 The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation Alexander Hamilton
33 January 2, 1788 The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation Alexander Hamilton
34 January 5, 1788 The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation Alexander Hamilton
35 January 5, 1788 The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation Alexander Hamilton
36 January 8, 1788 The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation Alexander Hamilton
37 January 11, 1788 Concerning the Difficulties of the Convention in Devising a Proper Form of Government James Madison
38 January 12, 1788 The Same Subject Continued, and the Incoherence of the Objections to the New Plan Exposed James Madison
39 January 18, 1788 The Conformity of the Plan to Republican Principles James Madison
40 January 18, 1788 The Powers of the Convention to Form a Mixed Government Examined and Sustained James Madison
41 January 19, 1788 General View of the Powers Conferred by the Constitution James Madison
42 January 22, 1788 The Powers Conferred by the Constitution Further Considered James Madison
43 January 23, 1788 The Same Subject Continued: The Powers Conferred by the Constitution Further Considered James Madison
44 January 25, 1788 Restrictions on the Authority of the Several States James Madison
45 January 26, 1788 The Alleged Danger From the Powers of the Union to the State Governments Considered James Madison
46 January 29, 1788 The Influence of the State and Federal Governments Compared James Madison
47 January 30, 1788 The Particular Structure of the New Government and the Distribution of Power Among Its Different Parts James Madison
48 February 1, 1788 These Departments Should Not Be So Far Separated as to Have No Constitutional Control Over Each Other James Madison
49 February 2, 1788 Method of Guarding Against the Encroachments of Any One Department of Government James Madison[6]
50 February 5, 1788 Periodic Appeals to the People Considered James Madison[6]
51 February 6, 1788 The Structure of the Government Must Furnish the Proper Checks and Balances Between the Different Departments James Madison[6]
52 February 8, 1788 The House of Representatives James Madison[6]
53 February 9, 1788 The Same Subject Continued: The House of Representatives James Madison[6]
54 February 12, 1788 The Apportionment of Members Among the States James Madison[6]
55 February 13, 1788 The Total Number of the House of Representatives James Madison[6]
56 February 16, 1788 The Same Subject Continued: The Total Number of the House of Representatives James Madison[6]
57 February 19, 1788 The Alleged Tendency of the New Plan to Elevate the Few at the Expense of the Many James Madison[6]
58 February 20, 1788 Objection That The Number of Members Will Not Be Augmented as the Progress of Population Demands Considered James Madison[6]
59 February 22, 1788 Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members Alexander Hamilton
60 February 23, 1788 The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members Alexander Hamilton
61 February 26, 1788 The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members Alexander Hamilton
62 February 27, 1788 The Senate James Madison[6]
63 March 1, 1788 The Senate Continued James Madison[6]
64 March 5, 1788 The Powers of the Senate John Jay
65 March 7, 1788 The Powers of the Senate Continued Alexander Hamilton
66 March 8, 1788 Objections to the Power of the Senate To Set as a Court for Impeachments Further Considered Alexander Hamilton
67 March 11, 1788 The Executive Department Alexander Hamilton
68 March 12, 1788 The Mode of Electing the President Alexander Hamilton
69 March 14, 1788 The Real Character of the Executive Alexander Hamilton
70 March 15, 1788 The Executive Department Further Considered Alexander Hamilton
71 March 18, 1788 The Duration in Office of the Executive Alexander Hamilton
72 March 19, 1788 The Same Subject Continued, and Re-Eligibility of the Executive Considered Alexander Hamilton
73 March 21, 1788 The Provision For The Support of the Executive, and the Veto Power Alexander Hamilton
74 March 25, 1788 The Command of the Military and Naval Forces, and the Pardoning Power of the Executive Alexander Hamilton
75 March 26, 1788 The Treaty Making Power of the Executive Alexander Hamilton
76 April 1, 1788 The Appointing Power of the Executive Alexander Hamilton
77 April 2, 1788 The Appointing Power Continued and Other Powers of the Executive Considered Alexander Hamilton
78 May 28, 1788 (book)
June 14, 1788 (newspaper)
The Judiciary Department Alexander Hamilton
79 May 28, 1788 (book)
June 18, 1788 (newspaper)
The Judiciary Continued Alexander Hamilton
80 June 21, 1788 The Powers of the Judiciary Alexander Hamilton
81 June 25, 1788 and
June 28, 1788
The Judiciary Continued, and the Distribution of the Judicial Authority Alexander Hamilton
82 July 2, 1788 The Judiciary Continued Alexander Hamilton
83 July 5, 1788,
July 9, 1788 and
July 12, 1788
The Judiciary Continued in Relation to Trial by Jury Alexander Hamilton
84 July 16, 1788,
July 26, 1788 and
August 9, 1788
Certain General and Miscellaneous Objections to the Constitution Considered and Answered Alexander Hamilton
85 August 13, 1788 and
August 16, 1788
Concluding Remarks Alexander Hamilton

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Catatan kaki[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Jackson, Kenneth T. The Encyclopedia of New York City: The New York Historical Society; Yale University Press; 1995. p. 194.
  2. ^ The Federalist Papers. Toronto: Bantam Books. 1982. 
  3. ^ Wills, x.
  4. ^ Richard B. Morris, The Forging of the Union: 1781-1789 (1987) p. 309
  5. ^ a b c Nos. 18, 19, 20 are frequently indicated as being jointly written by Hamilton and Madison. However, Adair concurs with previous historians that these are Madison's writing alone: "Madison had certainly written all of the essays himself, including in revised form only a small amount of pertinent information submitted by Hamilton from his rather sketchy research on the same subject." Adair, 63.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l One of twelve "disputed papers" to which both Madison and Hamilton laid claim. Modern scholarly consensus leans towards Madison as the author of all twelve, and he is so credited in this table. See Federalist Papers: Disputed essays. See Adair, 93: "The disputed numbers of The Federalist claimed by both Hamilton and Madison are Numbers 49 through 58 and Numbers 62 and 63.

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Adair, Douglass. Fame and the Founding Fathers. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 1974. A collection of essays; that used here is "The Disputed Federalist Papers".
  • Frederick Mosteller and David L. Wallace. Inference and Disputed Authorship: The Federalist. Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1964.
  • Furtwangler, Albert. The Authority of Publius: A Reading of the Federalist Papers. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1984.
  • Wills, Gary. Explaining America: The Federalist, Garden City, NJ: 1981.

Bacaan lanjutan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Meyerson, Michael I. Liberty's Blueprint: How Madison and Hamilton Wrote the Federalist Papers, Defined the Constitution, and Made Democracy Safe for the World, New York: Basic Books, 2008.
  • Dietze, Gottfried. The Federalist: A Classic on Federalism and Free Government, Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1960.
  • Epstein, David F. The Political Theory of the Federalist, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1984.
  • Gray, Leslie, and Wynell Burroughs. "Teaching With Documents: Ratification of the Constitution", Social Education, 51 (1987): 322-324.
  • Kesler, Charles R. Saving the Revolution: The Federalist Papers and the American Founding, New York: 1987.
  • Patrick, John J., and Clair W. Keller. Lessons on the Federalist Papers: Supplements to High School Courses in American History, Government and Civics, Bloomington, IN: Organization of American Historians in association with ERIC/ChESS, 1987. ED 280 764.
  • Schechter, Stephen L. Teaching about American Federal Democracy, Philadelphia: Center for the Study of Federalism at Temple University, 1984. ED 248 161.
  • Scott, Kyle. The Federalist Papers: A Reader’s Guide (New York: Bloomsbury Press, 2013) 202 pp.
  • Sunstein, Cass R. The Enlarged Republic—Then and Now, New York Review of Books, (March 26, 2009): Volume LVI, Number 5, 45. http://www.nybooks.com/articles/22453
  • Webster, Mary E. The Federalist Papers: In Modern Language Indexed for Today's Political Issues. Bellevue, WA.: Merril Press, 1999.
  • White, Morton. Philosophy, The Federalist, and the Constitution, New York: 1987.
  • Zebra Edition. The Federalist Papers: (Or, How Government is Supposed to Work), Edited for Readability. Oakesdale, WA: Lucky Zebra Press, 2007.

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Konstitusi Amerika Serikat

Templat:James Madison