Bapak Pendiri Amerika Serikat

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Declaration of Independence, lukisan karya John Trumbull yang menggambarkan Komite Lima mempersembahkan draf Deklarasi Kemerdekaan kepada Kongres tanggal 28 Juni 1776. Lukisan Trumbull diterbitkan di belakang uang kertas dua dolar Amerika Serikat.[1]

Bapak Pendiri Amerika Serikat adalah tokoh-tokoh Tiga Belas Koloni Britania di Amerika Utara yang memimpin Revolusi Amerika Serikat melawan kekuasaan Kerajaan Britania Raya dan mendirikan Amerika Serikat. Istilah ini juga ditafsirkan lebih sempit sehingga hanya mencakup penandatangan Deklarasi Kemerdekaan 1776 atau delegasi Konvensi Konstitusi 1787 dan terlibat dalam perumusan Konstitusi Amerika Serikat. Daftarnya juga mencakup penandatangan Asosiasi Kontinental atau Pasal-Pasal Konfederasi.[2] Sepanjang abad ke-19, mereka disebut "Pendiri" atau "Bapak".

Sejumlah sejarawan mengartikan "Bapak Pendiri" sebagai kelompok besar yang mencakup tidak hanya Penandatangan dan Perumus, tetapi juga terlibat dalam perjuangan kemerdekaan Amerika Serikat dan pembentukan Amerika Serikat seperti politikus, hakim, negarawan, tentara, diplomat, dan warga sipil.[3] Sejarawan Richard B. Morris pada tahun 1973 mengidentifikasi tujuh tokoh berikut sebagai Bapak Pendiri utama: John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, dan George Washington.[4] Adams, Jefferson, dan Franklin mengerjakan draf Deklarasi Kemerdekaan. Hamilton, Madison, dan Jay menulis The Federalist Papers yang mendukung ratifikasi Konstitusi. Washington memimpin pasukan revolusi. Semua tokoh tersebut pernah memegang jabatan penting di pemerintahan pertama Amerika Serikat.

Daftar Bapak Pendiri[sunting | sunting sumber]

Penandatangan dokumen bersejarah[sunting | sunting sumber]

Benjamin Franklin, salah satu pendukung persatuan koloni pertama, adalah tokoh pendiri etos Amerika Serikat dan penggagas ideologi bangsa.
Peyton Randolph, Presiden Kongres Kontinental yang mengawasi pembentukan Asosiasi Kontinental.
Richard Henry Lee, memperkenalkan Resolusi Lee pada Kongres Kontinental Kedua yang menuntut kemerdekaan koloni dari Britania Raya.
Komite Lima, terdiri dari John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, dan Robert Livingston, menyusun draf Deklarasi Kemerdekaan Amerika Serikat dan mempersembahkannya kepada Kongres Kontinental tanggal 4 Juli 1776.
John Hancock, Presiden Kongres Kontinental, dikenal atas tanda tangannya yang besar dan indah di Deklarasi Kemerdekaan Amerika Serikat.
John Dickinson menulis draf pertama Pasal-Pasal Konfederasi tahun 1776 saat menjadi delegasi Pennsylvania di Kongres Kontinental. Ia menandatanganinya tahun berikutnya setelah terpilih sebagai delegasi Delaware di Kongres.
Henry Laurens adalah Presiden Kongres Kontinental ketika Pasal-Pasal Konfederasi disahkan tanggal 15 November 1777.
George Washington menjabat Presiden Konvensi Konstitusi 1787.
James Madison, dijuluki "Bapak Konstitusi" oleh rekan-rekannya.
Singkatan berikut dipakai di tabel di bawah ini:
CA = Asosiasi Kontinental (1774) • DI = Deklarasi Kemerdekaan (1776)
AC = Pasal-Pasal Konfederasi (1777) • USC = Konstitusi Amerika Serikat (1787)
Nama Provinsi/Negara bagian CA DI AC USC
Andrew Adams Connecticut Ya
John Adams Massachusetts Ya Ya
Samuel Adams Massachusetts Ya Ya Ya
Thomas Adams Virginia Ya
John Alsop New York Ya
Abraham Baldwin Georgia Ya
John Banister Virginia Ya
Josiah Bartlett New Hampshire Ya Ya
Richard Bassett Delaware Ya
Gunning Bedford, Jr. Delaware Ya
David Brearley New Jersey Ya
Edward Biddle Pennsylvania Ya
John Blair Virginia Ya
Richard Bland Virginia Ya
William Blount North Carolina Ya
Simon Boerum New York Ya
Carter Braxton Virginia Ya
Jacob Broom Delaware Ya
Pierce Butler South Carolina Ya
Charles Carroll of Carrollton Maryland Ya
Daniel Carroll Maryland Ya Ya
Richard Caswell North Carolina Ya
Samuel Chase Maryland Ya Ya
Abraham Clark New Jersey Ya
William Clingan Pennsylvania Ya
George Clymer Pennsylvania Ya Ya
John Collins Rhode Island Ya
Stephen Crane New Jersey Ya
Thomas Cushing Massachusetts Ya
Francis Dana Massachusetts Ya
Jonathan Dayton New Jersey Ya
Silas Deane Connecticut Ya
John De Hart New Jersey Ya
John Dickinson Delaware Ya Ya
Pennsylvania Ya
William Henry Drayton South Carolina Ya
James Duane New York Ya Ya
William Duer New York Ya
Eliphalet Dyer Connecticut Ya
William Ellery Rhode Island Ya Ya
William Few Georgia Ya
Thomas Fitzsimons Pennsylvania Ya
William Floyd New York Ya Ya
Nathaniel Folsom New Hampshire Ya
Benjamin Franklin Pennsylvania Ya Ya
Christopher Gadsden South Carolina Ya
Joseph Galloway Pennsylvania Ya
Elbridge Gerry Massachusetts Ya Ya
Nicholas Gilman New Hampshire Ya
Nathaniel Gorham Massachusetts Ya
Button Gwinnett Georgia Ya
Lyman Hall Georgia Ya
Alexander Hamilton New York Ya
John Hancock Massachusetts Ya Ya
John Hanson Maryland Ya
Cornelius Harnett North Carolina Ya
Benjamin Harrison Virginia Ya Ya
John Hart New Jersey Ya
John Harvie Virginia Ya
Patrick Henry Virginia Ya
Joseph Hewes North Carolina Ya Ya
Thomas Heyward, Jr. South Carolina Ya Ya
Samuel Holten Massachusetts Ya
William Hooper North Carolina Ya Ya
Francis Hopkinson New Jersey Ya
Stephen Hopkins Rhode Island Ya Ya
Titus Hosmer Connecticut Ya
Charles Humphreys Pennsylvania Ya
Samuel Huntington Connecticut Ya Ya
Richard Hutson South Carolina Ya
Jared Ingersoll Pennsylvania Ya
John Jay New York Ya
Thomas Jefferson Virginia Ya
Thomas Johnson Maryland Ya
William Samuel Johnson Connecticut Ya
Rufus King Massachusetts Ya
James Kinsey New Jersey Ya
John Langdon New Hampshire Ya
Edward Langworthy Georgia Ya
Henry Laurens South Carolina Ya
Francis Lightfoot Lee Virginia Ya Ya
Richard Henry Lee Virginia Ya Ya Ya
Francis Lewis New York Ya Ya
Philip Livingston New York Ya Ya
William Livingston New Jersey Ya Ya
James Lovell Massachusetts Ya
Isaac Low New York Ya
Thomas Lynch South Carolina Ya Ya
Henry Marchant Rhode Island Ya
James Madison Virginia Ya
John Mathews South Carolina Ya
James McHenry Maryland Ya
Thomas McKean Delaware Ya Ya Ya
Arthur Middleton South Carolina Ya
Henry Middleton South Carolina Ya
Thomas Mifflin Pennsylvania Ya Ya
Gouverneur Morris New York Ya
Pennsylvania Ya
Lewis Morris New York Ya
Robert Morris Pennsylvania Ya Ya Ya
John Morton Pennsylvania Ya Ya
Thomas Nelson, Jr. Virginia Ya
William Paca Maryland Ya Ya
Robert Treat Paine Massachusetts Ya Ya
William Paterson New Jersey Ya
Edmund Pendleton Virginia Ya
John Penn North Carolina Ya Ya
Charles Cotesworth Pinckney South Carolina Ya
Charles Pinckney South Carolina Ya
Peyton Randolph Virginia Ya
George Reed Delaware Ya Ya Ya
Joseph Reed Pennsylvania Ya
Daniel Roberdeau Pennsylvania Ya
Caesar Rodney Delaware Ya Ya
George Ross Pennsylvania Ya Ya
Benjamin Rush Pennsylvania Ya
Edward Rutledge South Carolina Ya
John Rutledge South Carolina Ya Ya Ya
Nathaniel Scudder New Jersey Ya
Roger Sherman Connecticut Ya Ya Ya Ya
James Smith Pennsylvania Ya
Jonathan Bayard Smith Pennsylvania Ya
Richard Smith New Jersey Ya
Richard Dobbs Spaight North Carolina Ya
Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer Maryland Ya
Richard Stockton New Jersey Ya
Thomas Stone Maryland Ya
John Sullivan New Hampshire Ya
George Taylor Pennsylvania Ya
Edward Telfair Georgia Ya
Matthew Thornton New Hampshire Ya
Matthew Tilghman Maryland Ya
Nicholas Van Dyke Delaware Ya
George Walton Georgia Ya
John Walton Georgia Ya
Samuel Ward Rhode Island Ya
George Washington Virginia Ya Ya
John Wentworth, Jr. New Hampshire Ya
William Whipple New Hampshire Ya
John Williams North Carolina Ya
William Williams Connecticut Ya
Hugh Williamson North Carolina Ya
James Wilson Pennsylvania Ya Ya
Henry Wisner New York Ya
John Witherspoon New Jersey Ya Ya
Oliver Wolcott Connecticut Ya Ya
George Wythe Virginia Ya

Pendiri lain[sunting | sunting sumber]

Tokoh-tokoh berikut juga disebut sebagai bapak pendiri Amerika Serikat di berbagai sumber tepercaya.

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Catatan kaki[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ americanrevolution.org Key to Trumbull's picture
  2. ^ Stanfield, Jack. America's Founding Fathers: Who Are They? Thumbnail Sketches of 164 Patriots (Universal-Publishers, 2001).
  3. ^ a b c d e f R. B. Bernstein, The Founding Fathers Reconsidered (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009).
  4. ^ Richard B. Morris, Seven Who Shaped Our Destiny: The Founding Fathers as Revolutionaries (New York: Harper & Row, 1973).
  5. ^ a b c d e Encyclopaedia Britannica. Founding fathers: the essential guide to the men who made America (John Wiley and Sons, 2007).
  6. ^ McWilliams, J. (1976). "The Faces of Ethan Allen: 1760-1860". The New England Quarterly. 49 (2): 257–282. doi:10.2307/364502. JSTOR 364502. 
  7. ^ Newman, Richard. Freedom's Prophet: Bishop Richard Allen, the AME Church, and the Black Founding Fathers (NYU Press, 2009).
  8. ^ Jane Goodall (27 August 2013). Seeds of Hope: Wisdom and Wonder from the World of Plants. Grand Central Publishing. pp. 60–61. ISBN 978-1-4555-1321-5.
  9. ^ Ballenas, Carl. Images of America: Jamaica (Arcadia Publishing, 2011).
  10. ^ Holmes, David. The Faiths of the Founding Fathers. (Oxford University Press US, 2006).
  11. ^ Wood, Gordon S. Revolutionary Characters, What Made the Founding Fathers Different. (New York: Penguin Books, 2007) 225–242.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i Buchanan, John. "Founding Fighters: The Battlefield Leaders Who Made American Independence (review)". The Journal of Military History (Volume 71, Number 2, April 2007), pp. 522–524.
  13. ^ Stephen Yafa (2006). Cotton: The Biography of a Revolutionary Fiber. Penguin. hlm. 75. 
  14. ^ a b c d e Dungan, Nicholas. Gallatin: America's Swiss Founding Father (NYU Press 2010).
  15. ^ Broadwater, Jeff (2006). George Mason, Forgotten Founder. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0-8078-3053-6. OCLC 67239589. 
  16. ^ LaGumina, Salvatore. The Italian American experience: an encyclopedia, page 361 (Taylor & Francis, 2000).
  17. ^ Unger, Harlow (2009). James Monroe: The Last Founding Father. New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-81808-6. 
  18. ^ Kann, Mark E. (1999). The Gendering of American Politics: Founding Mothers, Founding Fathers, and Political Patriarchy. ABC-CLIO. hlm. xi. ISBN 978-0-275-96112-1. 
  19. ^ "Founding Father Thomas Paine: He Genuinely Abhorred Slavery". The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education (48): 45. 2005. doi:10.2307/25073236. 
  20. ^ David Braff, "Forgotten Founding Father: The Impact of Thomas Paine," in Joyce Chumbley. ed., Thomas Paine: In Search of the Common Good (2009) pp. 39–43
  21. ^ Burstein, Andrew. "Politics and Personalities: Garry Wills takes a new look at a forgotten founder, slavery and the shaping of America", Chicago Tribune (November 09, 2003): "Forgotten founders such as Pickering and Morris made as many waves as those whose faces stare out from our currency."
  22. ^ a b Rafael, Ray. The Complete Idiot's Guide to the Founding Fathers: And the Birth of Our Nation (Penguin, 2011).
  23. ^ "Founding Fathers: Virginia". FindLaw Constitutional Law Center. 2008. Diakses tanggal 2008-11-14. 
  24. ^ Roberts, Cokie. "Founding Mothers: The Women Who Raised Our Nation". Harper Perennial, 2005
  25. ^ Roberts, Cokie. "Ladies of Liberty: The Women Who Shaped Our Nation". Harper, 2008
  26. ^ Schwartz, Laurens R. Jews and the American Revolution: Haym Solomon and Others, Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Co., 1987.
  27. ^ Kendall, Joshua. The Forgotten Founding Father: Noah Webster's Obsession and the Creation of an American Culture (Penguin 2011).
  28. ^ Wright, R. E. (1996). "Thomas Willing (1731-1821): Philadelphia Financier and Forgotten Founding Father". Pennsylvania History. 63 (4): 525–560. doi:10.2307/27773931. JSTOR 27773931.  Parameter |doi_brokendate= yang tidak diketahui akan diabaikan (bantuan)
  29. ^ "A Patriot of Early New England", New York Times (December 20, 1931). This book review referred to Wingate as one of the "Fathers" of the United States, per the book title.
  30. ^ The New Yorker, Volume I, page 398 (September 10, 1836): "'The Last of the Romans' — This was said of Madison at the time of his decease, but there is one other person who seems to have some claims to this honorable distinction. Paine Wingate of Stratham, N.H. still survives."

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • American National Biography Online, (2000).
  • Richard B. Bernstein, Are We to Be a Nation? The Making of the Constitution (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1987).
  • R. B. Bernstein, The Founding Fathers Reconsidered (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009).
  • Richard D. Brown. "The Founding Fathers of 1776 and 1787: A Collective View," William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Ser., Vol. 33, No. 3 (Jul. 1976), pp. 465–480 online at JSTOR.
  • Henry Steele Commager, "Leadership in Eighteenth-Century America and Today," Daedalus 90 (Fall 1961): 650–673, reprinted in Henry Steele Commager, Freedom and Order (New York: George Braziller, 1966).
  • Joseph J. Ellis. Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2000), winner of the Pulitzer Prize for History.
  • Joanne B. Freeman, Affairs of Honor: National Politics in the New Republic (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001).
  • Jack P. Greene. "The Social Origins of the American Revolution: An Evaluation and an Interpretation," Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 88, No. 1 (Mar. 1973), pp. 1–22 online in JSTOR.
  • P.M.G. Harris, "The Social Origins of American Leaders: The Demographic Foundations, " Perspectives in American History 3 (1969): 159–364.
  • Mark E. Kann; The Gendering of American Politics: Founding Mothers, Founding Fathers, and Political Patriarchy (New York: Frederick Praeger, 1999).
  • Adrienne Koch; Power, Morals, and the Founding Fathers: Essays in the Interpretation of the American Enlightenment (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1961).
  • K. M. Kostyal. Funding Fathers: The Fight for Freedom and the Birth of American Liberty (2014)
  • Franklin T. Lambert. The Founding Fathers and the Place of Religion in America. (Princeton, NJ Princeton University Press, 2003).
  • Martin, James Kirby. Men in Rebellion: Higher Governmental Leaders and the coming of the American Revolution, (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1973; reprint, New York: Free Press, 1976).
  • Morris, Richard B. Seven Who Shaped Our Destiny: The Founding Fathers as Revolutionaries (New York: Harper & Row, 1973).
  • Robert Previdi; "Vindicating the Founders: Race, Sex, Class, and Justice in the Origins of America," Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 29, 1999
  • Rakove, Jack. Revolutionaries: A New History of the Invention of America(Houghton Mifflin Harcourt; 2010) 487 pages; scholarly study focuses on how the Founders moved from private lives to public action, beginning in the 1770s
  • Cokie Roberts. Founding Mothers: The Women Who Raised Our Nation (New York: William Morrow, 2005); popular
  • Gordon S. Wood. Revolutionary Characters: What Made the Founders Different (New York: Penguin Press, 2006)

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Dokumen bersejarah Amerika Serikat