Tata bahasa Inggris

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Tata bahasa Inggris adalah sebuah aturan yang menggambarkan struktur ungkapan dalam bahasa Inggris, termasuk di dalamnya struktur kata, frasa, klausa dan kalimat.

Ada beberapa variasi terkait sejarah, sosial, budaya dan daerah bahasa Inggris. Divergensi dari tata bahasa yang dijelaskan di sini terjadi di beberapa dialek dalam bahasa Inggris. Artikel ini menjelaskan secara umum tentang bahasa Inggris standar, seperti ucapan yang ada di wacana publik, seperti: siaran televisi, pendidikan, hiburan, pemerintahan, dan laporan berita, termasuk juga di sini: pidato baik formal maupun informal. Ada perbedaan tertentu dalam tata bahasa antara bentuk standar British English, American English dan Australian English, meskipun ini tidak mencolok dibandingkan dengan perbedaan leksikal dan pengucapan.

Fungsi Dasar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Noun[sunting | sunting sumber]

Determiner[sunting | sunting sumber]

Determiner adalah kata, frasa, atau imbuhan yang muncul bersamaan dengan noun atau noun phrase, dan berfungsi sebagai rujukan atas noun/noun phrase tersebut sesuai konteksnya.

Contoh:

  • The girl is a student.
  • I've lost my keys.
  • Some folks get all the luck.
  • Which book is that?
  • I only had thirty-seven drinks.
  • I'll take this one.
  • Both windows were open.

Kata yang dicetak tebal merupakan yang merupakan penjelas atas noun (dicetak miring) sesuai konteksnya.

Gender[sunting | sunting sumber]

Plural[sunting | sunting sumber]

Verb[sunting | sunting sumber]

Auxiliary[sunting | sunting sumber]

Auxiliary verb adalah kata kerja yang berfungsi untuk membantu kata kerja utama dan untuk menjelaskan aspek ataupun kala dari suatu kalimat.

Contoh:

  • I will help you.
  • She can read the code well.
  • John has looked for Sarah's necklace.

Kata yang dicetak miring adalah auxiliary verb yang bertugas menjelaskan kata kerja utama yang jatuh setelahnya.

Irregular Verb[sunting | sunting sumber]

Contoh-Contohnya:

  • a- : for abide, arise, awake, lihat bide, rise, wake
  • be (am, is, are) – was, werebeen
  • be- : for befall, beset, etc. see fall, set, etc.
  • bearboreborne
  • beatbeatbeaten
  • becomebecamebecome
  • begetbegotbegot(ten)
  • beginbeganbegun
  • bendbentbent
  • betbetbet [past tense dan participle kadangkala betted]
  • beware -
  • bidbidbid [as in an auction]
  • bidbade/bidbidden/bid [meaning "request"]
  • bidebided/bodebided/bidden [but abide mostly uses the regular forms only]
  • bindboundbound
  • bitebitbitten
  • bleedbledbled
  • blowblewblown
  • breakbrokebroken
  • breedbredbred
  • bringbroughtbrought
  • buildbuiltbuilt
  • burnburnt/burnedburnt/burned
  • burstburstburst
  • buyboughtbought
  • cancould [defective; see anomalous cases above]
  • castcastcast [prefixed forms broadcast, forecast, etc. sometimes take -ed[1]]
  • catchcaughtcaught
  • choosechosechosen
  • cladclad/claddedclad/cladded [clad is also sometimes used as past form of clothe]
  • cleaveclove/cleftcloven/cleft [but regular when meaning "adhere"]
  • clingclungclung
  • comecamecome
  • costcostcost [but regular when meaning "calculate the cost of"]
  • creepcrept/creepedcrept/creeped
  • crowcrowed/crewcrowed [crew normally used only of a cock's crowing]
  • cutcutcut
  • dare – regular except for possible third person singular present dare (see anomalous cases above)
  • dealdealtdealt
  • digdugdug
  • divedived/dovedived [the form dove is chiefly American]
  • do (does /dʌz/) – diddone
  • dragdragged/drugdragged/drug [the form drug is chiefly dialectal]
  • drawdrewdrawn
  • dreamdreamed/dreamtdreamed/dreamt
  • drinkdrankdrunk
  • drivedrovedriven
  • dwelldwelt/dwelleddwelt/dwelled
  • eatateeaten
  • fallfellfallen
  • feedfedfed
  • feelfeltfelt
  • fightfoughtfought
  • findfoundfound
  • fitfit/fittedfit/fitted
  • fleefledfled
  • flingflungflung
  • flyflewflown
  • for(e)- : for forgo, foresee, etc. see go, see, etc.
  • forbidforbade/forbidforbidden
  • forgetforgotforgotten
  • forsakeforsookforsaken
  • freezefrozefrozen
  • getgotgotten/got [past participle got in British English, gotten in American, but see have got]
  • gildgilded/giltgilded/gilt
  • givegavegiven
  • gowentgone [see also have been]
  • grindgroundground
  • growgrewgrown
  • hanghung/hangedhung/hanged [the form hanged is more common in the sense of execution by hanging]
  • have (has) – hadhad
  • hearheardheard
  • hewhewedhewn/hewed
  • hidehidhidden
  • hithithit
  • hoisthoist/hoistedhoist/hoisted
  • holdheldheld
  • hurthurthurt
  • in- : for inlay, input, etc. see lay, put, etc.
  • inter- : for interlay, interweave, etc. see lay, weave, etc.
  • keepkeptkept
  • kneelknelt/kneeledknelt/kneeled
  • knitknit/knittedknit/knitted
  • knowknewknown
  • laylaidlaid
  • leadledled
  • leanleaned/leantleaned/leant
  • leapleaped/leaptleaped/leapt
  • learnlearned/learntlearned/learnt
  • leaveleftleft
  • lendlentlent
  • letletlet
  • lielaylain [but regular when meaning "tell an untruth"]
  • lightlit/lightedlit/lighted
  • loselostlost
  • makemademade
  • maymight [defective; see anomalous cases above]
  • meanmeantmeant
  • meetmetmet
  • mis- : for misspeak, mistake, etc. see speak, take, etc.
  • mowmowedmowed/mown
  • mustdefective [see anomalous cases above]
  • need – regular except for possible third person singular present need (see anomalous cases above)
  • off- : for offset see set, etc.
  • oughtdefective [see anomalous cases above]
  • out- : for outbid, output, etc. see bid, put, etc.
  • over- : for overbid, overdo, etc. see bid, do, etc.
  • paypaidpaid [but sometimes spelt regularly when meaning "let out" (rope etc.)]
  • pleadpleaded/pledpleaded/pled
  • pre- : for prepay, preset, etc. see pay, set, etc.
  • proveprovedproved/proven
  • putputput
  • quitquitquit
  • re- : for redo, remake, etc. see do, make, etc.
  • read /riːd/read /rɛd/read /rɛd/
  • rendrentrent
  • ridrid/riddedrid/ridded/ridden
  • rideroderidden
  • ringrangrung
  • riseroserisen
  • runranrun
  • sawsawedsawn/sawed
  • say (says /sɛz/) – saidsaid
  • seesawseen
  • seeksoughtsought
  • sellsoldsold
  • sendsentsent
  • setsetset
  • sewsewedsewn/sewed
  • shakeshookshaken
  • shallshould [defective; see anomalous cases above]
  • shearsheared/shoreshorn/sheared
  • shedshedshed
  • shineshone/shinedshone/shined
  • shitshat/shit/shittedshat/shit/shitted
  • shoeshoed/shodshoed/shod
  • shootshotshot
  • showshowedshown/showed
  • shrinkshrank/shrunkshrunk
  • shutshutshut
  • singsangsung
  • sinksanksunk
  • sitsatsat
  • slayslew/slayedslain/slayed
  • sleepsleptslept
  • slideslidslid
  • slingslungslung
  • slinkslunkslunk
  • slitslitslit
  • smellsmelled/smeltsmelled/smelt
  • smitesmotesmitten
  • sneaksneaked/snucksneaked/snuck [snuck is chiefly American, and it is regarded as informal]
  • sowsowedsown/sowed
  • speakspokespoken
  • speedsped/speededsped/speeded
  • spellspelled/speltspelled/spelt
  • spendspentspent
  • spillspilled/spiltspilled/spilt
  • spinspunspun
  • spitspat/spitspat/spit [the form spit rather than spat is common in America]
  • splitsplitsplit
  • spoilspoiled/spoiltspoiled/spoilt
  • spreadspreadspread
  • springsprang/sprungsprung
  • standstoodstood
  • stavestaved/stovestaved/stove
  • stealstolestolen
  • stickstuckstuck
  • stingstungstung
  • stinkstankstunk
  • strewstrewedstrewn/strewed
  • stridestrodestridden/strode
  • strikestruckstruck
  • stringstrungstrung
  • strivestrove/strivedstriven/strived
  • swearsworesworn
  • sweatsweated/sweatsweated/sweat
  • sweepsweptswept
  • swellswelledswollen/swelled
  • swimswamswum
  • swingswungswung
  • taketooktaken
  • teachtaughttaught
  • teartoretorn
  • telltoldtold
  • thinkthoughtthought
  • throwthrewthrown
  • thrustthrust/thrustedthrust/thrusted
  • treadtrodtrodden/trod
  • un- : for unbend, unweave, etc. see bend, weave, etc.
  • under- : for underlie, undergo, understand, etc. see lie, go, stand, etc.
  • up- : for upset see set, etc.
  • wakewokewoken
  • wearworeworn
  • weavewovewoven
  • wedwed/weddedwed/wedded
  • weepweptwept
  • wetwet/wettedwet/wetted
  • willwould [defective; see anomalous cases above]
  • winwonwon
  • windwoundwound [but regular in the meanings connected with air and breath]
  • with- : for withdraw, withhold, withstand, see draw, hold, stand
  • wringwrang/wrungwrung
  • writewrotewritten

Modal[sunting | sunting sumber]

Passive Voice[sunting | sunting sumber]

Subjunctive[sunting | sunting sumber]

Verb Function[sunting | sunting sumber]

Adjective[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pronoun[sunting | sunting sumber]

Personal Pronoun[sunting | sunting sumber]

Reflective Pronoun[sunting | sunting sumber]

Adverb[sunting | sunting sumber]

Adverb of Manner[sunting | sunting sumber]

Adverb of Place[sunting | sunting sumber]

Adverb of Time[sunting | sunting sumber]

Other Functions of Adverb[sunting | sunting sumber]

Numeral[sunting | sunting sumber]

Cardinal Number[sunting | sunting sumber]

Ordinal Number[sunting | sunting sumber]

Preposition[sunting | sunting sumber]

Conjunction[sunting | sunting sumber]

Article[sunting | sunting sumber]

Article adalah sebuah kata (baik awalan ataupun akhiran) yang digunakan bersama noun untuk menunjukkan jenis noun tersebut.

Article dalam bahasa Inggris yaitu: the dan a/an.

Contoh:

The children know the fastest way home.

(Indonesia) Anak-anak itu mengetahui cara tercepat pulang ke rumah.

Kalimat di atas merujuk ke "anak-anak" yang "tertentu" (yaitu: anak-anak itu) dan "cara" yang "tertentu" (yaitu: cara tercepat):

Children know the fastest way home.

(Indonesia) Anak-anak mengetahui cara tercepat pulang ke rumah.

Kalimat di atas merujuk ke "anak-anak" yang "umum"

Give me the book.

(Indonesia) Berikan padaku buku itu[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kalimat di atas demikian juga, yaitu merujuk kepada "buku" yang "tertentu" (yaitu: buku itu)

Give me a book.

(Indonesia) Berikan padaku sebuah buku

Kalimat di atas merujuk kepada "buku" yang sifatnya "umum"..

Interjection[sunting | sunting sumber]

Fungsi Lainnya[sunting | sunting sumber]

Tense[sunting | sunting sumber]

Simple Present Tense[sunting | sunting sumber]

Tense atau Kala ini digunakan untuk merujuk pada tindakan yang berlangsung lazimnya. Di sisi lain juga digunakan untuk mengatakan kebiasaan, kenyataan yang umum, tindakan berulang atau situasi, emosi dan keinginan yang tidak berubah. Penggunaan semacam itu sering disertai dengan kata keterangan frekuensi dan frase adverbial seperti biasanya, selalu, kadang-kadang atau terkadang, jarang, dan tidak pernah.

Past Tense[sunting | sunting sumber]

Future Tense[sunting | sunting sumber]

Past Future Tense[sunting | sunting sumber]

Possessive[sunting | sunting sumber]

Phrase[sunting | sunting sumber]

Clause[sunting | sunting sumber]

Conditional Sentence[sunting | sunting sumber]

Compound Sentence[sunting | sunting sumber]

Idiomatic Expression[sunting | sunting sumber]

Masalah Teknis[sunting | sunting sumber]

Catatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ For example, forecasted is acceptable as the past participle and past simple of the verb forecast, especially in some technical meanings. See www.usingenglish.com