Negara Merdeka Kroasia

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Negara Merdeka Kroasia
Nezavisna Država Hrvatska
Negara boneka Jerman (1941–45)
Protektorat Italia (1941–43)
1941–1945
Bendera Lambang
Lagu kebangsaan
Lijepa naša domovino
Negara Merdeka Kroasia pada 1942
Ibu kota Zagreb
Bahasa Kroasia
Agama Katolik Roma, Islam
Bentuk pemerintahan Monarki konstitusional (1941–43),
Negara partai tunggal fasis
Raja
 -  1941–1943 Tomislav II[1]
Poglavnik
 -  1941–1945 Ante Pavelić
Perdana Menteri
 -  1941–1943 Ante Pavelić
 -  1943–1945 Nikola Mandić
Era sejarah Perang Dunia II
 -  Didirikan 10 April 1941
 -  Dibubarkan 8 Mei 1945
Luas
 -  1941 115.133 km² (44.453 mil²)
Populasi
 -  Perk. 1941 6.966.729 
     Kepadatan 60,5 /km²  (156,7 /mil²)
Mata uang NDH Kuna
Pendahulu
Pengganti
Kerajaan Yugoslavia
Republik Federal Sosialis Yugoslavia
Sekarang bagian dari  Bosnia dan Herzegovina
 Kroasia
 Serbia
 Slovenia
* Aimone, Adipati Spoleto accepted nomination on 18 May 1941, abdicated 31 July 1943 and renounced all claims on 12 October 1943.[1][2][3] Subsequently, the state was no longer a technical monarchy. Ante Pavelić became head of state, and his title as leader of the ruling Ustaše movement, "Poglavnik", officially became the title of the NDH head of state.

Negara Merdeka Kroasia (bahasa Serbo-Kroasia: Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, Независна Држава Хрватска, NDH; bahasa Jerman: Unabhängiger Staat Kroatien; bahasa Italia: Stato Indipendente di Croazia), yang sering disebut dengan singkatannya NDH, adalah sebuah negara boneka Perang Dunia II dari Jerman[4] dan Italia, yang didirikan di wilayah Yugoslavia yang diduduki blok Poros. NDH didirikan pada 10 April 1941, setelah invasi Yugoslavia oleh blok Poros. NDH terdiri dari wilayah Kroasia dan Bosnia dan Herzegovina pada masa sekarang, bersama dengan beberapa bagian dari Serbia pada masa sekarang. Rezim tersebut mentargetkan orang Serbia, Yahudi, Muslim dan Roma, sebagai bagian dari kampanye genosida berskala besar di tempat-tempat seperti kamp konsentrasi Jasenovac.[5][6]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ a b Rodogno, Davide; Fascism's European empire: Italian occupation during the Second World War; p.95; Cambridge University Press, 2006 ISBN 0-521-84515-7
  2. ^ Pavlowitch, 2008, p.289
  3. ^ Massock, Richard G.; Italy from Within; p.306; READ BOOKS, 2007 ISBN 1-4067-2097-6 [1]
  4. ^ "Independent State of Croatia". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Diakses pada 8 September 2009.
    • "Croatia". Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. Diakses pada 8 September 2009.
    • "Yugoslavia". Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Diakses pada 8 September 2009. Diarsip pada 31 Oktober 2009.
  5. ^ "Jasenovac". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Diakses tanggal 3 June 2011. 
  6. ^ Pavlowitch, 2008, p. 34

Sumber[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Ambrose, S. The Victors – The Men of World War II, Simon & Schuster, London, 1998. ISBN 978-0-7434-9242-3
  • Cohen, Philip J., Riesman, David; Serbia's secret war: propaganda and the deceit of history; Texas A&M University Press, 1996 ISBN 0-89096-760-1 [2]
  • Deutschland Military Tribunal (1950). Trials of war criminals before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals under Control Council Law no. 10 : Nuernberg Oct. 1946 - April 1949 Vol. 11 The High Command case. The Hostage case. Case 12. US v. von Leeb. Case 7. US v. List. Washington: United States Government Printing Office. OCLC 247746272. 
  • Encyclopædia Britannica, 1943 – Book of the year, page 215, Entry: Croatia.
  • Encyclopædia Britannica, Edition 1991 Macropædia, Vol. 29, page 1111.
  • Fein, Helen: Accounting for Genocide – Victims and Survivors of the Holocaust, The Free Press, New York, Edition 1979, pages 102, 103.
  • Hoare, Marko Attila (2006). Genocide and Resistance in Hitler's Bosnia: The Partisans and the Chetniks 1941–1943. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-726380-1. 
  • Hory, Ladislaus and Broszat, Martin: Der Kroatische Ustascha-Staat, 1941–1945, Stuttgart, 1964.
  • Krizman, Bogdan (1980). Pavelić između Hitlera i Mussolinija. Zagreb: Globus. OCLC 7833178. 
  • Lisko, T. and Canak, D., Hrvatsko Ratno Zrakoplovstvo u Drugome Svejetskom Ratu (The Croatian Airforce in the Second World War), Zagreb, 1998. ISBN 953-97698-0-9.
  • Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, Vol. 2, Independent State of Croatia entry.
  • Maček, Vladko: In the Struggle for Freedom Robert Speller & Sons, New York, 1957.
  • Munoz, A.J., For Croatia and Christ: The Croatian Army in World War II 1941–1945, Axis Europa Books, Bayside NY, 1996. ISBN 1-891227-33-5.
  • Neubacher, Hermann: Sonderauftrag Suedost 1940–1945, Bericht eines fliegendes Diplomaten, 2. durchgesehene Auflage, Goettingen 1956.
  • Pavlowitch, Stevan K. (2008). Hitler's new disorder: the Second World War in Yugoslavia. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-70050-4. 
  • Russo, Alfio: Revoluzione in Jugoslavia, Roma 1944.
  • Shaw, L., Trial by Slander: A Background to the Independent State of Croatia, Harp Books, Canberra, 1973. ISBN 0-909432-00-7
  • Savic, D. and Ciglic, B. Croatian Aces of World War II, Osprey Aircraft of the Aces −49, Oxford, 2002. ISBN 1-84176-435-3.
  • Tanner, Marcus. Croatia: A Nation Forged in War. New Haven: Yale University Press. 1997.
  • Thomas, N., Mikulan, K. and Pavelic, D. Axis Forces in Yugoslavia 1941–45 Osprey, London, 1995. ISBN 1-85532-473-3
  • Tomasevich, Jozo. War and Revolution in Yugoslavia 1941–1945: Occupation and Collaboration, Stanford, Cal., Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8047-3615-4
  • Tomasevich, Jozo; War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945: The Chetniks, Volume 1; Stanford University Press, 1975 ISBN 978-0-8047-0857-9 [3]
  • Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations, Europe, edition 1995, page 91, entry: Croatia.

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]