Mahkamah Agung

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Mahkamah Agung (dalam Bahasa Inggris, supreme court) adalah pengadilan tertinggi dalam tingkatan pengadilan yang terdiri dari banyak daerah hukum. Sebutan lain untuk Mahkamah Agung meliputi pengadilan terakhir, pengadilan tingkat akhir, pengadilan penghakiman, pengadilan puncak dan pengadilan tertinggi banding. Secara garis besar, keputusan dari Mahkamah Agung tidak akan ditinjau lebih lanjut oleh pengadilan lain. Mahkamah Agung biasanya berfungsi utama sebagai pengadilan banding, menganalisa putusan pengadilan tingkat pertama atau dari pengadilan tingkat banding. [1]

Daftar Pengadilan Tertinggi berdasarkan benua[sunting | sunting sumber]

Tanda bintang mengindikasikan bahwa lembaga yudikatif, eksekutif dan legislatif tidak independen.

Afrika[sunting | sunting sumber]

Negara Nama Pengadilan Tertinggi
Aljazair Mahkamah Agung Aljazair
Angola Mahkamah Agung Angola
Benin Mahkamah Konstitusi Benin , Mahkamah Agung Benin
Botswana Pengadilan Tinggi Botswana
Burkina Faso Mahkamah Agung Burkina Faso
Burundi Mahkamah Agung Burundi
Kamerun Mahkamah Agung Kamerun*
Tanjung Verde Pengadilan Tertinggi Keadilan Tanjung Verde
Republik Afrika Tengah Mahkamah Agung Afrika Tengah
Chad Mahkamah Agung Chad, Dewan Konstitusi Chad
Komoro Mahkamah Agung Komoro
Republik Demokratik Kongo Mahkamah Konstitusi Republik Demokratik Kongo, Pengadilan Kasasi Republik Demokratik Kongo
Republik Kongo Mahkamah Agung Republik Kongo
Pantai Gading Mahkamah Agung Pantai Gading
Djibouti Mahkamah Agung Djibouti
Mesir Mahkamah Konstitusi Agung Mesir
Guinea Khatulistiwa Mahkamah Agung Guinea Khatulistiwa
Eritrea Pengadilan Tinggi Eritrea
Ethiopia Mahkamah Agung Federal Ethiopia
Gabon Mahkamah Agung Gabon
Gambia Mahkamah Agung Gambia
Ghana Mahkamah Agung Ghana
Guinea Mahkamah Agung Guinea
Guinea-Bissau Mahkamah Agung Guinea-Bissau
Kenya Mahkamah Agung Kenya
Lesotho Pengadilan Tinggi Lesotho
Liberia Mahkamah Agung Liberia
Libya Mahkamah Agung Libya
Madagaskar Mahkamah Agung Madagaskar
Malawi Mahkamah Agung Banding Malawi
Mali Mahkamah Agung Mali*
Mauritania Mahkamah Agung Mauritania
Mauritius Mahkamah Agung Mauritius, Komite Yudisial Dewan Penasihat
Moroko Mahkamah Agung Moroko
Mozambik Mahkamah Agung Mozambik
Namibia Mahkamah Agung Namibia
Niger Mahkamah Agung Niger, Mahkamah Kontitusi Niger
Nigeria Mahkamah Agung Nigeria
Rwanda Mahkamah Konstitusi Rwanda
Sao Tome dan Principe Mahkamah Agung Sao Tome dan Principe
Senegal Pengadilan Kasasi Senegal
Seychelles Pengadilan Tinggi Seychelles
Sierra Leone Mahkamah Agung Sierra Leone
Somalia Mahkamah Agung Somalia
Afrika Selatan Constitutional Court of South Africa, Mahkamah Agung Banding Afrika Selatan
Sudan Mahkamah Agung Sudan*
Swaziland Pengadilan Tinggi Swaziland
Tanzania Pengadilan Tinggi Tanzania
Togo Pengadilan Tinggi Togo
Tunisia Pengadilan Kasasi Tunisia*
Uganda Mahkamah Agung Uganda
Zambia Mahkamah Agung Zambia
Zimbabwe Mahkamah Agung Zimbabwe

Amerika[sunting | sunting sumber]

Negara Nama Pengadilan
Antigua and Barbuda Mahkamah Agung Karibia Timur
Argentina Mahkamah Agung Argentina
Bahama Komite Yudisial Dewan Penasihat
Barbados Mahkamah Agung Peradidlan Barbados
Belize Mahkamah Agung Belize
Bolivia Mahkamah Agung Bolivia
Brazil Mahkamah Agung Federal Brazil
Canada Mahkamah Agung Canada
Chile Mahkamah Agung Chile
Kolombia Mahkamah Agung Colombia, Dewan Negara Kolombia, Mahkamah Konstitusi Kolombia, Superior Council of the Judiciary
Kosta Rika Mahkamah Agung Kosta Rika
Kuba Mahkamah Agung Cuba*
Commonwealth of Dominica Mahkamah Agung Karibia Timur
Republik Dominika Supreme Court of Justice
Equador Mahkamah Agung Ecuador*
El Salvador Mahkamah Agung Salvador
Grenada Mahkamah Agung Karibia Timur
Guatemala Supreme Court of Justice
Guyana Supreme Court of Judicature[2]
Haiti Supreme Court of Haiti
Honduras Mahkamah Agung Honduras
Jamaica Court of Appeal, Komite Yudisial Dewan Penasihat
Mexico Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation
Nicaragua Mahkamah Agung Nicaragua
Panama Mahkamah Agung Justice
Paraguay Supreme Court of Justice
Peru Mahkamah Agung Peru
Saint Kitts and Nevis Mahkamah Agung Karibia Timur
Saint Lucia Mahkamah Agung Karibia Timur
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Mahkamah Agung Karibia Timur
Suriname Court of Justice of Suriname
Trinidad and Tobago Supreme Court of Judicature,[3] Komite Yudisial Dewan Penasihat
Amerika Serikat Mahkamah Agung Amerika Serikat
Uruguay Mahkamah Agung Uruguay
Venezuela Supreme Tribunal of Justice

Asia[sunting | sunting sumber]

Negara Nama Pengadilan Tertinggi
Abkhazia Mahkamah Agung Abkhazia
Afghanistan Mahkamah Agung Afganistan
Armenia Constitutional Court of Armenia
Azerbaijan Constitutional Court of Azerbaijan, Supreme Court of Azerbaijan
Bahrain High Civil Appeals Court of Bahrain
Bangladesh Mahkamah Agung Bangladesh
Bhutan Supreme Court of Appeal
Brunei Supreme Court of Brunei, Komite Yudisial Dewan Penasihat
Burma Mahkamah Agung Burma
Kamboja Supreme Council of the Magistracy
Republik Rakyat Tiongkok Supreme People's Court of the People's Republic of China*
Georgia Constitutional Court of Georgia, Supreme Court of Georgia
Hong Kong Court of Final Appeal
India Mahkamah Agung India
Indonesia Mahkamah Agung Indonesia, Mahkamah Konstitusi Indonesia
Iran Supreme Court of Iran, High Council of the Judiciary
Irak Mahkamah Agung Irak
Israel Mahkamah Agung Israel
Jepang Mahkamah Agung Jepang
Jordan Court of Cassation
Kazakhstan Supreme Court of Kazakhstan, Constitutional Council
Korea Utara Central Court*
Korea Selatan Mahkamah Agung South Korea, Constitutional Court of South Korea
Kuwait High Court of Appeal of Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan Mahkamah Agung Kyrgyzstan*
Laos People's Supreme Court of Laos
Libanon Courts of Cassation, Constitutional Council
Macau Court of Final Appeal
Malaysia Federal Court of Malaysia*
Maldives Supreme Court of the Maldives
Mongolia Constitutional Court of Mongolia, Mahkamah Agung Mongolia
Nepal Mahkamah Agung Nepal
Oman Mahkamah Agung Oman*
Pakistan Mahkamah Agung Pakistan
Filipina Mahkamah Agung Filipina
Qatar Mahkamah Kasasi Qatar*
Saudi Arabia Supreme Council of Justice
Singapura Mahkamah Agung Singapura*
Sri Lanka Mahkamah Agung Sri Lanka
Suriah Supreme Constitutional Court of Syria
Republic of China (Taiwan) Supreme Court of the Republic of China, Constitutional Court of the Judicial Yuan
Tajikistan Mahkamah Agung Tajikistan*
Thailand Mahkamah Agung Thailand
Timor-Leste Court of Appeals of Timor-Leste[4]
Turki Constitutional Court of Turkey
Turkmenistan Mahkamah Agung Turkmenistan
Uni Emirat Arab Federal Supreme Court
Uzbekistan Mahkamah Agung Uzbekistan
Vietnam Supreme People's Court of Vietnam*
Yaman Supreme Court of Yemen*

Eropa[sunting | sunting sumber]

Negara Nama Pengadilan
Albania Constitutional Court of Albania, Mahkamah Agung Albania
Andorra Superior Court of Justice
Austria Constitutional Court of Austria, Administrative Court of Austria, Supreme Court of Austria
Belarus Mahkamah Agung Belarus, Constitutional Court of Belarus*
Belgia Court of Cassation
Bosnia - Herzegovina Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bulgaria Supreme Court of Cassation of Bulgaria, Supreme Administrative Court of Bulgaria
Kroasia Mahkamah Agung Croatia
Siprus Mahkamah Agung Cyprus
Republik Ceko Constitutional Court of the Czech Republic, Supreme Administrative Court of the Czech Republic, Supreme Court of the Czech Republic
Denmark Mahkamah Agung Denmark
Inggris & Wales Mahkamah Agung Britania Raya
Estonia Supreme Court of Estonia
Finlandia Supreme Court of Finland, Supreme Administrative Court of Finland
Perancis Court of Cassation, Conseil d'Etat, Constitutional Council of France
Jerman Constitutional Court, Federal Court of Justice, Federal Administrative Court, Federal Finance Court, Federal Labour Court, Federal Social Court
Yunani Court of Cassation, Council of State, Court of Audit
Hungari Constitutional Court of Hungary
Islandia Mahkamah Agung Iceland
Irlandia Mahkamah Agung Ireland
Italia Constitutional Court of Italy, Court of Cassation
Kosovo Mahkamah Agung Kosovo
Latvia Constitutional Court of Latvia
Liechtenstein Mahkamah Agung Liechtenstein
Lithuania Constitutional Court of Lithuania
Luksemburg Superior Court of Justice
Makedonia Supreme Court of Macedonia, Constitutional Court of Macedonia
Malta Constitutional Court of Malta
Moldova Supreme Court of Justice of Moldova
Monako Mahkamah Agung Monaco
Montenegro Constitutional Court of Montenegro
Belanda Mahkamah Agung Belanda, Council of State of the Netherlands
Norwegia Mahkamah Agung Norway
Irlandia Utara Supreme Court of the United Kingdom
Polandia Mahkamah Agung Poland, Constitutional Tribunal
Portugal Constitutional Court of Portugal, Supreme Court of Justice
Romania High Court of Cassation and Justice
Rusia Mahkamah Agung Russia
San Marino Council of Twelve
Skotlandia High Court of Justiciary (Criminal), Supreme Court of the United Kingdom (Civil)
Serbia Mahkamah Agung Serbia
Slovakia Mahkamah Agung Slovakia
Slovenia Mahkamah Agung Slovenia
Spanyol Mahkamah Agung Spain
Swedia Mahkamah Agung Sweden, Supreme Administrative Court of Sweden
Swiss Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland
Ukraina Mahkamah Agung Ukraine, Constitutional Court of Ukraine
Britania Raya See entries for England and Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland
Vatican Cassation Court of Vatican City

Oseania[sunting | sunting sumber]

Negara Nama Pengadilan
Australia High Court of Australia
Cook Islands Judicial Committee of the Privy Council
Fiji Mahkamah Agung Fiji
Kiribati Court of Appeal of Kiribati, Judicial Committee of the Privy Council
Kepulauan Marshall Supreme Court of the Marshall Islands
Mikronesia Supreme Court of the Federated States of Micronesia
Nauru Mahkamah Agung Nauru, High Court of Australia
Selandia Baru Mahkamah Agung New Zealand and High Court of New Zealand
Niue Judicial Committee of the Privy Council
Palau Mahkamah Agung Palau
Papua Nugini Mahkamah Agung Papua New Guinea
Samoa Court of Appeal of Samoa
Kepul Solomon Islands Court of Appeal of Solomon Islands
Tonga Court of Appeal of Tonga; Privy Council of Tonga (for matters dealing with hereditary estates and titles)
Tuvalu Tuvalu Court of Appeal, Judicial Committee of the Privy Council
Vanuatu Court of Appeal of Vanuatu

Mahkamah Internasional[sunting | sunting sumber]

Terdapat beberapa pengadilan internasional yang merupakan pengadilan tertinggi bagi masing-masing organisasi yakni : Organisasi Negara Karibia Timur (OECS), Uni Eropa (UE), Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa (PBB), dan beberapa negara-negara yang tergabung dalam Commonwealth of Nations. Namun, anggota dari organisasi-organisasi tersebut kadang-kadang memiliki pengadilan tinggi mereka sendiri dengan yurisdiksi yang terbatas contohnya Mahkamah Eropa yang hanya bisa menafsirkan hukum yang berlaku bagi Uni Eropa dan menjamin penerapan yang seimbang bagi semua negara anggotanya, kasus dalam negeri masing-masing anggota tidak dapat diajukan banding.

Berikut beberapa Mahkamah Internasional :

  1. Mahkamah Benelux Benelux (Benelux)
  2. Mahkamah Karibia (Komunitas Karibia)
  3. Mahkamah Agung Karibia Timur (Organisasi Negara-Negara Karibia Timur)
  4. Mahkamah Eropa (Uni Eropa)
  5. Mahkamah Internasional (PBB)
  6. Mahkamah Pidana Internasional (PBB)
  7. Komite Yudisial Dewan Penasihat (untuk beberapa negara yang tergabung dalam Negara-Negara Persemakmuran)


Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of Law and Collins English Dictionary
  2. ^ "Guyana". The World Factbook. CIA. Diakses 2009-12-04. 
  3. ^ "Trinidad and Tobago". The World Factbook. CIA. Diakses 2009-12-06. 
  4. ^ "Timor-Leste". The World Factbook. CIA. Diakses 2009-11-22.  The Court of Appeals will remain East Timor's highest court until the Supreme Court has been officially established