Daftar penguasa monarki berdaulat saat ini

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Raja Carl XVI Gustaf dan Ratu Silvia dari Swedia
Kaisar Jepang, mengenakan jas hitam
Kaisar Akihito dari Jepang

Penguasa monarki adalah kepala monarki, bentuk pemerintahan di mana negara atau pemerintahan yang diperintah oleh seorang individu yang biasanya memerintah seumur hidup atau sampai turun tahta, dan biasanya mewarisi tahta karena kelahiran.[1] Monarki mungkin bersifat otokrat (seperti kebanyakan dalam monarki absolut)[2] atau mungkin hanya sebagai pemimpin seremonial yang hanya melakukan kekuasaannya sebagai kekuasaan cadangan, dengan otoritas aktual yang diperoleh di parlemen atau badan pemerintah lainnya (seperti banyak dalam monarki konstitusional).[3] Dalam banyak kasus, raja juga akan dihubungkan dengan agama negara.[4]

Penguasa monarki saat ini[sunting | sunting sumber]

Realm Penguasa Since Dewan Jenis Pengganti Standar Ref
 Andorra HE Joan Enric Vives Sicília[fn 1] 12 Mei 2003 N/A Konstitusional Ex officio [5][6]
 Andorra HE François Hollande[fn 1] 15 Mei 2012 N/A Konstitusional Ex officio [5][6]
 Antigua and Barbuda HM Ratu Elizabeth II[fn 2] 1 November 1981[fn 3] Windsor[fn 4] Konstitusional Hereditary [7][8]
 Australia HM Ratu Elizabeth II[fn 2] 6 Februari 1952 Windsor[fn 4] Konstitusional Hereditary Royal Standard of Australia [7][9]
 Bahamas HM Ratu Elizabeth II[fn 2] 10 Juli 1973[fn 3] Windsor[fn 4] Konstitusional Hereditary [7][10]
 Bahrain HM Raja Hamad bin Isa 6 Maret 1999[fn 5] Al Khalifah[fn 6] Campuran Hereditary Standar Kerajaan Bahrain [11]
 Barbados HM Ratu Elizabeth II[fn 2] 30 November 1966[fn 3] Windsor[fn 4] Konstitusional Hereditary Royal Standard of Barbados [7][13]
 Belgium HM Raja Philippe 21 Juli 2013 Belgium[fn 4] Constitutional Hereditary Personal Standard of Philippe, King of the Belgians [17]
 Belize HM Ratu Elizabeth II[fn 2] 21 September 1981[fn 3] Windsor[fn 4] Constitutional Hereditary [7][18]
 Bhutan HM King Jigme Khesar Namgyel 14 Desember 2006[fn 7] Wangchuck Konstitusional Hereditary [20]
 Brunei HM Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah 4 Oktober 1967[fn 8] Bolkiah Absolute Hereditary [21]
 Cambodia HM Raja Norodom Sihamoni 14 Oktober 2004[fn 9] Norodom[fn 10] Konstitusional Hereditary and elective[fn 11] Royal Standard of the King of Cambodia [23]
 Canada HM Ratu Elizabeth II[fn 2] 6 Februari 1952 Windsor[fn 4] Konstitusional Hereditary Standar Kerajaan Kanada [7][26]
 Denmark HM Ratu Margrethe II 14 Januari 1972 Glücksburg[fn 12] Constitutional Hereditary Royal Standard of Denmark [28]
 Grenada HM Ratu Elizabeth II[fn 2] 7 Februari 1974[fn 3] Windsor[fn 4] Konstitusional Hereditary [7][29]
 Jamaica HM Ratu Elizabeth II[fn 2] 6 Agustus 1962[fn 3] Windsor[fn 4] Konstitusional Hereditary Royal Standard of Jamaica [7][30]
 Japan HIM Kaisar Akihito[fn 13] 7 Januari 1989[fn 14] Dinasti Yamato[fn 15] Konstitusional Hereditary Standar Kaisar Jepang [32]
 Jordan HM Raja Abdullah II 7 Februari 1999[fn 16] Hāshim Konstitusional Hereditary[fn 17] Standar Kerajaan Yordania [38][39]
 Kuwait HH Emir Sabah al-Ahmad 29 Januari 2006 Al Sabah[fn 6] Konstitusional Hereditary and elective[fn 18] [43]
 Lesotho HM Raja Letsie III 7 Februari 1996[fn 19] Moshesh Konstitusional Hereditary and elective Royal Standard of Lesotho [44][45]
 Liechtenstein HSH Pangeran Hans-Adam II 13 November 1989[fn 20] Liechtenstein Konstitusional Hereditary Royal Standard of the Prince of Liechtenstein [47]
 Luxembourg HRH Adipati Agung Henri 7 Oktober 2000[fn 21] Luxembourg-Nassau[fn 22] Konstitusional Hereditary Standar Kerajaan Adipati Agung Luxembourg [49]
 Malaysia HM Raja Abdul Halim[fn 23] 13 Desember 2011[fn 24] Kedah Constitutional Hereditary and rotational[fn 25] Royal Standard of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia [56]
 Monaco HSH Pangeran Albert II 6 April 2005[fn 26] Grimaldi Constitutional Hereditary Personal Standard of Prince Albert II of Monaco [60]
 Morocco HM Raja Mohammed VI 23 Juli 1999[fn 27] Alawi Constitutional Hereditary Royal Standard of Morocco [62]
 Netherlands HM Raja Willem-Alexander 30 April 2013 Orange-Nassau[fn 28] Constitutional Hereditary Standar Kerajaan Belanda [65]
Bendera Selandia Baru New Zealand HM Ratu Elizabeth II[fn 2] 6 Februari 1952 Windsor[fn 4] Constitutional Hereditary Royal Standard of New Zealand [7][66]
 Norway HM Raja Harald V 17 Januari 1991[fn 29] Glücksburg[fn 12] Constitutional Hereditary Royal Standard of Norway [67]
 Oman HM Sultan Qaboos bin Said 23 Juli 1970 Al Bu Sa‘īd Absolute Hereditary Standar Sultan Oman [68][69]
 Papua New Guinea HM Ratu Elizabeth II[fn 2] 16 September 1975[fn 30] Windsor[fn 4] Constitutional Hereditary [7][70]
 Qatar HH Emir Tamim bin Hamad 25 Juni 2013 Al Thani Absolute[fn 31] Hereditary [72]
 Saint Kitts and Nevis HM Ratu Elizabeth II[fn 2] 19 September 1983[fn 3] Windsor[fn 4] Constitutional Hereditary [7][73]
 Saint Lucia HM Ratu Elizabeth II[fn 2] 22 Februari 1979[fn 3] Windsor[fn 4] Constitutional Hereditary [7][74]
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines HM Ratu Elizabeth II[fn 2] 27 Oktober 1979[fn 3] Windsor[fn 4] Constitutional Hereditary [7][75]
 Saudi Arabia CTHM Raja Abdullah bin Abdul‘aziz 1 Agustus 2005[fn 32] Al Saud Absolute Hereditary and elective[fn 33] Royal Standard of Saudi Arabia [79]
 Solomon Islands HM Ratu Elizabeth II[fn 2] 7 Juli 1978[fn 3] Windsor[fn 4] Constitutional Hereditary [7][80]
 Spain HM Raja Juan Carlos I 22 November 1975[fn 34] Bourbon Constitutional Hereditary Royal Standard of Spain [81]
 Swaziland HM Raja Mswati III 25 April 1986 Dlamini Absolute Hereditary and elective[fn 35] Royal Standard of Swaziland [84]
 Sweden HM Raja Carl XVI Gustaf 15 September 1973[fn 36] Bernadotte Constitutional Hereditary Standar Kerajaan Swedia [86]
 Thailand HM Raja Bhumibol Adulyadej[fn 37] 9 Juni 1946[fn 38] Chakri Constitutional Hereditary Standard of the King of Thailand [92]
 Tonga HM Raja Tupou VI 18 Maret 2012 Tupou[fn 39] Konstitusional Hereditary Royal Standard of Tonga [94]
 Tuvalu HM Ratu Elizabeth II[fn 2] 1 Oktober 1978[fn 3] Windsor[fn 4] Konstitusional Hereditary [7][95]
 United Arab Emirates HH Presiden Khalifa bin Zayed 3 November 2004 Al Nahyan[fn 40] Mixed[fn 41] Elective and hereditary[fn 42] Standard of the President of the United Arab Emirates [99]
 United Kingdom HM Ratu Elizabeth II[fn 2] 6 Februari 1952[fn 43] Windsor[fn 4] Konstitusional Hereditary Standar Kerajaan Britania Raya
Royal Standard of the United Kingdom in Scotland[fn 44]
[7]
 Vatican City HH Paus Fransisus[fn 45] 13 Maret 2013 N/A Absolut Ex officio [101]

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Catatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ a b The president of France and the bishop of Urgell each hold the position of ko-pangeran Andorra, but there is no personal title attached to the role.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Elizabeth II is currently queen regnant of sixteen separate Commonwealth realms (lihat entri terpisah), dan sebelumnya menjabat sebagai ratu negara-negara lainnya ke-enam belas, which have since abolished the monarchy.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Elizabeth II sebelumnya menjabat pada negara ini sebagai Ratu Britania Raya, dari 6 Februari 1952 sampai kemerdekaan negara tersebut dan pembentukan mahkota terpisah.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q The royal family of Belgium and the House of Windsor are both lines of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha,[14][15] which is a branch of the House of Wettin.[16]
  5. ^ Hamad ibn Isa menjabat sebagai Amir dari Negara Bahrain sampai 14 Februari 2002, dimana ia diberikan gelar baru Raja Bahrain dibawah Konstitusi baru.[11]
  6. ^ a b Sebuah klan dari suku Utub.[12]
  7. ^ Diangkat pada 6 November 2008.[19]
  8. ^ Diangkat pada 1 Agustus 1968.[21]
  9. ^ Diangkat pada 29 Oktober 2004.[22]
  10. ^ A branch of the Varman dynasty. Nama "Norodom" digunakan oleh keturunan Norodom I.[23][24]
  11. ^ The king is selected for life by the Royal Council of the Throne from amongst the keturunan laki-laki dari raja-raja Ang Duong, Norodom, dan Sisowath.[25]
  12. ^ a b Officially the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, which is a branch of the House of Oldenburg. [27]
  13. ^ "Akihito" adalah nama pemberian kaisar saat ini, but it is not his regnal name, and he is never referred to as this in Japanese. The era of Akihito's reign bears the name "Heisei", and according to custom he will be renamed "Emperor Heisei" following his death.[31]
  14. ^ Coronation took place 12 November 1990.[32]
  15. ^ Kaisar Jepang tidak memiliki nama keluarga.[33][34] Penggunaan nama "Yamato" untuk rumah tangga berasal dari Dewan Yamato kuno.[35] It is used often as a name for the imperial dynasty, but has no official basis.
  16. ^ Formally enthroned on 9 June 1999.[36]
  17. ^ Succession is based upon primogeniture. However, the reigning king may also select his successor from among eligible princes.[37]
  18. ^ The heir is appointed by the reigning emir, and the nomination must also disetujui oleh mayoritas anggota Mahkamah Nasional.[40] The throne is also traditionally alternated between the two main branches of the Al Sabah family: the Al Salem and Al Jaber.[41][42] The current emir is of the Al Jaber branch.
  19. ^ Diangkat pada 31 Oktober 1997. Ia sebelumnya menjabat sebagai raja dari 12 November 1990 sampai 25 Januari 1995.[44]
  20. ^ Formally enthroned on 15 August 1990.[46] Prior to his accession, Hans-Adam had served as prince regent since 26 August 1984.[47] On 15 August 2004, the prince formally appointed his son Prince Alois as regent, in preparation for his succession to the throne, but remained head of state in accordance with the constitution.[48]
  21. ^ Prior to formal enthronement, Henri had served as prince regent since 4 March 1998.[49]
  22. ^ The royal family of Luxembourg are members of the House of Nassau-Weilburg,[50] descended from the House of Nassau and the Parma branch of the Wangsa Bourbon.
  23. ^ Official title: Yang di-Pertuan Agong. It roughly translates as "Supreme Head of State", and is commonly rendered in English as "King".[51]
  24. ^ Dipilih pada Oktober 2011. Coronation took place 13 December.[52] Abdul Halim has previously reigned as king from 21 September 1970 to 20 September 1975;[53] he is the first sultan to hold the throne twice.[54]
  25. ^ The Yang di-Pertuan Agong is elected to a five-year term by and from amongst the nine hereditary rulers of the Malay states, who form the Council of Rulers. The position has to date been, by informal agreement, systematically rotated between the nine; the order was originally based on seniority.[55]
  26. ^ Albert II was formally enthroned as prince in a two-part ceremony, in accordance with tradition, on 12 July and 19 November 2005.[57][58] He had previously been serving as regent since 31 March 2005.[59]
  27. ^ Diangkat pada 30 Juli 1999.[61]
  28. ^ The Dutch royal family is descended from the Houses of Nassau and Lippe. [63][64]
  29. ^ Formally enthroned on 21 January 1991, and consecrated on 23 June 1991. Prior to his accession, Harald had served as prince regent since 1 June 1990.[67]
  30. ^ Elizabeth II previously reigned over Papua New Guinea as Ratu Australia, from 6 February 1952 until the nation's independence and the creation of a separate crown.
  31. ^ Monarchy is constitutional by law, but remains absolute in practice.[71]
  32. ^ Diangkat pada 3 Agustus 2005.[76] Abdullah previously served as prince regent from 1 January 1996 until 21 February 1996.[77]
  33. ^ Succession is determined by consensus within the House of Saud as to who will be Crown Prince. This consensus may change depending on the Crown Prince's actions.[78]
  34. ^ Formally enthroned on 27 November 1975. Juan Carlos was formally recognised by his father, the Count of Barcelona, as the sole head of the Spanish Royal Household on 14 May 1977.[81]
  35. ^ Succession is subject to customary law, and does not follow primogeniture. A council of elders selects who among the reigning king's wives will be mother of the next king. This woman will succeed as Ndlovukati upon her son's ascension to throne, and will rule alongside him for the duration of his reign. The king's first two wives are considered ineligible.[82][83]
  36. ^ Formally enthroned on 19 September 1973.[85]
  37. ^ Name is also written as Phumiphon Adunyadet. He is also styled Rama IX,[87] and is publicly acclaimed "the Great".[88][89] Thais refer to him as "Nai Luang" or "Phra Chao Yu Hua".[90]
  38. ^ Diangkagt pada 5 Mei 1950.[91]
  39. ^ A line of the Tuʻi Kanokupolu dynasty.[93][94]
  40. ^ The Al Nahyan are a branch of the Al Falahi, a clan of the Yas tribe.[96]
  41. ^ The Prime Minister is the head of the government. However, with the consent of the Supreme Council, the office is appointed by the President, who retains considerable power.[97]
  42. ^ According to the Constitution, the President of the United Arab Emirates is elected by the Federal Supreme Council from among the individual rulers of the seven emirates.[97] However, by informal agreement the Presidency is always passed to the head of the Al Nahyan clan, the Emir of Abu Dhabi (see constituent monarchs), which makes it a de facto hereditary position. In addition, the appointed Prime Minister has always been the head of the Al Maktoum clan and Emir of Dubai.[98]
  43. ^ Diangkat pada 2 June 1953.[100]
  44. ^ Lower flag is for use in Scotland only, upper flag is used in England, Northern Ireland and Wales.
  45. ^ As Kedaulatan Vatikan, by virtue of being Uskup Roma.

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

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  9. ^ Constitution of Australia, Art. 61.
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  30. ^ Constitution of Jamaica, Art. 68.
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  36. ^ MEDEA Institute. "Abdullah II (Jordan)". Diakses 12 November 2011. 
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  40. ^ Konstitusi Kuwait, Art. 4.
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  42. ^ Political Risk Yearbook, 1998. Political Risk Services. 1998. hlm. 48. ISBN 978-1-85271-371-3 : "The two branches of the Al-Sabah family, the Jabers and the Salems, have traditionally alternated their rule, one providing the emir and the other the crown prince (also serving as prime minister)."
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  74. ^ Constitution of Saint Lucia, Art. 59.
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