The Birth of a Nation

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The Birth of a Nation
Birth of a Nation theatrical poster.jpg
Poster rilis teatrikal
SutradaraD. W. Griffith
ProduserD. W. Griffith
Harry Aitken[1]
SkenarioD. W. Griffith
Frank E. Woods
BerdasarkanThe Clansman
karya T. F. Dixon Jr.
PemeranLillian Gish
Mae Marsh
Henry B. Walthall
Miriam Cooper
Ralph Lewis
George Siegmann
Walter Long
MusikJoseph Carl Breil
SinematografiG. W. Bitzer
PenyuntingD. W. Griffith
Perusahaan
produksi
David W. Griffith Corp.
DistributorEpoch Producing Co.
Tanggal rilis
  • 08 Februari 1915 (1915-02-08)
Durasi
12 rol
133–193 minutes[2]
NegaraAmerika Serikat
BahasaFilm bisu
Intertitel Inggris
Anggaran>$100,000[3]
Pendapatan kotortidak diketahui; sekitar $50–100 juta[4]
The Birth of a Nation (1915)
Griffith saat pengambilan gambar The Birth of a Nation (1915) dengan aktor Henry Walthall dan lain-lain.

The Birth of a Nation (awalnya disebut The Clansman) adalah sebuah film drama epik bisu Amerika tahun 1915 yang disutradarai dan diproduksi oleh D. W. Griffith dan dibintangi oleh Lillian Gish. Skenarionya diadaptasi dari novel dan drama The Clansman, keduanya buatan Thomas Dixon Jr. Griffith menulis naskahnya (dengan Frank E. Woods), dan memproduksi film tersebut (dengan Harry Aitken). Film tersebut dirilis pada 8 Februari 1915.

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ "D. W. Griffith: Hollywood Independent". Cobbles.com. 1917-06-26. Diakses tanggal 2013-07-03. 
  2. ^ "THE BIRTH OF A NATION (U)". Western Import Co. Ltd. British Board of Film Classification. Diakses tanggal August 20, 2013. 
  3. ^ Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama Hall & Neale (2010)
  4. ^ Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama Monaco

Daftar pustaka

  • Addams, Jane, in Crisis: A Record of Darker Races, X (May 1915), 19, 41, and (June 1915), 88.
  • Bogle, Donald. Toms, Coons, Mulattoes, Mammies and Bucks: An Interpretive History of Blacks in American Films (1973).
  • Brodie, Fawn M. Thaddeus Stevens, Scourge of the South (New York, 1959), p. 86–93. Corrects the historical record as to Dixon's false representation of Stevens in this film with regard to his racial views and relations with his housekeeper.
  • Chalmers, David M. Hooded Americanism: The History of the Ku Klux Klan (New York: 1965), p. 30 *Cook, Raymond Allen. Fire from the Flint: The Amazing Careers of Thomas Dixon (Winston-Salem, N.C., 1968).
  • Franklin, John Hope. "Silent Cinema as Historical Mythmaker". In Myth America: A Historical Anthology, Volume II. 1997. Gerster, Patrick, and Cords, Nicholas. (editors.) Brandywine Press, St. James, NY. ISBN 978-1-881089-97-1
  • Franklin, John Hope, "Propaganda as History" pp. 10–23 in Race and History: Selected Essays 1938–1988 (Louisiana State University Press, 1989); first published in The Massachusetts Review, 1979. Describes the history of the novel The Clan and this film.
  • Franklin, John Hope, Reconstruction After the Civil War (Chicago, 1961), p. 5–7.
  • Hickman, Roger. Reel Music: Exploring 100 Years of Film Music (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2006).
  • Hodapp, Christopher L., and Alice Von Kannon, Conspiracy Theories & Secret Societies For Dummies (Hoboken: Wiley, 2008) p. 235–6.
  • Korngold, Ralph, Thaddeus Stevens. A Being Darkly Wise and Rudely Great (New York: 1955) pp. 72–76. corrects Dixon's false characterization of Stevens' racial views and of his dealings with his housekeeper.
  • Leab, Daniel J., From Sambo to Superspade (Boston, 1975), p. 23–39.
  • New York Times, roundup of reviews of this film, March 7, 1915.
  • The New Republica, II (March 20, 1915), 185
  • Poole, W. Scott, Monsters in America: Our Historical Obsession with the Hideous and the Haunting (Waco, Texas: Baylor, 2011), 30. ISBN 978-1-60258-314-6
  • Simkins, Francis B., "New Viewpoints of Southern Reconstruction", Journal of Southern History, V (February, 1939), pp. 49–61.
  • Stokes, Melvyn (2007), D. W. Griffith's The Birth of a Nation: A History of "The Most Controversial Motion Picture of All Time", New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0198044364 . The latest study of the film's making and subsequent career.
  • Williamson, Joel, After Slavery: The Negro in South Carolina During Reconstruction (Chapel Hill, 1965). This book corrects Dixon's false reporting of Reconstruction, as shown in his novel, his play and this film.

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]