Suku Tujia

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Tujia
Total populasi
sekitar 8 juta
Kawasan dengan populasi yang signifikan
Place - Tujia.gif
 Tiongkok
(Hunan · Hubei · Guizhou · Chongqing)
Bahasa
Tionghoa Mandarin
bahasa Tujia (tradisional)
Agama
Umumnya Nuoisme

Tujia (Tujia: Bizika; Tionghoa: 土家族; pinyin: Tǔjiāzú), dengana total populasi lebih dari 8 juta, adalah etnis minoritas terbesar ke-8 di Republik Rakyat Tiongkok. Mereka tinggal di Pegunungan Wuling, yang berdiri di perbatasan Provinsi Hunan, Hubei dan Guizhou, dan Munisipalitas Chongqing.

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Daftar pustaka[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Brown, M.J. (2001). "Ethnic Classification and Culture: The Case of the Tujia in Hubei, China," Asian Ethnicity 2(1): 55-72.
  • Brown, M.J. (2004). "They Came with Their Hands Tied behind Their Backs" - Forced Migrations, Identity Changes, and State Classification in Hubei. Is Taiwan Chinese? (pp. 166–210). Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Brown, M.J. (2007). "Ethnic Identity, Cultural Variation, and Processes of Change - Rethinking the Insights of Standardization and Orthopraxy". Modern China. 33(1): 91-124. Sage Publications.
  • ---- 2002. "Local Government Agency: Manipulating Tujia Identity," Modern China.
  • Ch'en, J. (1992). The Highlanders of Central China: A History 1895-1937. New York: M.E. Sharpe.
  • Dong, L. (1999). Ba feng Tu yun—Tujia wenhua yuanliu jiexi (Ba Manners, Tu Charm—An Analysis of the Origins of Tujia Culture). Wuhan: Wuhan Daxue Chubanshe.
  • Dong, L., Brown, M.J., Wu, X. (2002). Tujia. Encyclopedia of World Cultures - Supplement. C. Ember, M. Ember & I. Skoggard (eds.), NY: Macmillan Reference USA, pp. 351–354.
  • Huang B. (1999). "Tujiazu Zuyuan Yanjiu Zonglun" ("A Review of Research on Tujia Ancestral Origins"). In Tujia zu lizhi wenhua lunji (A Colloquium on Tujia History and Culture), edited by Huang Baiquan and Tian Wanzheng. 25-42. Enshi, Hubei: Hubei Minzu Xueyuan.
  • Li, S. (1993). Chuandong Youshui Tujia (Tujia of the Youshui River in East Sichuan). Chengdu: Chengdu Chubanshe.
  • Peng, B., Peng, X. et al. (1981). Jishou University Journal, Humanities Edition #2: Special Issue on Tujia Ethnography [in Chinese]. Jishou: Jishou University.
  • Shih C. (2001). "Ethnicity as Policy Expedience: Clan Confucianism in Ethnic Tujia-Miao Yongshun," Asian Ethnicity 2(1): 73-88.
  • Sutton, D. (2000). "Myth Making on an Ethnic Frontier: The Cult of the Heavenly Kings of West Hunan, 1715-1996," Modern China 26(4): 448-500.
  • Sutton, D. (2003). "Violence and Ethnicity on a Qing Colonial Frontier: Customary and Statutory Law in the Eighteenth-Century Miao Pale". In: Modern Asian Studies 37(1): 41–80. Cambridge University Press.
  • Sutton, D. (2007). "Ritual, Cultural Standardization, and Orthopraxy in China: Reconsidering James L. Watson’s Ideas". In: Modern China 33(1): 3-21. Sage Publications.
  • Tien, D., He, T., Chen, K., Li, J., Xie, Z., Peng, X. (1986). Tujiayu Jianzhi (A Brief Chronicle of the Tujia Language). Beijing: Minzu Chubanshe.
  • Wu, X. (1996). "Changes of chieftains' external policy in the Three Gorges Area in the late Ming and early Qing dynasties [1630s-1660s]". In: Ethnic Forum, (3): 88-92. (Hunan, China)
  • Wu, X. (1997). "Tujia's food-getting pattern in west Hubei in the Qing Dynasty". In: Journal of Hubei Institute for Nationalities, (2): 33-35. (Hubei, China)
  • Wu, X. (1997). "On the Tage Dance". In: Journal of Chinese Classics and Culture, (2): 22-29. (Beijing, China)
  • Wu, X. (2003). "Food, Ethnoecology and Identity in Enshi Prefecture, Hubei, China". (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Alberta, 388 pages).
  • Wu, X. (2003). "Turning Waste into Things of Value": Marketing Fern, Kudzu and Osmunda in Enshi Prefecture, China. In: Journal of Developing Societies, 19(4): 433-457.
  • Wu, X. (2004). "Ethnic Foods" and Regional Identity: the Hezha Restaurants in Enshi. In: Food and Foodways, 12(4): 225-246.
  • Wu, X. (2005). "The New Year's Eve Dinner and Wormwood Meal: Festival Foodways as Ethnic Markers in Enshi". In: Modern China, 31(3): 353-380.
  • Wu, X. (2006). "Maize, Ecosystem Transition and Ethnicity in Enshi Prefecture, China". In: East Asian History, 31(1): 1-22.
  • Wu, X. (2010). "Tujia National Minority". Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion.
  • Ye, D. (1995). Tujiayu yanjiu (Studies of the Tujia Language). Jishou, Hunan: Hunan Chu Wenhua Zhongxin, Jishou Daxue.

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]