Noor Inayat Khan

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Noor Inayat Khan GC Croix de guerre
Noor Inayat Khan.jpeg
Noor-un-Nisa Inayat Khan c.1943
Julukan "Madeleine" (kode panggil: Nurse)
"Jeanne-Marie Renier"
"Nora Baker"
Lahir (1914-01-02)2 Januari 1914
Moskwa, Kekaisaran Rusia
Meninggal 13 September 1944(1944-09-13) (umur 30)
Kamp konsentrasi Dachau, Bayern, Jerman Nazi
Pengabdian  Britania Raya
Dinas/cabang Women's Auxiliary Air Force
Lama dinas 1940–1944
Pangkat Assistant Section Officer
Kesatuan Special Operations Executive
Cinema
Perang/pertempuran Perang Dunia II
Penghargaan UK George Cross ribbon.svg George Cross
Mentioned in dispatches
Croix de Guerre 1939-1945 ribbon.svg Croix de guerre 1939–1945

Noor-un-Nisa Inayat Khan (نور عنایت خان‎) GC (2 Januari 1914 – 13 September 1944) adalah agen Special Operations Executive (SOE) Sekutu semasa Perang Dunia II yang secara anumerta dianugerahi George Cross, penghargaan sipil tertinggi di Britania Raya dan Persemakmuran. Ia juga dikenal dengan panggilan "Nora Baker",[1] "Madeleine",[2][3] dan "Jeanne-Marie Rennier".[4] Ia merupakan keturunan India dan Amerika Serikat. Sebagai agen SOE, ia merupakan operator radio perempuan pertama yang dikirim dari Britania Raya ke daerah pendudukan Perancis untuk membantu Pemberontak Perancis.

Penangkapan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Keberadaan Inayat Khan dilaporkan kepada pasukan Jerman oleh Henri Déricourt atau Renée Garry. Déricourt (panggilan: Gilbert) adalah perwira SOE dan mantan pilot AU Perancis yang diduga bekerja sebagai agen ganda untuk Sicherheitsdienst. Garry adalah adik dari Henri Garry, pendamping Khan di jaringan Cinema (kelak berganti nama menjadi Phono).[5]

Eksekusi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pada tanggal 11 September 1944, Khan dan tiga agen SOE lainnya dari penjara Karlsruhe, Yolande Beekman, Eliane Plewman, dan Madeleine Damerment, dipindahkan ke kamp konsentrasi Dachau. Pada pagi hari tanggal 13 September 1944, keempatnya dieksekusi dengan cara ditembak dari belakang. Jasadnya kemudian dibakar di krematorium. Seorang tahanan asal Belanda mengaku pada tahun 1958 bahwa Khan dipukuli secara sadis oleh seorang perwira SS bernama Wilhelm Ruppert sebelum ditembak dari belakang.[6] Kata-kata terakhir Khan sebelum dieksekusi adalah "Liberté" (merdeka).[7] Ia meninggalkan ibunya dan tiga adik.[8][9]

Penghargaan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Croix de guerre avec étoiles vermeil

Inayat Khan secara anumerta dianugerahi George Cross pada tahun 1949 dan Croix de Guerre dengan bintang perak (avec étoile de vermeil). Karena ia masih dianggap "hilang" pada tahun 1946, ia tidak bisa direkomendasikan sebagai penerima anugerah Member of the Order of the British Empire,[10] tetapi disebutkan di Mentioned in Despatches pada Oktober 1946.[11] Khan merupakan orang ketiga dari tiga anggota First Aid Nursing Yeomanry era Perang Dunia II yang mendapat anugerah George Cross, penghargaan tertinggi Britania Raya atas keberanian tanpa menghadapi musuh.[8]

Pada awal 2011, sebuah kampanye penggalangan dana sebesar £100.000 diluncurkan untuk mendirikan patung perunggu Khan di pusat kota London dekat rumahnya.[12] Patung ini diklaim sebagai tugu peringatan pertama di Britania Raya untuk seorang perempuan Muslim atau Asia,[13] tetapi tugu untuk Khan sudah terlebih dahulu didirikan di St Paul's Church, Wilton Place, Knightsbridge, London,[14] bersama 52 anggota Korps yang gugur saat dinas.[butuh rujukan]

Patung perunggu Inayat Khan di Gordon Square Gardens, London

Patung perunggu ini diresmikan oleh HRH The Princess Royal pada tanggal 8 November 2012 di Gordon Square Gardens, London.[15][16]

Inayat Khan diperingati dalam prangko terbitan Royal Mail pada 25 Maret 2014 dalam rangkaian prangko bertema "Remarkable Lives".[17]

George Cross[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pengumuman penganugerahan George Cross diterbitkan di London Gazette edisi 5 April 1949. Berikut isi pengumumannya:[18]

The KING has been graciously pleased to approve the posthumous award of the GEORGE CROSS to:—

Assistant Section Officer Nora INAYAT-KHAN (9901), Women's Auxiliary Air Force.

Assistant Section Officer Nora INAYAT-KHAN was the first woman operator to be infiltrated into enemy occupied France, and was landed by Lysander aircraft on 16th June, 1943. During the weeks immediately following her arrival, the Gestapo made mass arrests in the Paris Resistance groups to which she had been detailed. She refused however to abandon what had become the principal and most dangerous post in France, although given the opportunity to return to England, because she did not wish to leave her French comrades without communications and she hoped also to rebuild her group. She remained at her post therefore and did the excellent work which earned her a posthumous Mention in Despatches.

The Gestapo had a full description of her, but knew only her code name "Madeleine". They deployed considerable forces in their effort to catch her and so break the last remaining link with London. After 3 months, she was betrayed to the Gestapo and taken to their H.Q. in the Avenue Foch. The Gestapo had found her codes and messages and were now in a position to work back to London. They asked her to co-operate, but she refused and gave them no information of any kind. She was imprisoned in one of the cells on the 5th floor of the Gestapo H.Q. and remained there for several weeks during which time she made two unsuccessful attempts at escape. She was asked to sign a declaration that she would make no further attempts, but she refused and the Chief of the Gestapo obtained permission from Berlin to send her to Germany for "safe custody". She was the first agent to be sent to Germany.

Assistant Section Officer INAYAT-KHAN was sent to Karlsruhe in November 1943, and then to Pforzheim where her cell was apart from the main prison. She was considered to be a particularly dangerous and unco-operative prisoner. The Director of the prison has also been interrogated and has confirmed that Assistant Section Officer INAYAT-KHAN, when interrogated by the Karlsruhe Gestapo, refused to give any information whatsoever, either as to her work or her colleagues.

She was taken with three others to Dachau Camp on the 12 September 1944. On arrival, she was taken to the crematorium and shot.

Assistant Section Officer INAYAT-KHAN displayed the most conspicuous courage, both moral and physical over a period of more than 12 months.

War Medal 39-45 BAR MID.png
Silver star
George Cross
1939–1945 Star France and Germany Star War Medal
with Mention in Dispatches
Croix de Guerre
(avec étoile de vermeil)

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Helm (2005) p6
  2. ^ "Noorunissa Inayat-Khan". The Message of Hazrat Inayat Khan. 2016. Diakses tanggal 5 June 2016. 
  3. ^ "Noor-un-nisa Inayat Khan". Sufi Order International. 2009. Diakses tanggal 5 June 2016. 
  4. ^ Helm (2005 p13
  5. ^ Foot, M. R. D. (2004) [1966]. SOE in France (edisi ke-Revised). London, UK: Whitehall History Publications. hlm. 297–99. ISBN 9780714655284. 
  6. ^ Basu, Shrabani (2006). Spy Princess: The Life of Noor Inayat Khan. Sutton Publishing. hlm. xx–xxi. ISBN 9780750939652. 
  7. ^ Helm (2005) pp413-419
  8. ^ a b Hamilton, Alan (13 May 2006). "Exotic British spy who defied Gestapo brutality to the end". The Times. London, UK. hlm. 26. 
  9. ^ Helm, Sarah (7 August 2005). "The Gestapo Killer Who Lived Twice". The Sunday Times Magazine. hlm. 9. 
  10. ^ "George Cross, George Medal and the Medal of the Order of the British Empire (military): Air Ministry recommendation to the Selection Committee and correspondence (Assistant Section Officer Nora Inayat-Khan, Women's Auxiliary Air Force)", T 351/47, National Archives, Kew.
  11. ^ "No. 37744". The London Gazette (invalid |supp= (help)). 27 September 1946.  London Gazette uses unsupported parameters (help)
  12. ^ Milmo, Cahal (4 January 2011). "Honoured at last, the Indian heroine of Churchill's spy squad". The Independent. Diakses tanggal 4 January 2011. 
  13. ^ Talwar, Divya. "Churchill's Asian spy princess comes out of the shadows". BBC News. Diakses tanggal 11 January 2011. 
  14. ^ "Women's Transport Service". stephen-stratford.com. Diakses tanggal 8 December 2016. 
  15. ^ "Unveiling of the Memorial for Noor Inayat Khan". Noor Inayat Khan Memorial Trust. 8 November 2012. Diakses tanggal 5 June 2016. 
  16. ^ Hutton, Alice (15 November 2012). "Princess Anne unveils bust of forgotten wartime spy whose last word as she faced a firing squad was 'Liberté'". Camden New Journal. Diakses tanggal 5 June 2016. 
  17. ^ "Remarkable Lives Stamp Set at Royal Mail Shop". Royal Mail. Diakses tanggal 5 June 2016. 
  18. ^ Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama LG38578

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