Nicholas Kaldor

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Nicholas Kaldor
Ekonomi pasca-Keynes
Lahir 12 Mei 1908
Budapest, Hongaria
Meninggal 30 September 1986 (umur 78)
Papworth Everard, Cambridgeshire, Inggris
Kebangsaan Britania Raya
Bidang Ekonomi politik
Dipengaruhi John Maynard Keynes, Gunnar Myrdal
Memengaruhi Joan Robinson, Tony Thirlwall, Manmohan Singh
Kontribusi Efisiensi Kaldor–Hicks
Hukum pertumbuhan Kaldor
Sebab kumulatif melingkar

Nicholas Kaldor, Baron Kaldor (lahir Káldor Miklós) (12 Mei 1908 – 30 September 1986) adalah ekonom Cambridge era pascaperang. Ia mengembangkan kriteria "kompensasi" yang disebut efisiensi Kaldor–Hicks untuk perbandingan kesejahteraan pada tahun 1939; kriteria ini diturunkan dari model jaring laba-laba. Ia juga mengamati fenomena rutin tertentu pada pertumbuhan ekonomi yang disebut hukum pertumbuhan Kaldor.[1] Kaldor juga bekerja sama dengan Gunnar Myrdal untuk mengembangkan konsep sebab kumulatif melingkar, sebuah pendekatan multisebab yang variabel inti dan tautannya terlihat jelas. Myrdal dan Kaldor mempelajari hubungan melingkar; dalam hubungan ini, kesalingtergantungan antarfaktor cenderung kuat dan variabel-variabel penentu proses besarnya saling terikat.

Gunnar Myrdal mengetahui konsep ini dari Knut Wicksell, lalu mengembangkannya bersama Nicholas Kaldor saat masih sama-sama bekerja di Komisi Ekonomi PBB untuk Eropa. Myrdal berfokus pada aspek sosial dari pembangunan, sedangkan Kaldor berfokus pada hubungan permintaan-penawaran di sektor produksi. Kaldor juga menciptakan istilah "convenience yield"[2] yang berkaitan dengan pasar komoditas dan teori penyimpanan (awalnya dikembangkan oleh Holbrook Working).

Karya[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • The Case Against Technical Progress, 1932, Economica
  • The Determinateness of Static Equilibrium, 1934, RES
  • The Equilibrium of the Firm, 1934, EJ
  • Market Imperfection and Excess Capacity, 1935, Economica
  • Pigou on Money Wages in Relation to Unemployment, 1937, EJ
  • 1939, Welfare propositions of economics and interpersonal comparisons of utility. Economic Journal 49:549–52.
  • Speculation and Economic Stability, 1939, RES
  • Capital Intensity and the Trade Cycle, 1939, Economica
  • A Model of the Trade Cycle, 1940, EJ
  • Professor Hayek and the Concertina Effect, 1942, Economica
  • The Relation of Economic Growth and Cyclical Fluctuations, 1954 EJ
  • An Expenditure Tax, 1955.
  • Alternative Theories of Distribution, 1956, RES
  • A Model of Economic Growth, 1957, EJ
  • Monetary Policy, Economic Stability, and Growth, 1958.
  • Economic Growth and the Problem of Inflation, 1959, Economica.
  • A Rejoinder to Mr. Atsumi and Professor Tobin, 1960, RES
  • Keynes's Theory of the Own-Rates of Interest, 1960, in Kaldor, 1960.
  • Essays on Value and Distribution, 1960.
  • Essays on Economic Stability and Growth, 1960.
  • Capital Accumulation and Economic Growth, 1961, in Lutz, editor, Theory of Capital
  • A New Model of Economic Growth, with James A. Mirrlees, 1962, RES
  • The Case for a Commodity Reserve Currency, with A.G. Hart and J. Tinbergen, 1964, UNCTAD
  • Essays on Economic Policy, 1964, two volumes.
  • Causes of the Slow Rate of Economic Growth in the UK, 1966.
  • The Case for Regional Policies, 1970, Scottish JE.
  • The New Monetarism, 1970, Lloyds Bank Review
  • Conflicts in National Economic Objectives, 1971, EJ
  • The Irrelevance of Equilibrium Economics, 1972, EJ
  • What is Wrong with Economic Theory, 1975, QJE
  • Inflation and Recession in the World Economy, 1976, EJ
  • Equilibrium Theory and Growth Theory, 1977, in Boskin, editor, Economics and Human Welfare.
  • Capitalism and Industrial Development, 1977, Cambridge JE
  • Further Essays on Economic Theory, 1978.
  • The Role of Increasing Returns, Technical Progress and Cumulative Causation..., 1981, Economie Appliquee
  • Fallacies on Monetarism, 1981, Kredit und Kapital.
  • The Scourge of Monetarism, 1982.
  • The economic consequences of Mrs. Thatcher, 1983.
  • The Role of Commodity Prices in Economic Recovery, 1983, Lloyds Bank Review
  • Keynesian Economics After Fifty Years, 1983, in Trevithick and Worswick, editors, Keynes and the Modern World
  • Economics Without Equilibrium, 1985.

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Kaldor, N. (1967) Strategic Factors in Economic Development, New York, Ithaca
  2. ^ Kaldor, N. (1939) "Speculation and economic stability, The Review of Economic Studies

Bacaan lanjutan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Thirlwall, Anthony P. (1987). Nicholas Kaldor. New York: New York University Press. 
  • Memorandum on the value added tax, Labour NEC archives, 1963

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]