Nicholas Kaldor

Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Nicholas Kaldor
Nicholas Kaldor.jpg
Lahir (1908-05-12)12 Mei 1908
Budapest, Hongaria
Meninggal 30 September 1986(1986-09-30) (umur 78)
Papworth Everard, Cambridgeshire, Inggris
Kebangsaan Britania Raya
Bidang Ekonomi politik
Mazhab Ekonomi pasca-Keynes
Dipengaruhi John Maynard Keynes, Gunnar Myrdal
Kontribusi Efisiensi Kaldor–Hicks
Hukum pertumbuhan Kaldor
Sebab kumulatif melingkar

Nicholas Kaldor, Baron Kaldor (lahir Káldor Miklós) (12 Mei 1908 – 30 September 1986) adalah ekonom Cambridge era pascaperang. Ia mengembangkan kriteria "kompensasi" yang disebut efisiensi Kaldor–Hicks untuk perbandingan kesejahteraan pada tahun 1939; kriteria ini diturunkan dari model jaring laba-laba. Ia juga mengamati fenomena rutin tertentu pada pertumbuhan ekonomi yang disebut hukum pertumbuhan Kaldor.[1] Kaldor juga bekerja sama dengan Gunnar Myrdal untuk mengembangkan konsep sebab kumulatif melingkar, sebuah pendekatan multisebab yang variabel inti dan tautannya terlihat jelas. Myrdal dan Kaldor mempelajari hubungan melingkar; dalam hubungan ini, kesalingtergantungan antarfaktor cenderung kuat dan variabel-variabel penentu proses besarnya saling terikat.

Gunnar Myrdal mengetahui konsep ini dari Knut Wicksell, lalu mengembangkannya bersama Nicholas Kaldor saat masih sama-sama bekerja di Komisi Ekonomi PBB untuk Eropa. Myrdal berfokus pada aspek sosial dari pembangunan, sedangkan Kaldor berfokus pada hubungan permintaan-penawaran di sektor produksi. Kaldor juga menciptakan istilah "convenience yield"[2] yang berkaitan dengan pasar komoditas dan teori penyimpanan (awalnya dikembangkan oleh Holbrook Working).

Karya[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • The Case Against Technical Progress, 1932, Economica
  • The Determinateness of Static Equilibrium, 1934, RES
  • The Equilibrium of the Firm, 1934, EJ
  • Market Imperfection and Excess Capacity, 1935, Economica
  • Pigou on Money Wages in Relation to Unemployment, 1937, EJ
  • 1939, Welfare propositions of economics and interpersonal comparisons of utility. Economic Journal 49:549–52.
  • Speculation and Economic Stability, 1939, RES
  • Capital Intensity and the Trade Cycle, 1939, Economica
  • A Model of the Trade Cycle, 1940, EJ
  • Professor Hayek and the Concertina Effect, 1942, Economica
  • The Relation of Economic Growth and Cyclical Fluctuations, 1954 EJ
  • An Expenditure Tax, 1955.
  • Alternative Theories of Distribution, 1956, RES
  • A Model of Economic Growth, 1957, EJ
  • Monetary Policy, Economic Stability, and Growth, 1958.
  • Economic Growth and the Problem of Inflation, 1959, Economica.
  • A Rejoinder to Mr. Atsumi and Professor Tobin, 1960, RES
  • Keynes's Theory of the Own-Rates of Interest, 1960, in Kaldor, 1960.
  • Essays on Value and Distribution, 1960.
  • Essays on Economic Stability and Growth, 1960.
  • Capital Accumulation and Economic Growth, 1961, in Lutz, editor, Theory of Capital
  • A New Model of Economic Growth, with James A. Mirrlees, 1962, RES
  • The Case for a Commodity Reserve Currency, with A.G. Hart and J. Tinbergen, 1964, UNCTAD
  • Essays on Economic Policy, 1964, two volumes.
  • Causes of the Slow Rate of Economic Growth in the UK, 1966.
  • The Case for Regional Policies, 1970, Scottish JE.
  • The New Monetarism, 1970, Lloyds Bank Review
  • Conflicts in National Economic Objectives, 1971, EJ
  • The Irrelevance of Equilibrium Economics, 1972, EJ
  • What is Wrong with Economic Theory, 1975, QJE
  • Inflation and Recession in the World Economy, 1976, EJ
  • Equilibrium Theory and Growth Theory, 1977, in Boskin, editor, Economics and Human Welfare.
  • Capitalism and Industrial Development, 1977, Cambridge JE
  • Further Essays on Economic Theory, 1978.
  • The Role of Increasing Returns, Technical Progress and Cumulative Causation..., 1981, Economie Appliquee
  • Fallacies on Monetarism, 1981, Kredit und Kapital.
  • The Scourge of Monetarism, 1982.
  • The economic consequences of Mrs. Thatcher, 1983.
  • The Role of Commodity Prices in Economic Recovery, 1983, Lloyds Bank Review
  • Keynesian Economics After Fifty Years, 1983, in Trevithick and Worswick, editors, Keynes and the Modern World
  • Economics Without Equilibrium, 1985.

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Kaldor, N. (1967) Strategic Factors in Economic Development, New York, Ithaca
  2. ^ Kaldor, N. (1939) "Speculation and economic stability, The Review of Economic Studies

Bacaan lanjutan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Thirlwall, Anthony P. (1987). Nicholas Kaldor. New York: New York University Press. 
  • Memorandum on the value added tax, Labour NEC archives, 1963

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]