Maximilien de Robespierre

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Potret diri Maximilien de Robespierre (ca. 1790)

Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre (lahir 6 Mei 1758 – meninggal 28 Juli 1794 pada umur 36 tahun) adalah salah satu tokoh paling terkenal dan berpengaruh pada Revolusi Perancis. Ia mengendalikan Komite Keselamatan Publik (bahasa Perancis: Comité de salut public) yang merupakan pemerintah de facto pada masa Pemerintahan Teror yang berakhir dengan penangkapan dan eksekusi Robespierre pada tahun 1794. Ia dipengaruhi oleh para filsuf Abad Pencerahan seperti Jean-Jacques Rousseau dan Montesquieu dan merupakan juru bicara utama kaum borjuis sayap kiri pada saat itu.

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Baker, Keith Michael (ed.) (1987). The Old Regime and the French Revolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226069354.  Good summary that relies almost entirely on primary source documents with short summarizing essays that explain those documents
  • Carlyle, Thomas (2002). The French Revolution: A History, Volume III: The Guillotine. Cambridge, MA: ISBN 1404303987.  A Romantic account more useful for historiographical studies than as accurate history
  • Carr, John. (1972). Robespierre: the force of circumstance. New York: St. Martin’s Press. 
  • Doyle, William, Haydon, Colin (eds.) (1999). Robespierre. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521591163.  A collection of essays covering not only Robespierre's thoughts and deeds but also the way he has been portrayed by historians and fictional writers alike.
  • Eagan, James Michael (1978). Maximilien Robespierre: Nationalist Dictator. New York: Octagon Books. ISBN 0374924406.  Presents Robespierre as the origin of Fascist dictators.
  • Hampson, Norman (1974). The Life and Opinions of Maximilien Robespierre. London: Duckworth. ISBN 0715607413.  Presents three contrasting views
  • Jordan, David P. (1989). The Revolutionary Career of Maximilien Robespierre. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226410374.  Sympathetic but not un-critical left-wing study
  • Lenotre, G., Robespierre's Rise and Fall, London: Hutchinson & Co. (1927) Critical
  • Matrat, Jean. (1971). Robespierre: or the tyranny of the Majority. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. ISBN 0-684-14055-1. 
  • Linton, Marisa. "Robespierre and the Terror", History Today, August 2006, Volume 56, Issue 8, pp. 23–29
  • Palmer, R.R. (1941). Twelve Who Ruled: The Year of Terror in the French Revolution. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-05119-4.  A sympathetic study of the Committee of Public Safety.
  • Rudé, George (1976). Robespierre: Portrait of a Revolutionary Democrat. New York: Viking Press. ISBN 0670601284.  Sympathetic Marxist analysis comparing him with Lenin and Mao.
  • Schama, Simon (1989). Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0394559487.  A revisionist account.
  • Scurr, Ruth. Fatal Purity: Robespierre and the French Revolution. London: Metropolitan Books, 2006 (ISBN 0-8050-7987-4).
  • Sobel, Robert, The French Revolution (1967)
  • Soboul, Albert. "Robespierre and the Popular Movement of 1793–4", Past and Present, No. 5. (May, 1954), pp. 54–70.
  • Thompson, James M. (1988). Robespierre. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. ISBN 0-631-15504-X.  Traditional biography with extensive and reliable research.
  • Tucker, Florence. (2005). 999 Little Known Facts. Oxford: Jonathan and Associates. ISBN 0-631-15504-X. 
  • Merriman, John(2004). "Thermidor"(2nd ed.). A history of modern Europe: from the Renaissance to the present,p 507. W. W. Norton & Company Ltd. ISBN 0-393-92495-5

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