Kerasukan

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Kerasukan atau kesurupan adalah keadaan kesadaran yang tidak biasa atau berubah dan perubahan perilaku terkait yang konon disebabkan oleh pengendailan tubuh manusia oleh roh, hantu, setan, atau dewa.[1] Konsep kerasukan roh atau entitas gaib dijumpai dalam banyak budaya dan agama, termasuk Buddha, Kristen,[2] Vodou Haiti, Hindu, Islam, Wicca, dan kepercayaan tradisional di Asia Tenggara serta Afrika. Tergantung pada konteks budaya di mana ia ditemukan, kerasukan dapat berupa sukarela atau tidak sukarela dan dapat dianggap memiliki efek menguntungkan atau merugikan pada individu yang mengalaminya.

Dalam sebuah studi pada tahun 1969 yang didanai oleh National Institute of Mental Health, kepercayaan mengenai kerasukan ditemukan pada 74 persen dari 488 sampel masyarakat yang mewakili berbagai belahan dunia, masyarakat dengan kepercayaan tertinggi ditemui dalam budaya Pasifik, dan insiden kerasukan terendah ditemui pada penduduk asli Amerika di Amerika Utara dan Amerika Selatan.[3][1] Ketika gereja-gereja Kristen Pantekosta dan Karismatik pindah ke wilayah Afrika dan Oseanik, akulturasi kepercayaan dapat terjadi, "setan" sering digunakan untuk menggambarkan agama-agama asli "lama", yang diusir oleh para pendeta Kristen.[4]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ a b Jones (2005), hlm. 8687.
  2. ^ Mark 5:9, Luke 8:30
  3. ^ Bourguignon & Ucko (1969).
  4. ^ Robbins (2004a), hlm. 117–143.

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