Ketahanan lingkungan

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Keamanan lingkungan mempelajari ancaman peristiwa lingkungan terhadap manusia, masyarakat, atau bangsa. Kajian ini berfokus pada dampak konflik manusia dan hubungan internasional terhadap lingkungan serta bagaimana masalah lingkungan bergerak melintasi batas negara.

General[sunting | sunting sumber]

Proyek Milenium Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa menyusun definisi keamanan lingkungan dan membuat definisi terpadu.

Keamanan lingkungan adalah kelayakan lingkungan bagi makhluk hidup dengan tiga sub-elemen:

  • mencegah atau memperbaiki kerusakan lingkungan akibat militer,
  • mencegah atau menanggapi konflik lingkungan, dan
  • melindungi lingkungan karena mengandung nilai moral.

Keamanan lingkungan mempertimbangkan kemampuan manusia, masyarakat, atau bangsa menghadapi risiko lingkungan, perubahan atau konflik, atau keterbatasan sumber daya alam. Misalnya, perubahan iklim dapat dipandang sebagai ancaman terhadap keamanan lingkungan. Aktivitas manusia memengaruhi emisi karbon dioksida, perubahan iklim dan lingkungan kawasan dan global, dan perubahan hasil panen. Hal ini dapat memicu kelangkaan pangan yang kemudian menimbulkan perdebatan politik, ketegangan suku, dan kerusuhan masyarakat.[1]

Keamanan lingkungan merupakan konsep penting dalam bidang hubungan internasional dan pembangunan internasional.

Bacaan pilihan[sunting | sunting sumber]

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  • Ullman, R.H. 1983. “Redefining Security,” International Security 8, No. 1 (Summer 1983): 129-153.
  • Westing, A.H. 1986. “An Expanded Concept of International Security,” In Global Resources and International Conflict, ed. Arthur H. Westing. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Myers, N. 1986. “The Environmental Dimension to Security Issues.” The Environmentalist 6 (1986): pp. 251–257.
  • Ehrlich, P.R., and A.H. Ehrlich. 1988. The Environmental Dimensions of National Security. Stanford, CA: Stanford Institute for Population and Resource Studies.
  • Svensson, U. 1988. “Environmental Security: A Concept.” Presented at the International Conference on Environmental Stress and Security, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden, December 1988.
  • Mathews, J.T. 1989. “Redefining Security,” Foreign Affairs 68, No. 2 (Spring 1989): 162-177.
  • Gleick, P H. “The Implications of Global Climate Changes for International Security.” Climate Change 15 (October 1989): pp. 303–325.
  • Gleick, P.H. 1990c. "Environment, resources, and international security and politics." In E. Arnett (ed.) Science and International Security: Responding to a Changing World. American Association for the Advancement of Science Press, Washington, D.C. pp. 501–523.
  • Gleick, P.H. 1991b. "Environment and security: The clear connections." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Vol. 47, No. 3, pp. 16–21.
  • Homer-Dixon, T.F. 1991. “On the Threshold: Environmental Changes as Causes of Acute Conflict, International Security 16, No. 2 (Fall 1991): 76-116
  • Romm, Joseph (1992). The Once and Future Superpower: How to Restore America's Economic, Energy, and Environmental Security. New York: William Morrow & Co.  ISBN 0-688-11868-2
  • Romm, Joseph J. 1993. Defining National Security: The Nonmilitary Aspects (New York: Council on Foreign Relations)
  • Levy, M.A. 1995. “Is the Environment a National Security Issue?” International Security 20, No. 2 (Fall 1995)
  • Swain, A. 1996. "Displacing the Conflict: Environmental Destruction in Bangladesh and Ethnic Conflict in India." Journal of Peace Research, 33(2), 189–204.
  • Wallensteen, P., & Swain, A. 1997. "Environment, Conflict and Cooperation." In D. Brune, D. Chapman, M. Gwynne, & J. Pacyna, The Global Environment. Science, Technology and Management (Vol. 2, pp. 691–704). Weinheim: VCH Verlagsgemeinschaft mbH.
  • Terminski, Bogumil. 2009. “Environmentally-Induced Displacement. Theoretical Frameworks and Current Challenges”, CEDEM, Université de Liège.
  • Dabelko, G.D. 1996. “Ideas and the Evolution of Environmental Security Conceptions.” Paper presented at the International Studies Association Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA, April 1996.
  • Kobtzeff, Oleg. 2000. “Environmental Security and Civil Society”, in- Gardner, Hall, (ed.) Central and South-central Europe in Transition, Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, 2000, pp. 219–296.
  • Dodds, F. Pippard, T. 2005. (edited) "Human and Environmental Security: An Agenda for Change, London. Earthscan.
  • Dodds, F. Higham, A. Sherman, R. 2009. (edited) "Climate Change and Energy Insecurity: The Challenge for Peace, Security and Development", London. Earthscan
  • Djoghlaf, A. Dodds, F. 2010 (edited) "Biodiversity and Ecosystem Insecurity: A Planet in Peril", London, Earthscan
  • Dodds, F. Bartram, J. 2016 (edited) "The Water, Food, Energy and Climate Nexus: Challenges and an agenda for action", London, Routledge

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Chalecki, Elizabeth. Environmental Security: A Case Study of Climate Change. Pacific Institute for Studies of Development, Environment, and Security

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