Demosthenes

Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Demosthenes
Demosthenes orator Louvre.jpg
Lahir 384 SM
Athena
Meninggal 322 SM (usia 62)
Pulau Kalaureia (sekarang Poros)

Demosthenes (/dɪˈmɒs.θənz/; bahasa Yunani: Δημοσθένης Dēmosthénēs [dɛːmostʰénɛːs]; 384–322 BC) adalah seorang orator dan negarawan Yunaniberpengaruh dari Athena kuno. His Orasi-orasinya memperlihatkan sebuah ekspresi yang signifikan dari kekuatan kecerdasan Athena pada zamannya dan berpengaruh pada politik dan budaya Yunani kuno pada abad ke-4 SM. Demosthenes mengetahui retorik dengan mempelajari pidato para orator besar pada masa sebelumnya. Ia menyampaikan pidato yudisial pertamanya pada usia 20 tahun

Tahun-tahun awal dan kehidupan pribadi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kehidupan pribadi dan keluarga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Patung dada Demosthenes (British Museum, London), salinan Romawi dari sebuah ukiran asli Yunani yang dibuat oleh Polyeuktos.

Demosthenes lahir pada 384 SM, pada tahun terakhir Olympiad ke-98 atau tahun pertama Olympiad ke-99.[1] Ayahnya—yang juga bernama Demosthenes—berasal dari sebuah suku lokal, Pandionis, dan tinggal di deme Paeania[2] di wilayah Athena, adalah seorang pembuat senjata kelas menengah.[3] Aeschines, lawan politik terbesar Demosthenes, menyatakan bahwa ibunya Kleoboule berdarah Scythia[4]—sebuah pernyataan yang diragukan oleh beberapa sarjana modern.[a] Demosthenes menjadi anak yatim pada usia tujuh tahun.

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ H. Weil, Biography of Demosthenes, 5–6
  2. ^ Aeschines, Against Ctesiphon, 171
  3. ^ E. Badian, "The Road to Prominence", 11
  4. ^ Aeschines, Against Ctesiphon, 172

Sumber[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sumber utama (Yunani dan Romawi)[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sumber sekunder[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Badian, Ernst (2002). "The Road to Prominence". Dalam Worthington, Ian. Demosthenes: Statesman and Orator. Routledge. ISBN 0-203-18769-5. 
  • Blanshard, Alastair J. L.; Sowerby, Tracey A. (Summer 2005). "Thomas Wilson's Demosthenes and the Politics of Tudor Translation". International Journal of the Classical Tradition. Springer. 12 (1): 46–80. doi:10.1007/s12138-005-0010-7. JSTOR 30222776. 
  • Blass, Friedrich (1887–1898). Die Attische Beredsamkeit (in German). Third Volume. B. G. Teubner. 
  • Bolansie, J. (1999). Herrmippos of Smyrna. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 90-04-11303-7. 
  • Braund, David (2003). "The Bosporan Kings and Classical Athens". Dalam Bilde, Pia Guldager; Højte, Jakob Munk; Stolba, Vladimir F. The Cauldron of Ariantas (PDF). Aarhus University Press. ISBN 87-7934-085-7. 
  • Burke, Edmund M. (1998). "The Looting of the Estate of the Elder Pericles". Classica et Mediaevalia V. 49 edited by Ole Thomsen. Museum Tusculanum Press. ISBN 87-7289-535-7. 
  • Burke, Edmund M. (October 2002). "The Early Political Speeches of Demosthenes: Elite Bias in the Response to Economic Crisis". Classical Antiquity. University of California Press. 21 (2): 165–193. JSTOR 10.1525/ca.2002.21.2.165. 
  • Carey, Chris (2000). Aeschines. University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-71223-5. 
  • Cawkwell, George (1978). Philip II of Macedon. Faber & Faber. ISBN 0-571-10958-6. 
  • Cohen, Edward (2002). "The Local Residents of Attica". The Athenian Nation. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09490-X. 
  • Cox, Cheryl Anne (1998). "The Nonkinsman, the Oikos, and the Household". Household Interests: Property, Marriage Strategies, and Family Dynamics in Ancient Athens. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01572-4. 
  • "Demosthenes". Encyclopaedic Dictionary The Helios (dalam bahasa Greek). 5. 1952. 
  • Droysen, Johann Gustav (1999). Apostolidis, Renos; Apostolidis, Irkos; Apostolidis, Stantis, ed. History of Alexander the Great (dalam bahasa Greek [translated by Renos Apostolidis]). Credit Bank (Trapeza Pisteos). ISBN 960-85313-5-7. 
  • Dunkan, Anne (2006). Performance and Identity in the Classical World. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-85282-X. 
  • Engels, Johannes (1989). Studien zur politischen Biographie des Hypereides (dalam bahasa German). Tuduv. ISBN 3-88073-295-7. 
  • Gibson, Graig A. (2002). Interpreting a Classic. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-22956-8. 
  • Goldstein, Jonathan A. (1968). The Letters of Demosthenes. Columbia University Press. 
  • Green, Peter (1992). Alexander of Macedon, 356-323 B.C. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-07166-2. 
  • Habinek, Thomas N. (2004). Ancient Rhetoric and Oratory. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-23515-9. 
  • Hamilton, J.R. (1974). Alexander the Great. University of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 0-8229-6084-2. 
  • Hansen, Mogens Herman (1999). The Athenian Democracy in the Age of Demosthenes. University of Oklahoma State. ISBN 0-8061-3143-8. 
  • Harris, Edward M. (1989). "Demosthenes' Speech against Meidias". Harvard Studies in Classical Philology. Department of the Classics, Harvard University. 92: 117–136. JSTOR 311355. 
  • Hawhee, Debra (2005). Bodily Arts: Rhetoric and Athletics in Ancient Greece. University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-70584-0. 
  • Innes, D.C. (2002). "Longinus and Caecilius: Models of the Sublime". Mnemosyne, Fourth Series. BRILL. 55 (3): 259–284. doi:10.1163/156852502760185261. JSTOR 4433333. 
  • Jaeger, Werner (1938). Demosthenes. Walter de Gruyter Company. ISBN 3-11-002527-2. 
  • Jebb, Sir Richard Claverhouse (1876). The Attic Orators from Antiphon to Isaeos. Macmillan and Co. 
  • Kapparis, Konstantinos A. (1999). Apollodoros Against Neaira. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-016390-X. 
  • Kennedy, George A. (1985). "Oratory". The Cambridge History of Classical Literature: Greek Literature. Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CHOL9780521210423. ISBN 0-521-21042-9. 
  • Long, Fredrick J. (2004). Ancient Rhetoric and Paul's Apology. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-84233-6. 
  • Macaulay, Thomas Babington (2004). "On Mitford's History of Greece". The Miscellaneous Writings and Speeches of Lord Macaulay Volume I. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 1-4191-7417-7. 
  • MacDowell, Douglas M. (2009). Demosthenes the Orator (edisi ke-digital). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-160873-4. 
  • Marcu, Valeru (2005). Men and Forces of Our Time. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 1-4179-9529-7. 
  • Murphy, James J. (2002). "Demosthenes". Encyclopaedia Britannica. 
  • Nietzsche, Friedrich (1909–1913). Beyond Good and Evil. The Complete Works of Friedrich Nietzsche. 
  • Nietzsche, Friedrich (1975). Lessons of Rhetoric. Plethron (from the Greek translation). 
  • Paparrigopoulos, Constantine (1925). Karolidis, Pavlos, ed. History of the Hellenic Nation (dalam bahasa Greek). Ab. Eleftheroudakis. 
  • Peck, Harry Thurston (1898). Harper's Dictionary Of Classical Literature And Antiquities. 
  • Phillips, David (2004). "Philip and Athens". Athenian Political Oratory: 16 Key Speeches. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-415-96609-4. 
  • Pickard, A. W. (2003). Demosthenes and the Last Days of Greek Freedom 384 - 322 B.C. Gorgias Press LLC. ISBN 1-59333-030-8. 
  • Phillips, David (2004). Athenian Political Oratory. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-415-96609-4. 
  • Romilly de, Jacqueline (1996). A Short History of Greek Literature. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-8014-8206-2. 
  • Romilly de, Jacqueline (2001). Ancient Greece against Violence (translated in Greek). To Asty. ISBN 960-86331-5-X. 
  • Rebhorn, Wayne A. (1999). Renaissance Debates on Rhetoric. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-226-14312-0. 
  • Rhodes, P.J. (2005). "Philip II of Macedon". A History of the Classical Greek World. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-22564-1. 
  • Rose, M.L. (2003). The Staff of Oedipus. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-11339-9. 
  • Schaefer, Arnold (1885). Demosthenes und seine Zeit (in German). Third Volume. B. G. Teubner. 
  • Slusser, G. (1999). "Ender's Game". Nursery Realms edited by G. Westfahl. University of Georgia Press. ISBN 0-8203-2144-3. 
  • Thomsen, Ole (1998). "The Looting of the Estate of the Elder Demosthenes". Classica et Mediaevalia — Revue Danoise De Philologie et D'Histoire. Museum Tusculanum Press. 49: 45–66. ISBN 978-87-7289-535-2. Diakses tanggal 2006-10-08. 
  • Trapp, Michael (2003). Greek and Latin Letters. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-49943-7. 
  • Tritle, Lawrence A. (1997). The Greek World in the Fourth Century. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-415-10583-8. 
  • Tsatsos, Konstantinos (1975). Demosthenes. Estia (in Greek). 
  • Usher, Stephen (1999). "Demosthenes Symboulos". Greek Oratory: Tradition and Originality. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-815074-1. 
  • Van Tongeren, Paul J. M. (1999). Reinterpreting Modern Culture: An Introduction to Friedrich Nietzsche's Philosophy. Purdue University Press. ISBN 1-55753-156-0. 
  • Vince, J.H. (1930). "Preface". Demosthenes Orations Vol. 1. Loeb Classical Library. 
  • Weil, Henri (1975). Biography of Demosthenes in "Demosthenes' Orations". Papyros (from the Greek translation). 
  • Whitehead, David (2000). Hypereides: the Forensic Speeches. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-815218-3. 
  • Wooten, Cecil (October–November 1977). "Cicero's Reactions to Demosthenes: A Clarification". The Classical Journal. The Classical Association of the Middle West and South. 73 (1): 37–43. JSTOR 3296953. 
  • Worman, Nancy (Spring 2004). "Insult and Oral Excess in the Disputes between Aeschines and Demosthenes". The American Journal of Philology. The Johns Hopkins University Press. 125 (1): 1–25. doi:10.1353/ajp.2004.0011. JSTOR 1562208. 
  • Worthington, Ian (2003). Alexander the Great: A Reader. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-29187-9. 
  • Worthington, Ian (2004). "Oral Performance in the Athenian Assembly and the Demosthenic Prooemia". Oral Performance and its Context edited by C.J. MacKie. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 90-04-13680-0. 
  • Worthington, Ian (1986). "The Chronology of the Harpalus Affair". Symbolae Osloenses. Taylor & Francis. 61 (1): 63–76. doi:10.1080/00397678608590798. Diakses tanggal 2011-11-08. 
  • Yunis, Harvey (2001). Demosthenes: On the Crown. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-62930-6. 
  • Yunis, Harvey (2005). "The Rhetoric of Law in Fourth-Century Athens". The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Greek Law edited by Michael Gagarin, David Cohen. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-81840-0. 

Bacaan tambahan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Adams, Charles Darwin (1927). Demosthenes and His Influence. New York: Longmans. 
  • Brodribb, William Jackson (1877). Demosthenes. J.B. Lippincott & co. 
  • Bryan, William Jennings (1906). The world's famous orations (Volume 1). New York: Funk and Wagnalls Company. 
  • Butcher, Samuel Henry (1888). Demosthenes. Macmillan & co. 
  • Clemenceau, Georges (1926). Demosthène. Plon. 
  • Easterling P. E., Knox Bernard M. W. (1985). The Cambridge History of Classical Literature. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-21042-9. 
  • Kennedy, George A. (1963). Art of Persuasion in Greece. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University press. 
  • Murphy, James J., ed. (1967). Demosthenes' "On the Crown": A Critical Case Study of a Masterpiece of Ancient Oratory. New York: Random House. 
  • Pearson, Lionel (1981). The art of Demosthenes. Chico, CA: Scholars press. ISBN 0-89130-551-3. 
  • Renault, Mary (1975). The nature of Alexander.  Here and in her fiction, Renault portrays Demosthenes as corrupt, cowardly and cruel.

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Orator Attik

Templat:Topik Yunani Kuno