Demosthenes

Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
Lompat ke: navigasi, cari
Demosthenes
Demosthenes orator Louvre.jpg
Lahir 384 SM
Athena
Meninggal 322 SM (usia 62)
Pulau Kalaureia (sekarang Poros)

Demosthenes (/dɪˈmɒs.θənz/; bahasa Yunani: Δημοσθένης Dēmosthénēs [dɛːmostʰénɛːs]; 384–322 BC) adalah seorang orator dan negarawan Yunaniberpengaruh dari Athena kuno. His Orasi-orasinya memperlihatkan sebuah ekspresi yang signifikan dari kekuatan kecerdasan Athena pada zamannya dan berpengaruh pada politik dan budaya Yunani kuno pada abad ke-4 SM. Demosthenes mengetahui retorik dengan mempelajari pidato para orator besar pada masa sebelumnya. Ia menyampaikan pidato yudisial pertamanya pada usia 20 tahun

Tahun-tahun awal dan kehidupan pribadi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kehidupan pribadi dan keluarga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Patung dada Demosthenes (British Museum, London), salinan Romawi dari sebuah ukiran asli Yunani yang dibuat oleh Polyeuktos.

Demosthenes lahir pada 384 SM, pada tahun terakhir Olympiad ke-98 atau tahun pertama Olympiad ke-99.[1] Ayahnya—yang juga bernama Demosthenes—berasal dari sebuah suku lokal, Pandionis, dan tinggal di deme Paeania[2] di wilayah Athena, adalah seorang pembuat senjata kelas menengah.[3] Aeschines, lawan politik terbesar Demosthenes, menyatakan bahwa ibunya Kleoboule berdarah Scythia[4]—sebuah pernyataan yang diragukan oleh beberapa sarjana modern.[a] Demosthenes menjadi anak yatim pada usia tujuh tahun.

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ H. Weil, Biography of Demosthenes, 5–6
  2. ^ Aeschines, Against Ctesiphon, 171
  3. ^ E. Badian, "The Road to Prominence", 11
  4. ^ Aeschines, Against Ctesiphon, 172

Sumber[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sumber utama (Yunani dan Romawi)[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sumber sekunder[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Badian, Ernst (2002). "The Road to Prominence". Di Worthington, Ian. Demosthenes: Statesman and Orator. Routledge. ISBN 0-203-18769-5. 
  • Blanshard, Alastair J. L.; Sowerby, Tracey A. (Summer 2005). "Thomas Wilson's Demosthenes and the Politics of Tudor Translation". International Journal of the Classical Tradition (Springer) 12 (1): 46–80. doi:10.1007/s12138-005-0010-7. JSTOR 30222776. 
  • Blass, Friedrich (1887–1898). Die Attische Beredsamkeit (in German). Third Volume. B. G. Teubner. 
  • Bolansie, J. (1999). Herrmippos of Smyrna. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 90-04-11303-7. 
  • Braund, David (2003). "The Bosporan Kings and Classical Athens". Di Bilde, Pia Guldager; Højte, Jakob Munk; Stolba, Vladimir F. The Cauldron of Ariantas (PDF). Aarhus University Press. ISBN 87-7934-085-7. 
  • Burke, Edmund M. (1998). "The Looting of the Estate of the Elder Pericles". Classica et Mediaevalia V. 49 edited by Ole Thomsen. Museum Tusculanum Press. ISBN 87-7289-535-7. 
  • Burke, Edmund M. (October 2002). "The Early Political Speeches of Demosthenes: Elite Bias in the Response to Economic Crisis". Classical Antiquity (University of California Press) 21 (2): 165–193. JSTOR 10.1525/ca.2002.21.2.165. 
  • Carey, Chris (2000). Aeschines. University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-71223-5. 
  • Cawkwell, George (1978). Philip II of Macedon. Faber & Faber. ISBN 0-571-10958-6. 
  • Cohen, Edward (2002). "The Local Residents of Attica". The Athenian Nation. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09490-X. 
  • Cox, Cheryl Anne (1998). "The Nonkinsman, the Oikos, and the Household". Household Interests: Property, Marriage Strategies, and Family Dynamics in Ancient Athens. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01572-4. 
  • "Demosthenes". Encyclopaedic Dictionary The Helios (dalam Greek) 5. 1952. 
  • Droysen, Johann Gustav (1999). Apostolidis, Renos; Apostolidis, Irkos; Apostolidis, Stantis, ed. History of Alexander the Great (dalam Greek [translated by Renos Apostolidis]). Credit Bank (Trapeza Pisteos). ISBN 960-85313-5-7. 
  • Dunkan, Anne (2006). Performance and Identity in the Classical World. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-85282-X. 
  • Engels, Johannes (1989). Studien zur politischen Biographie des Hypereides (dalam German). Tuduv. ISBN 3-88073-295-7. 
  • Gibson, Graig A. (2002). Interpreting a Classic. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-22956-8. 
  • Goldstein, Jonathan A. (1968). The Letters of Demosthenes. Columbia University Press. 
  • Green, Peter (1992). Alexander of Macedon, 356-323 B.C. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-07166-2. 
  • Habinek, Thomas N. (2004). Ancient Rhetoric and Oratory. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-23515-9. 
  • Hamilton, J.R. (1974). Alexander the Great. University of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 0-8229-6084-2. 
  • Hansen, Mogens Herman (1999). The Athenian Democracy in the Age of Demosthenes. University of Oklahoma State. ISBN 0-8061-3143-8. 
  • Harris, Edward M. (1989). "Demosthenes' Speech against Meidias". Harvard Studies in Classical Philology (Department of the Classics, Harvard University) 92: 117–136. JSTOR 311355. 
  • Hawhee, Debra (2005). Bodily Arts: Rhetoric and Athletics in Ancient Greece. University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-70584-0. 
  • Innes, D.C. (2002). "Longinus and Caecilius: Models of the Sublime". Mnemosyne, Fourth Series (BRILL) 55 (3): 259–284. doi:10.1163/156852502760185261. JSTOR 4433333. 
  • Jaeger, Werner (1938). Demosthenes. Walter de Gruyter Company. ISBN 3-11-002527-2. 
  • Jebb, Sir Richard Claverhouse (1876). The Attic Orators from Antiphon to Isaeos. Macmillan and Co. 
  • Kapparis, Konstantinos A. (1999). Apollodoros Against Neaira. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-016390-X. 
  • Kennedy, George A. (1985). "Oratory". The Cambridge History of Classical Literature: Greek Literature. Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CHOL9780521210423. ISBN 0-521-21042-9. 
  • Long, Fredrick J. (2004). Ancient Rhetoric and Paul's Apology. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-84233-6. 
  • Macaulay, Thomas Babington (2004). "On Mitford's History of Greece". The Miscellaneous Writings and Speeches of Lord Macaulay Volume I. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 1-4191-7417-7. 
  • MacDowell, Douglas M. (2009). Demosthenes the Orator (digital ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-160873-4. 
  • Marcu, Valeru (2005). Men and Forces of Our Time. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 1-4179-9529-7. 
  • Murphy, James J. (2002). "Demosthenes". Encyclopaedia Britannica. 
  • Nietzsche, Friedrich (1909–1913). Beyond Good and Evil. The Complete Works of Friedrich Nietzsche. 
  • Nietzsche, Friedrich (1975). Lessons of Rhetoric. Plethron (from the Greek translation). 
  • Paparrigopoulos, Constantine (1925). Karolidis, Pavlos, ed. History of the Hellenic Nation (dalam Greek) Ab. Eleftheroudakis. 
  • Peck, Harry Thurston (1898). Harper's Dictionary Of Classical Literature And Antiquities. 
  • Phillips, David (2004). "Philip and Athens". Athenian Political Oratory: 16 Key Speeches. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-415-96609-4. 
  • Pickard, A. W. (2003). Demosthenes and the Last Days of Greek Freedom 384 - 322 B.C. Gorgias Press LLC. ISBN 1-59333-030-8. 
  • Phillips, David (2004). Athenian Political Oratory. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-415-96609-4. 
  • Romilly de, Jacqueline (1996). A Short History of Greek Literature. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-8014-8206-2. 
  • Romilly de, Jacqueline (2001). Ancient Greece against Violence (translated in Greek). To Asty. ISBN 960-86331-5-X. 
  • Rebhorn, Wayne A. (1999). Renaissance Debates on Rhetoric. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-226-14312-0. 
  • Rhodes, P.J. (2005). "Philip II of Macedon". A History of the Classical Greek World. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-22564-1. 
  • Rose, M.L. (2003). The Staff of Oedipus. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-11339-9. 
  • Schaefer, Arnold (1885). Demosthenes und seine Zeit (in German). Third Volume. B. G. Teubner. 
  • Slusser, G. (1999). "Ender's Game". Nursery Realms edited by G. Westfahl. University of Georgia Press. ISBN 0-8203-2144-3. 
  • Thomsen, Ole (1998). "The Looting of the Estate of the Elder Demosthenes". Classica et Mediaevalia — Revue Danoise De Philologie et D'Histoire (Museum Tusculanum Press) 49: 45–66. ISBN 978-87-7289-535-2. Diakses tanggal 2006-10-08. 
  • Trapp, Michael (2003). Greek and Latin Letters. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-49943-7. 
  • Tritle, Lawrence A. (1997). The Greek World in the Fourth Century. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-415-10583-8. 
  • Tsatsos, Konstantinos (1975). Demosthenes. Estia (in Greek). 
  • Usher, Stephen (1999). "Demosthenes Symboulos". Greek Oratory: Tradition and Originality. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-815074-1. 
  • Van Tongeren, Paul J. M. (1999). Reinterpreting Modern Culture: An Introduction to Friedrich Nietzsche's Philosophy. Purdue University Press. ISBN 1-55753-156-0. 
  • Vince, J.H. (1930). "Preface". Demosthenes Orations Vol. 1. Loeb Classical Library. 
  • Weil, Henri (1975). Biography of Demosthenes in "Demosthenes' Orations". Papyros (from the Greek translation). 
  • Whitehead, David (2000). Hypereides: the Forensic Speeches. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-815218-3. 
  • Wooten, Cecil (October–November 1977). "Cicero's Reactions to Demosthenes: A Clarification". The Classical Journal (The Classical Association of the Middle West and South) 73 (1): 37–43. JSTOR 3296953. 
  • Worman, Nancy (Spring 2004). "Insult and Oral Excess in the Disputes between Aeschines and Demosthenes". The American Journal of Philology (The Johns Hopkins University Press) 125 (1): 1–25. doi:10.1353/ajp.2004.0011. JSTOR 1562208. 
  • Worthington, Ian (2003). Alexander the Great: A Reader. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-29187-9. 
  • Worthington, Ian (2004). "Oral Performance in the Athenian Assembly and the Demosthenic Prooemia". Oral Performance and its Context edited by C.J. MacKie. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 90-04-13680-0. 
  • Worthington, Ian (1986). "The Chronology of the Harpalus Affair". Symbolae Osloenses (Taylor & Francis) 61 (1): 63–76. doi:10.1080/00397678608590798. Diakses tanggal 2011-11-08. 
  • Yunis, Harvey (2001). Demosthenes: On the Crown. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-62930-6. 
  • Yunis, Harvey (2005). "The Rhetoric of Law in Fourth-Century Athens". The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Greek Law edited by Michael Gagarin, David Cohen. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-81840-0. 

Bacaan tambahan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Adams, Charles Darwin (1927). Demosthenes and His Influence. New York: Longmans. 
  • Brodribb, William Jackson (1877). Demosthenes. J.B. Lippincott & co. 
  • Bryan, William Jennings (1906). The world's famous orations (Volume 1). New York: Funk and Wagnalls Company. 
  • Butcher, Samuel Henry (1888). Demosthenes. Macmillan & co. 
  • Clemenceau, Georges (1926). Demosthène. Plon. 
  • Easterling P. E., Knox Bernard M. W. (1985). The Cambridge History of Classical Literature. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-21042-9. 
  • Kennedy, George A. (1963). Art of Persuasion in Greece. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University press. 
  • Murphy, James J., ed. (1967). Demosthenes' "On the Crown": A Critical Case Study of a Masterpiece of Ancient Oratory. New York: Random House. 
  • Pearson, Lionel (1981). The art of Demosthenes. Chico, CA: Scholars press. ISBN 0-89130-551-3. 
  • Renault, Mary (1975). The nature of Alexander.  Here and in her fiction, Renault portrays Demosthenes as corrupt, cowardly and cruel.

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Orator Attik

Templat:Topik Yunani Kuno