Braille kanji

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Kantenji atau braille kanji adalah sistem huruf braille untuk transkripsi tulisan Jepang. Dirancang pada tahun 1969 oleh Taiichi Kawakami (川上 泰一), seorang guru di Sekolah Osaka untuk Tunanetra (ja), dan direvisi pada tahun 1991. Ini melengkapi huruf braille Jepang dengan menyediakan cara penyandian langsung karakter kanji tanpa harus terlebih dahulu mengubahnya menjadi kana. Ini menggunakan sel braille 8-titik, dengan enam titik bawah yang sesuai dengan sel Braille Jepang standar, dan dua titik atas menunjukkan bagian penyusun kanji.[1][2] Titik-titik atas diberi nomor 0 (kiri atas) dan 7 (kanan atas), kebalikan dari braille 8-titik di negara-negara Barat, di mana titik-titik tambahan ditambahkan ke bagian bawah sel. Kanji akan ditranskripsi dalam satu hingga tiga sel braille.

Prinsip[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sel braille Kantenji dengan titik atas diakritik 0 dan 7

Hanya kanji yang menggunakan titik atas 0 dan 7. Sel yang hanya menempati titik 1-6 harus dibaca sebagai kana, atau kurang umum sebagai radikal tengah dari kanji tiga sel.

Bacaan Kana digunakan untuk memperoleh elemen kanji umum yang homofon. Misalnya, kana ki digunakan untuk elemen berdasarkan kanji 木, yang memiliki ki sebagai salah satu pengucapan dasarnya. Dua titik atas kemudian digunakan untuk menunjukkan apakah ini adalah murni karakter 木 atau karakter radikal. Untuk karakter murni, kedua titik atas ditambahkan sehingga menjadi ki. Untuk karakter radikal, satu titik atas digunakan: Titik atas kiri saja menunjukkan bagian radikal pertama (kiri, atas, atau luar) dari kanji, seperti pada 村, dan titik kanan atas saja menandakan bagian radikal akhir (kanan, bawah, atau dalam) kanji, seperti pada 林.[1] Untuk kanji yang radikalnya diulang lebih dari satu kali, sufiks yang bersesuaian berasal dari angka braille ditambah titik kanan atas menunjukkan berapa kali suatu radikal ditulis, seperti pada = 森.[2]

That is, the kana ki is the basis for the kanji ki, as well as the two components of hayashi, and combined with the digit 3 it forms mori.

Kantenji are frequently abbreviated. For example, the kana u is used for the 'roof' radical, 宀, which is conventionally pronounced u. Thus, combined with the kanji ko (from the kana ko), it forms the compound character ji (as in 漢字 kanji). However, in print the 'roof' radical is not normally used on its own, while in kantenji it is used as an abbreviation for the most common kanji with the roof radical, ie "house".

A more extreme abbreviation is 恋 koi "love". In print this is (historically) 糸–言–糸 on the top plus 心 on the bottom, but in kantenji it is abbreviated to 言 + 心, for koi.

Karena hanya ada 63 pola enam titik yang bisa dijadikan dasar kantenji, sementara ada lebih banyak radikal yang menyusun kanji (total ada 214 radikal), masing-masing pola kantenji berhubungan dengan beberapa komponen dalam cetakan. there are only 63 six-dot patterns that kantenji can be based on, while there are significantly more elements from which kanji are built in print (for instance, the 214 radicals), each of the kantenji patterns corresponds to several components in print. Most are visually or thematically linked. For example, the kana ⠺ (braille pattern dots-2456)so is the arbitrary basis for the kanji uma "horse". From there, three kanji for farm animals are derived by adding a "selector" (a pattern with a single lower dot): (馬 + selector 1) 牛 ushi "cattle", (馬 + selector 2) 羊 hitsuji "sheep", and (馬+selector 3) 豚 buta "pig". The kanji 曽 , on the other hand, is based on the same braille pattern, despite having nothing to do with the horse radical or its meaning, because it is the historical basis of the kana そ so. Thus (selector 4 + 馬) is 曽 . The selectors are generally only used for individual kanji. When 馬, 牛, 羊, 豚, or 曽 used as components of compound kanji in print, all are most commonly written as or in braille.[3]

The order of the cells is sometimes reversed to distinguish kanji that would otherwise be written the same in braille. For example, 料 is written (斗 + 私) to distinguish it from 科 (私 + 斗). Tricks such as reordering and abbreviation help utilize the 4,000 two-cell combinations. However, for rarer kanji, three cells are required. The middle cell may be a selector, as in 汲 (水 + selector 5 + 系), or a kanji element, as in 瑠 (玉 + 月 + 田).[3]

Kantenji elements[sunting | sunting sumber]

The 63 basic 6-dot braille patterns are used to define 57 kanji elements and six selectors that build more complex characters from constituent parts. The blank 6-dot braille pattern always indicates a space, and is otherwise unused in kantenji.

Standard Japanese braille kana and Kantenji assignments
Kantenji cell Kana Kantenji element   Kantenji cell Kana Kantenji element   Kantenji cell Kana Kantenji element   Kantenji cell Kana Kantenji element
⠀ (braille pattern blank) space - ⠂ (braille pattern dots-2) selector 1 ⠄ (braille pattern dots-3) - selector 2 ⠆ (braille pattern dots-23) 糹 / #2
⡀ (braille pattern dots-7) selector 3 ⡂ (braille pattern dots-27) ⡄ (braille pattern dots-37) ⡆ (braille pattern dots-237)
⠐ (braille pattern dots-5) -y- selector 4 ⠒ (braille pattern dots-25) 宀 / #3 ⠔ (braille pattern dots-35) ⠖ (braille pattern dots-235)
⡐ (braille pattern dots-57) ⡒ (braille pattern dots-257) ⡔ (braille pattern dots-357) ⡖ (braille pattern dots-2357)
⠠ (braille pattern dots-6) selector 5 ⠢ (braille pattern dots-26) ⠤ (braille pattern dots-36) choon 宿 ⠦ (braille pattern dots-236)
⡠ (braille pattern dots-67) ⡢ (braille pattern dots-267) ⡤ (braille pattern dots-367) ⡦ (braille pattern dots-2367)
⠰ (braille pattern dots-56) -y-゛ ⠲ (braille pattern dots-256) ⠴ (braille pattern dots-356) ⠶ (braille pattern dots-2356)
⡰ (braille pattern dots-567) 广 ⡲ (braille pattern dots-2567) ⡴ (braille pattern dots-3567) ⡶ (braille pattern dots-23567)
⢀ (braille pattern dots-8) selector 6 ⢂ (braille pattern dots-28) ⢄ (braille pattern dots-38) - ⢆ (braille pattern dots-238)
⣀ (braille pattern dots-78) 「 」 - 龸 ⣂ (braille pattern dots-278) ⣄ (braille pattern dots-378) - ⣆ (braille pattern dots-2378)
⢐ (braille pattern dots-58) -y-゜ ⢒ (braille pattern dots-258) ⢔ (braille pattern dots-358) ⢖ (braille pattern dots-2358)
⣐ (braille pattern dots-578) ⣒ (braille pattern dots-2578) ⣔ (braille pattern dots-3578) ⣖ (braille pattern dots-23578)
⢠ (braille pattern dots-68) ゛゜ ⢢ (braille pattern dots-268) ⢤ (braille pattern dots-368) - ⢦ (braille pattern dots-2368) 巿
⣠ (braille pattern dots-678) ⣢ (braille pattern dots-2678) ⣤ (braille pattern dots-3678) " ⣦ (braille pattern dots-23678)
⢰ (braille pattern dots-568) -y-゛゜ ⢲ (braille pattern dots-2568) ⢴ (braille pattern dots-3568) ⢶ (braille pattern dots-23568)
⣰ (braille pattern dots-5678) # ⣲ (braille pattern dots-25678) ⣴ (braille pattern dots-35678) ⣶ (braille pattern dots-235678)

Single-cell kantenji characters[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kantenji with both upper dots raised indicate a single-cell kantenji character. These are all common characters, and they generally define the archetype for character components based on a dot pattern.

⠏ (braille pattern dots-1234) - ⡋ (braille pattern dots-1247) - ⡍ (braille pattern dots-1347) - ⡏ (braille pattern dots-12347) - ⠛ (braille pattern dots-1245) - ⠝ (braille pattern dots-1345) - ⠟ (braille pattern dots-12345) - ⡙ (braille pattern dots-1457) - ⡛ (braille pattern dots-12457) - ⡝ (braille pattern dots-13457) - ⡟ (braille pattern dots-123457) - ⠫ (braille pattern dots-1246) -
⠭ (braille pattern dots-1346) - 宿 ⠯ (braille pattern dots-12346) - ⡩ (braille pattern dots-1467) - ⡫ (braille pattern dots-12467) - ⡭ (braille pattern dots-13467) - ⡯ (braille pattern dots-123467) - ⠹ (braille pattern dots-1456) - ⠻ (braille pattern dots-12456) - ⠽ (braille pattern dots-13456) - ⠿ (braille pattern dots-123456) - ⡹ (braille pattern dots-14567) - ⡻ (braille pattern dots-124567) -
⡽ (braille pattern dots-134567) - ⡿ (braille pattern dots-1234567) - ⼿ ⢋ (braille pattern dots-1248) - ⢍ (braille pattern dots-1348) - ⢏ (braille pattern dots-12348) - ⣉ (braille pattern dots-1478) - ⣋ (braille pattern dots-12478) - ⣍ (braille pattern dots-13478) - ⣏ (braille pattern dots-123478) - ⢙ (braille pattern dots-1458) - ⢛ (braille pattern dots-12458) - ⢝ (braille pattern dots-13458) -
⢟ (braille pattern dots-123458) - ⣙ (braille pattern dots-14578) - ⣛ (braille pattern dots-124578) - ⣝ (braille pattern dots-134578) - ⣟ (braille pattern dots-1234578) - ⢩ (braille pattern dots-1468) - ⢫ (braille pattern dots-12468) - ⢭ (braille pattern dots-13468) - ⢯ (braille pattern dots-123468) - 巿 ⣩ (braille pattern dots-14678) - ⣫ (braille pattern dots-124678) - ⣭ (braille pattern dots-134678) -
⣯ (braille pattern dots-1234678) - ⢹ (braille pattern dots-14568) - ⢻ (braille pattern dots-124568) - ⢽ (braille pattern dots-134568) - ⢿ (braille pattern dots-1234568) - ⣹ (braille pattern dots-145678) - ⣻ (braille pattern dots-1245678) - ⣽ (braille pattern dots-1345678) - ⣿ (braille pattern dots-12345678) -

Double-cell variant kantenji characters[sunting | sunting sumber]

Another kantenji form uses a base character with a selector (a 6-dot pattern with a single raised dot) either preceding or following to indicate a variant on the archetype of the dot pattern. When a base character is followed by selectors 4, 5, or 6, it usually indicates a variant with a single stroke added or removed from the base character. Variant kantenji are composed the same as a regular double-cell kantenji, with dot-0 (upper left) raised in the first cell, and dot-7 (upper right) raised in the second.

  • ⢵ (braille pattern dots-13568)⠊ (braille pattern dots-24) - そ/馬 + selector 1 = 牛
  • ⢵ (braille pattern dots-13568)⠌ (braille pattern dots-34) - そ/馬 + selector 2 = 羊
  • ⢵ (braille pattern dots-13568)⡈ (braille pattern dots-47) - そ/馬 + selector 3 = 豚
  • ⠑ (braille pattern dots-15)⢼ (braille pattern dots-34568) - selector 4 + そ/馬 = 曽
  • ⡑ (braille pattern dots-157)⠊ (braille pattern dots-24) - や/病 + selector 1 = 山
  • ⡑ (braille pattern dots-157)⠌ (braille pattern dots-34) - や/病 + selector 2 = 矢
  • ⢧ (braille pattern dots-12368)⠊ (braille pattern dots-24) - し/巿 + selector 1 = 色
  • ⢧ (braille pattern dots-12368)⡈ (braille pattern dots-47) - し/巿 + selector 3 = 巾
  • ⢇ (braille pattern dots-1238)⠘ (braille pattern dots-45) - き/木 + selector 4 = 未
  • ⢇ (braille pattern dots-1238)⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) - き/木+ selector 5 = 末
  • ⢇ (braille pattern dots-1238)⢈ (braille pattern dots-48) - き/木+ selector 6 = 本

Double-cell thematic kantenji characters[sunting | sunting sumber]

Some kantenji sharing a common element are linked thematically, rather than structurally. The first cell indicates the general concept, and the second cell will be a determiner, pinning down the specific meaning and the character associated with it. The determiner is usually by pronunciation, although determiners can be associated by meaning as well. For example, characters for numbers are all preceded by 数, and followed by a cell corresponding to its braille number or to a similar looking character, while the kantenji for colors are 色 followed by the initial kana from one of its pronunciations. Like the base kantenji of variants, thematic determiners can be used in making composed kantenji, e.g. ⢶ (braille pattern dots-23568) - せ/食 can be used for the element 青 in composed kantenji, as its thematic kantenji is ⢧ (braille pattern dots-12368)⢾ (braille pattern dots-234568) - し//色 + せ/食 = 青.

  • ⢧ (braille pattern dots-12368)⠊ (braille pattern dots-24) - し//色 + か/金 = 赤
  • ⢧ (braille pattern dots-12368)⢚ (braille pattern dots-2458) - し//色 + く/草 = 黒
  • ⢧ (braille pattern dots-12368)⢜ (braille pattern dots-3458) - し//色 + こ/子 = 黄
  • ⢧ (braille pattern dots-12368)⢾ (braille pattern dots-234568) - し//色 + せ/食 = 青
  • ⢧ (braille pattern dots-12368)⣮ (braille pattern dots-234678) - し//色 + み/耳 = 緑
  • ⢧ (braille pattern dots-12368)⣺ (braille pattern dots-245678) - し//色 + む/車 = 紫
  • ⢡ (braille pattern dots-168)⠼ (braille pattern dots-3456) - 数 + #0 = 零 (0)
  • ⢡ (braille pattern dots-168)⠊ (braille pattern dots-24) - 数 + #1 = 一
  • ⢡ (braille pattern dots-168)⠎ (braille pattern dots-234) - 数 + #2 = 二
  • ⢡ (braille pattern dots-168)⠚ (braille pattern dots-245) - 数 + #3 = 三

etc.

Kantenji yang terdiri dari dua sel karakter[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bentuk kantenji yang paling umum menggunakan pola dua sel, yang pertama dengan titik kiri atas terangkat, yang kedua dengan mengangkat bagian kanan atas. Pola titik menunjukkan dua elemen dasar yang terdiri dari kanji yang tersusun. Perhatikan bahwa elemen varian sering diwakili oleh kantenji dasar dan elemen tematik oleh penentu mereka.

  • ⠓ (braille pattern dots-125)⢜ (braille pattern dots-3458) - う/宀 + こ/子 = 字
  • ⢇ (braille pattern dots-1238)⢎ (braille pattern dots-2348) - き/木 + き/木 = 林
  • ⢇ (braille pattern dots-1238)⣾ (braille pattern dots-2345678) - き/木 + め/目 = 相
  • ⠵ (braille pattern dots-1356)⣾ (braille pattern dots-2345678) - ろ/十 + め/目 = 直
  • ⣁ (braille pattern dots-178)⡚ (braille pattern dots-2457) - 学/龸 + ぬ/力 = 労
  • ⣅ (braille pattern dots-1378)⢾ (braille pattern dots-234568) - 日 + せ//青 = 晴
  • ⢱ (braille pattern dots-1568)⢾ (braille pattern dots-234568) - 氷/氵 + せ//青 = 清
  • ⢑ (braille pattern dots-158)⢼ (braille pattern dots-34568) - 亻 + そ//曽 = 僧

Duplikasi dan multi-sel terdiri kantenji[sunting | sunting sumber]

More complex kanji can be composed in two different ways, depending on whether they are composed of a single element, repeated, or multiple distinct elements. A kanji composed of a duplicated element can be indicated by a base character followed by the braille number counting repetitions of the element. Note that a single repeat is indicated by simply repeating the element in a standard double-cell kantenji. A complex kantenji can also be composed like a regular double-cell kantenji, adding a middle cell with neither upper dot raised. The last cell is always indicated by the upper right dot, no matter the length of the composed kantenji.

  • ⢇ (braille pattern dots-1238)⠚ (braille pattern dots-245) - き/木 + #3 = 森
  • ⣱ (braille pattern dots-15678)⣴ (braille pattern dots-35678)⠪ (braille pattern dots-246) - 火 + も/門 + ら/月 = 燗

Kantenji terbalik[sunting | sunting sumber]

Beberapa pola kantenji dapat digunakan untuk menulis dua atau lebih kanji umum, sementara membalikkan elemen tidak akan menandakan karakter umum apa pun. Ketika ini terjadi, bentuk terbalik dapat digunakan untuk menandakan kanji kedua itu.

  • ⢕ (braille pattern dots-1358)⣚ (braille pattern dots-24578) - こ/子 + ふ/女 = 好
  • ⢵ (braille pattern dots-13568)⡎ (braille pattern dots-2347) - そ//羊 + に/水 = 洋
  • ⠵ (braille pattern dots-1356)⢎ (braille pattern dots-2348) - ろ//才 + き/木 = 材
  • ⣷ (braille pattern dots-1235678)⢼ (braille pattern dots-34568) - め/目 + そ//羊 = 着

Teks[sunting | sunting sumber]

Contoh teks:

 
KusamakuraNatsume Sōseki
Chi-ni hatarakeba kado-ga tatsu.
Dekati semuanya secara rasional, dan Anda menjadi kasar.
Jō-ni sao-saseba nagasareru.
Tiang di sepanjang aliran emosi, dan Anda akan terhanyut dalam arus.
Iji-wo tōseba kyūkutsu-da.
Berikan kebebasan untuk keinginan Anda, dan Anda menjadi tidak nyaman.

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ a b "盲人と文字 -漢点字の世界". Diakses tanggal 27 December 2013. 
  2. ^ a b "漢点字". Diakses tanggal 27 December 2013. 
  3. ^ a b "漢点字入門" (PDF). Diarsipkan dari versi asli (PDF) tanggal 31 December 2013. Diakses tanggal 30 December 2013. 

Templat:Japanese language