Agama tradisional Afrika

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Kepercayaan dan praktik tradisional orang Afrika meliputi agama-agama tradisional.[1][2] Umumnya, tradisi tersebut lisan ketimbang tertulis,[3][4] yang meliputi kepercayaan dalam pencipta tertinggi, kepercayaan akan roh-roh, penyembahan leluhur, penggunaan sihir dan pengobatan tradisional.[5][6] Peran kemanusiaan umumnya dipandang sebagai salah satu alam yang terharmonisasikan dengan supranatural.[6][7]

Meskipun penganut agama tradisional di Afrika sulit diperkirakan, karena sinkretisme dengan Kristen, Islam, dan Yudaisme, para praktisionernya diperkiarakan berjumlah lebih dari 100 juta, atau sekitar 10 persen dari penduduk di benua tersebut.[8] Agama-agama diaspora Afrika juga dipraktikan dalam diaspora di benua Amerika, seperti Candomble, Santeria, dan Vodou.[3][9]

Statistik[sunting | sunting sumber]

Seorang pria penyembuh Igbo abad ke-20 di Nigeria, Afrika Barat

Para praktisioner agama tradisional di Afrika Sub-Sahara tersebar pada 43 negara, dan diperkirakan berjumlah lebih dari 100 juta,[8] meskipun agama di Afrika terbesar adalah Kristen dan Islam.

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bacaan tambahan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Encyclopedia of African Religion, - Molefi Asante, Sage Publications, 1412936365
  • Julian Baldick (1997). Black God: the Afroasiatic roots of the Jewish, Christian, and Muslim religions. Syracuse University Press:ISBN 0-8156-0522-6
  • West African Traditional Religion Kofi Asare Opoku | Publisher: FEP International Private Limited (1978), ASIN: B0000EE0IT
  • John Mbiti African Religions and Philosophy (1969) African Writers Series, Heinemann ISBN 0-435-89591-5
  • Wade Abimbola, ed. and trans. Ifa Divination Poetry (New York: NOK, 1977).
  • Ulli Beier, ed. The Origins of Life and Death: African Creation Myths (London: Heinemann, 1966).
  • Herbert Cole, Mbari: Art and Life among the Owerri Igbo (Bloomington: Indiana University press, 1982).
  • J. B. Danquah, The Akan Doctrine of God: A Fragment of Gold Coast Ethics and Religion, second edition (London: Cass, 1968).
  • Marcel Griaule and Germaine Dietterlen, Le Mythe Cosmogonique (Paris: Institut d'Ethnologie, 1965).
  • Rems Nna Umeasigbu, The Way We Lived: Ibo Customs and Stories (London: Heinemann, 1969).
  • Sandra Barnes, Africa's Ogun: Old World and New (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989).
  • Segun Gbadagesin, African Philosophy: Traditional Yoruba Philosophy and Contemporary African Realities (New York: Peter Lang, 1999).
  • Judith Gleason, Oya, in Praise of an African Goddess (Harper Collins, 1992).
  • Bolaji Idowu, God in Yoruba Belief (Plainview: Original Publications, rev. and enlarged ed., 1995)
  • Wole Soyinka, Myth, Literature and the African World (Cambridge University Press, 1976).
  • E. Geoffrey Parinder, African Traditional Religion, Third ed. (London: Sheldon Press, 1974). ISBN 0-85969-014-8 pbk.
  • E. Geoffrey Parinder, "Traditional Religion", in his Africa's Three Religions, Second ed. (London: Sheldon Press, 1976, ISBN 0-85969-096-2), p. [15-96].
  • S. Solagbade Popoola, Ikunle Abiyamo: It is on Bent Knees that I gave Birth (2007 Asefin Media Publication)
  • David Chidester, "Religions of South Africa" pp. 17–19
  • Alisa LaGamma (2000). Art and oracle: African art and rituals of divination. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 978-0-87099-933-8. 

Catatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Dr J.O. Awolalu, Studies in Comparative Religion Vol. 10, No. 2. (Spring, 1976).
  2. ^ "African religions". 
  3. ^ a b Juergensmeyer, Mark (2006). The Oxford Handbook Of Global Religions. ISBN 0-19-513798-1. 
  4. ^ S. Mbiti, John (1991). Introduction to African religion. ISBN 0-435-94002-3. 
  5. ^ An African Story BBC
  6. ^ a b Encyclopedia of African Religion (Sage, 2009) Molefi Asante
  7. ^ What is religion? An African understanding
  8. ^ a b Britannica Book of the Year (2003), Encyclopædia Britannica (2003) ISBN 978-0-85229-956-2 p.306
    Menurut Encyclopædia Britannica, pada pertengahan 2002, terdapat 480,453,000 Kristen, 329,869,000 Muslim dan 98,734,000 orang yang mempraktikan agama-agama tradisional di Afrika Ian S. Markham, A World Religions Reader (1996) Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers is cited by Morehouse University as giving the mid-1990s figure of 278,250,800 Muslims in Africa, but still as 40.8% of the total. These numbers are estimates, and remain a matter of conjecture (see Amadu Jacky Kaba). The spread of Christianity and Islam in Africa: a survey and analysis of the numbers and percentages of Christians, Muslims and those who practice indigenous religions. The Western Journal of Black Studies, Vol 29, Number 2, (June 2005), discusses the estimations of various almanacs and encyclopediae, placing Britannica's estimate as the most agreed on figure. Notes the figure presented at the World Christian Encyclopedia, summarized here, as being an outlier. On rates of growth, Islam and Pentecostal Christianity are highest, see: The List: The World's Fastest-Growing Religions, Foreign Policy, May 2007.
  9. ^ Anthony Appiah, Kwame; Louis Gates, Henry (2010). Encyclopedia of Africa. ISBN 0-19-533770-0. 

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Topik agama