Abwehr

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Abwehr (diucapkan [ˈapveːɐ̯]) adalah dinas intelijen militer Jerman untuk Reichswehr dan Wehrmacht dari tahun 1920 sampai 1945.[1] Meskipun Perjanjian Versailles melarang Jerman untuk membentuk organisasi intelijen, Jerman membentuk kelompok spionase pada tahun 1920 di bawah Kementerian Pertahanan, menamainya Abwehr.[2] Tujuan awal Abwehr adalah sebagai pertahanan terhadap spionase asing—peran organisasi yang kemudian berkembang pesat.[3] Di bawah kepemimpinan Jenderal Kurt von Schleicher, satuan intelijen militer dan individu digabungkan, dan pada tahun 1929, dipusatkan di bawah kendali Kementerian Pertahanan, yang membentuk landasan bagi manifestasi Abwehr.

Setiap markas Abwehr di seluruh Jerman didasarkan pada distrik-distrik militer, dan perwakilan dibuka di negara-negara netral yang dapat menerima dan di wilayah-wilayah pendudukan ketika wilayah kekuasaan Reich mulai berkembang.[4] Kementerian Pertahanan berganti nama menjadi Kementerian Perang pada tahun 1935, diikuti oleh berkuasanya Adolf Hitler, yang membentuk angkatan bersenjata OKW. OKW menjadi bagian dari "staf pekerja" pribadi Führer sejak bulan Juni 1938 dan Abwehr menjadi agen intelijennya di bawah kendali Wakil Laksamana Wilhelm Canaris.[5] Kantor pusatnya terletak di 76/78 Tirpitzufer, Berlin, berdekatan dengan kantor OKW.

Kepala[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kepala Abwehr Mulai jabatan Akhir jabatan Lama menjabat Defence branch
1
Friedrich Gempp
Gempp, FriedrichKolonel
Friedrich Gempp
(1873–1947)
1 Januari 1921Juni 19276 tahun, 5 bulan Angkatan Darat Republik Weimar
2
Günther Schwantes
Schwantes, GüntherMeior
Günther Schwantes
(1881–1942)
Juni 1927Februari 19291 tahun, 8 bulan Angkatan Darat Republik Weimar
3
Ferdinand von Bredow
Bredow, FerdinandLetnan Kolonel
Ferdinand von Bredow
(1884–1934)
Februari 19292 Juni 19323 tahun, 4 bulan Angkatan Darat Republik Weimar
4
Conrad Patzig
Patzig, ConradLaksamana Muda
Conrad Patzig
(1888–1975)
6 Juni 19321 Januari 19352 tahun, 209 hari Kriegsmarine
5
Wilhelm Canaris
Canaris, WilhelmLaksamana
Wilhelm Canaris
(1887–1945)
1 Januari 193512 Februari 19449 tahun, 42 hari Kriegsmarine
6
Georg Hansen
Hansen, GeorgKolonel
Georg Hansen
(1904–1944)
13 Februari 19441 Juni 1944109 hari Angkatan Darat Nazi Jerman
7
Walter Schellenberg
Schellenberg, WalterSS-Brigadeführer
Walter Schellenberg
(1910–1952)
1 Juni 19444 Mei 1945337 hari Schutzstaffel
8
Otto Skorzeny
Skorzeny, OttoSS-Obersturmbannführer
Otto Skorzeny
(1908–1975)
5 Mei 19458 Mei 19453 hari Schutzstaffel

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Holmes 2009, hlm. 2.
  2. ^ Zentner & Bedürftig 1991, hlm. 2.
  3. ^ Dear & Foot 1995, hlm. 1.
  4. ^ Taylor & Shaw 1997, hlm. 11.
  5. ^ Taylor 1995, hlm. 165.

Bibliografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

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