Ular karang

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Ular karang
Micruroides euryxanthus.jpg
Ular karang gurun Sonoran, Micruroides euryxanthus
Klasifikasi ilmiah
Kingdom: Animalia
Filum: Chordata
Subfilum: Vertebrata
Kelas: Reptilia
Ordo: Squamata
Subordo: Serpentes
Famili: Elapidae
Bangsa: Calliophiini
Sinonim
  • Micrurini
  • Micruroini
  • Maticorini
  • Calliophiini

Ular karang adalah kelompok ular berbisa yang berwarna cerah dari suku Elapidae. Ular-ular ini terdapat di Asia bagian selatan, timur, dan tenggara, dan Amerika.

Taksonomi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Hasil studi genetika menyimpulkan bahwa nenek moyang ular ini adalah marga dari Indo-Malaya. Menunjukkan bahwa kelompok ini berasal dari Asia.[1][2]

Pengenalan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Semua jenis ular ini berbisa dan memilik warna dominan merah atau cokelat pada tubuh atau bagian tubuhnya. Untuk kelompok dari Amerika, warna merah adalah warna utama. Seluruhnya adalah ular penggali liang dan juga tinggal di celah-celah batu. Panjang tubuh biasanya antara 30 cm sampai 1 meter, pernah pula ditemukan yang panjangnya mencapai 1,5 meter.[3]

Mimikri[sunting | sunting sumber]

Di Amerika Tengah, Meksiko, dan AS, banya jenis-jenis ular tidak berbisa yang memiliki warna serupa dengan Ular karang Amerika. Sehingga orang sering salah mengira bahwa ular-ular tersebut berbisa, tetapi sebenarnya tidak berbisa. Beberapa spesies ular di Amerika Utara yang warnanya menyerupai ular karang Amerika adalah:

Biasanya cara yang digunakan oleh penduduk AS adalah dengan menggunakan istilah-istilah dalam bahasa Inggris sebagai berikut:

  • "Red and yellow, kill a fellow. Red and black, friend of Jack."
  • "Red on yellow will kill a fellow, but red on black is a friend of Jack."
  • "Red on yellow, kill a fellow; Red on black, cut him some slack!"
  • "Red on yellow, deadly fellow; Red on black, venom lack."
  • "Red and yellow will kill you fellow; Red and black is friend Jack."
  • "Red on yellow, kill a fellow. Red on black, you're all right Jack."
  • "Red next to black is a friend of Jack; red next to yellow will kill a fellow."
  • "Red to yellow, kill a fellow. Red to black, venom lack."
  • "If red touches black, you're okay Jack; if red touches yellow, you're a dead fellow."
  • "Red next to black, you can pat him on the back; red next to yellow, he can kill a fellow."
  • "Red next to black, venom I lack; red next to yellow, run away fellow."
  • "Red and black, friend of Jack; red and yellow kill a fellow."
  • "Red touches yellow, not a nice fellow; if red touches black, good friend of Jack."
  • "Red touch yellow, you're a dead fellow; red touch black, you're okay Jack."
  • "Red touch black, good for Jack; red touch yellow, kill a fellow."
  • "Yellow and red, you are dead; black and white you're all right."
  • "Red and black, death you lack; yellow and red, you are dead; black and white, say good night;"
  • "Red touch yellow, kill a fellow; red touch black, venom lack."
  • "Red and yellow, deadly fellow; red and black, friendly Jack."
  • "Red next to yellow, a dangerous fellow."
  • "Red and yellow = Stop and use caution. Just like a stop light."
  • "Red and yellow, deadly fellow. Red and black, friend of Jack."

Genus[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rumpun ini mencakup 4 genus, yakni:

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Slowinski, J. B. and Keogh J. S. (April 2000). "Phylogenetic Relationships of Elapid Snakes Based on Cytochrome b mtDNA Sequences". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 15 (1): 157–164. doi:10.1006/mpev.1999.0725. PMID 10764543. 
  2. ^ Slowinski, J. B., Boundy, J. and Lawson, R. (June 2001). "The Phylogenetic Relationships of Asian Coral Snakes (Elapidae: Calliophis and Maticora) Based on Morphological and Molecular Characters". Herpetologica. 57 (2): 233–245. JSTOR 3893186. 
  3. ^ http://www.madprogrammer.com/snakes/CoralSnake/

Bacaan lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the Snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume III., Containing the Colubridæ (Opisthoglyphæ and Proteroglyphæ)... Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History). (Taylor and Francis, Printers.) London. xiv + 727 pp. + Plates I.- XXV. (Elaps, 28 species, pp. 411–433 + Plate XX.)
  • Roze, J.A. 1996. Coral Snakes of the Americas: Biology, Identification, and Venoms. Krieger. Malabar, Florida. 340 pp. ISBN 978-0894648472.
  • Tanaka G. D., Furtado Md. F. D., Portaro F. C. V., Sant'Anna O. A. & Tambourgi D. V. (2010). "Diversity of Micrurus Snake Species Related to Their Venom Toxic Effects and the Prospective of Antivenom Neutralization". PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 4(3): e622. DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000622

Informasi lainnya[sunting | sunting sumber]