R-7 (keluarga roket)

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Soviet rocket in La Coupole Flickr 1391384251 f29c5bd867 o.jpg
Kendaraan peluncur roket Soviet, mulai dari ICBM R7 hingga peluncur Sputnik, Vostok, Voskhod dan Soyuz

Keluarga roket R-7 (Rusia: Р-7) adalah serangkaian roket, berasal dari R-7 Semyorka Soviet, ICBM pertama di dunia. Lebih roket R-7 telah diluncurkan daripada keluarga roket besar lainnya.

R-7 ternyata tidak praktis sebagai rudal balistik, tetapi menemukan aplikasi panjang di Soviet dan program ruang Rusia kemudian. Keluarga R-7 terdiri dari kedua rudal, dan roket pembawa orbital. Derivatif termasuk Vostok, Voskhod dan roket Soyuz, yang telah digunakan untuk semua Soviet, dan kemudian spaceflights berawak Rusia. Jenis ini memiliki konfigurasi yang unik di mana empat mesin berbahan bakar cair break-away mengelilingi inti pusat. Inti bertindak sebagai "tahap kedua" berlaku setelah empat mesin yang lain dibuang.

Varian[sunting | sunting sumber]

Data dibawah merupakan data pengenalan. Sebagian besar roket R 7 telah pensiun. Versi aktif berwarna hijau.

Nama GRAU
index
Fungsi N° Core
Stages[a]
Penerbangan perdana Penerbangan final Peluncuran[b] Keterangan
Total Sukses Gagal
(+ partial)
R-7 Semyorka 8K71 ICBM 1 15 May 1957 27 February 1961 27 18 9 World's first ICBM
Sputnik-PS 8K71PS Carrier rocket 1 4 October 1957 3 November 1957 2 2 0 World's first carrier rocket
Launched Sputnik 1 and Sputnik 2
Sputnik 8A91 Carrier rocket 1 27 April 1958 15 May 1958 2 1 1 Launched Sputnik 3
Luna 8K72 Carrier rocket 2 23 September 1958 16 April 1960 9 2 7 Launched first Lunar probes
R-7A Semyorka 8K74 ICBM 1 23 December 1959 25 July 1967 21 18 3
Vostok-L 8K72L Carrier rocket 2 15 May 1960 1 December 1960 4 3 1
Molniya 8K78 Carrier rocket 3 20 January 1960 3 December 1965 26 12 14
Vostok-K 8K72K Carrier rocket 2 22 December 1960 10 July 1964 13 11 2 Used for manned Vostok missions
First rocket to launch a man into space
Molniya-L 8K78L Carrier rocket 4
Unbuilt
Vostok-2 8A92 Carrier rocket 2 1 June 1962 12 May 1967 45 40 5
Polyot 11A59 Carrier rocket 1 1 November 1963 12 April 1964 2 2 0
Voskhod 11A57 Carrier rocket 2 16 November 1963 29 June 1976 300 277 23 Launched manned Voskhod 1 and Voskhod 2 missions
Molniya-M 8K78M Carrier rocket 3 19 February 1964 30 September 2010[1] 297 276 21
Vostok-2M 8A92M Carrier rocket 2 28 August 1964 29 August 1991 94 92 2
Soyuz/Vostok 11A510 Carrier rocket 3 27 December 1965 20 July 1966 2 2 0
Soyuz 11A511 Carrier rocket 2 28 November 1966 24 May 1975 30 28 2 Launched several manned Soyuz missions
Soyuz-B 11K55 Carrier rocket 2
Unbuilt
Soyuz-V 11K56 Carrier rocket 2
Unbuilt
Soyuz-R 11A514 Carrier rocket 2
Unbuilt
Soyuz-L 11A511L Carrier rocket 2 24 November 1970 12 August 1971 3 3 0
Soyuz-M 11A511M Carrier rocket 2 27 December 1971 31 March 1976 8 8 0
Soyuz-U 11A511U Carrier rocket 2 or 3 18 May 1973 Active 783 763 21[2] Single most launched carrier rocket ever built
Used for a number of manned Soyuz launches
Soyuz-U2 11A511U2 Carrier rocket 2 23 December 1982 3 September 1995 72 72 0 Used for a number of manned Soyuz launches
Soyuz-FG 11A511U-FG Carrier rocket 2 or 3 20 May 2001 Active 56 56 0 Used for current manned Soyuz launches
Soyuz-2.1a / STA 14A14A Carrier rocket 2 or 3 8 November 2004 Active 28 26 1+1p
Soyuz-2.1b / STB 14A14B Carrier rocket 2 or 3 27 December 2006 Active 30 28 1+1p
Soyuz-2-1v 14A15 Carrier rocket 2 28 December 2013 Active 2 1 1p
  1. ^ Not including boosters
  2. ^ As of May 7, 2016

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Mu, Xuequan (1 October 2010). "Russia sends military satellite into space". Xinhua. Diakses tanggal 30 September 2010. 
  2. ^ In 1983, flight Soyuz T-10a took fire on the launch pad before the end of the countdown, so it is not counted in the list of launches; this is why adding successes and failures yields 778 launches instead of 777.
  • McDowell, Jonathan. "Launch List - R-7 Family". Jonathan's Space Page. Diakses tanggal 2008-12-21. 
  • Wade, Mark. "Soyuz". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Diakses tanggal 2008-12-21.