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Likurgus Sedang Berkonsultasi dengan Pithia (1835/1845), seperti yang digambarkan oleh Eugène Delacroix.

Pithia (/ˈpɪθiə/,[1] bahasa Yunani: Πυθία [pyːˈtʰi.a]), yang umumnya dikenal sebagai Orakel Delphi, adalah nama yang diberikan kepada pendeta wanita Kuil Apollo di Delphi yang menjabat sebagai orakel.

Nama "Pithia" berasal dari kata Pytho, yang dikatakan merupakan nama asli dari Delphi. Dalam etimologi, bangsa Yunani memberikan nama tempat tersebut dari pengucapan, pythein (πύθειν), yang merujuk kepada bau manis menyengat dari jenazah monster Pithon setelah dipanah oleh Apollo.[2]

Pithia didirikan pada abad ke-8 SM,[3] dan dikenal karena nubuat-nubuatnya yang terinspirasi dari roh-rohiwa dewa (atau antusiasme), dalam hal ini Apollo. Pendeta wanita Pithia telah ada dari akhir abad ke-7 SM dan masih digunakan sebagai wadah untuk berkonsultasi sampai abad ke-4 Masehi.[4] Pada masa tersebut, Orakel Delphi merupakan orakel paling prestisius dan otoritatif bagi bangsa Yunani, dan ia merupakan wanita paling berkuasa pada zaman klasik. Orakel tersebut adalah salah satu lembaga keagamaan yang paling terdokumentasi pada zaman Yunani klasik. Pengarang-pengarang yang menyebut orakel tersebut meliputi Aeskilus, Aristoteles, Klemens dari Aleksandria, Diodorus, Diogenes, Euripides, Herodotus, Yulianus, Justin, Livy, Lucan, Nepos, Ovid, Pausanias, Pindar, Plato, Plutarch, Sophocles, Strabo, Thucydides dan Xenophon.

Catatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ ""Pythia" main entry Random House Dictionary (American), further down Collins Dictionary (British)". Dictionary.com. 
  2. ^ Homeric Hymn to Apollo 363–369.
  3. ^ Athletes and Oracles: The Transformation of Olympia and Delphi in the Eighth Century BC; Morgan C. 1990, p. 148.
  4. ^ Delphi: A History of the Center of the Ancient World; Michael Scott, Princeton University Press, p. 30

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

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  • de Boer, Jelle Zeilinga, Jeffrey P. Chandon & John Rigby Hale, "New Evidence for the Geological Origins of the Ancient Delphic Oracle," Geology 29.8, 707–711 (2001)
  • de Boer, Jelle Zeilinga, Jeffrey P. Chandon, John Rigby Hale & Henry A. Spiller, "Questioning the Delphic Oracle", Scientific American (August 2003)
  • Bouché-Leclercq, Auguste, Histoire de la divination dans l'Antiquité, volumes I-IV, Paris (1879–1882)
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  • Burkert, Walter Greek Religion, Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-36280-2 (1985); Orig. in German (1977)
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  • Etiope, G., D. Christodoulou, M. Geraga, P. Favali, & G. Papatheodorou, "The geological links of the ancient Delphic Oracle (Greece): a reappraisal of natural gas occurrence and origin", Geology, 34, 821–824 (2006)
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