Pierre-Simon de Laplace

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Pierre-Simon, Marquis de Laplace
Pierre-Simon Laplace.jpg
Gambaran oleh Madame Feytaud, 1842
Lahir23 Maret 1749
Beaumont-en-Auge, Normandia, France
Meninggal5 Maret 1827(1827-03-05) (umur 77)
Paris, France
Tempat tinggalFlag of France.svg Prancis
Warga negaraFlag of France.svg Prancis
Dikenal atasMekanika selestial
Ekuasi Laplace
Operator Laplace
Transformasi Laplace
Karier ilmiah
BidangAstronomi
Matematika
InstitusiÉcole Militaire (1769-1776)

Pierre-Simon, Marquis de Laplace (lahir 23 Maret 1749 – meninggal 5 Maret 1827 pada umur 77 tahun) adalah seorang ahli matematika dan astronom Prancis yang mengemukakan teori bahwa bumi jutaan tahun yang lalu terpisah dari matahari dan secara bertahap kulit luarnya mengering dan mengeras. Pada tahun 1773, di depan Akademi Prancis, dia membuktikan bahwa gerakan planet-planet adalah stabil. Penemuan Laplace lainnya adalah di bidang integral kalkulus, diferensial terbatas, persamaan diferensial, dan astronomi. Ia menemukan Mekanika selestial, Ekuasi Laplace, Operator Laplace dan Transformasi Laplace. Suatu ketika Napoleon Bonaparte bertanya kepada Laplace tentang peran tuhan yang tidak disinggung dalam karyanya, Laplace menjawab dengan tegas bahwa peran Tuhan tidak diperlukan dalam keteraturan alam raya ini.

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  • Andoyer, H. (1922). "L'œuvre scientifique de Laplace". Paris (dalam bahasa Prancis). Paris Payot. Bibcode:1922osdl.book.....A. 
  • Bigourdan, G. (1931). "La jeunesse de P.-S. Laplace". La Science Moderne (dalam bahasa Prancis). 9: 377–384. 
  • Crosland, M. (1967). The Society of Arcueil: A View of French Science at the Time of Napoleon I. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-435-54201-6. 
  • – (2006) "A Science Empire in Napoleonic France", History of Science, vol. 44, pp. 29–48
  • Dale, A. I. (1982). "Bayes or Laplace? An examination of the origin and early applications of Bayes' theorem". Archive for History of Exact Sciences. 27: 23–47. doi:10.1007/BF00348352 (tidak aktif 18 January 2021). 
  • David, F. N. (1965) "Some notes on Laplace", in Neyman, J. & LeCam, L. M. (eds) Bernoulli, Bayes and Laplace, Berlin, pp. 30–44.
  • Deakin, M. A. B. (1981). "The development of the Laplace transform". Archive for History of Exact Sciences. 25 (4): 343–390. doi:10.1007/BF01395660. 
  • — (1982). "The development of the Laplace transform". Archive for History of Exact Sciences. 26 (4): 351–381. doi:10.1007/BF00418754. 
  • Dhombres, J. (1989). "La théorie de la capillarité selon Laplace: mathématisation superficielle ou étendue". Revue d'Histoire des Sciences et de Leurs Applications (dalam bahasa Prancis). 62: 43–70. doi:10.3406/rhs.1989.4134. 
  • Duveen, D.; Hahn, R. (1957). "Laplace's succession to Bézout's post of Examinateur des élèves de l'artillerie". Isis. 48 (4): 416–427. doi:10.1086/348608. 
  • Finn, B. S. (1964). "Laplace and the speed of sound". Isis. 55: 7–19. doi:10.1086/349791. 
  • Fourier, J. B. J. (1829). "Éloge historique de M. le Marquis de Laplace" (PDF). Mémoires de l'Académie Royale des Sciences (dalam bahasa Prancis). 10: lxxxi–cii. Diarsipkan dari versi asli (PDF) tanggal 24 July 2013. , delivered 15 June 1829, published in 1831.
  • Gillispie, C. C. (1972). "Probability and politics: Laplace, Condorcet, and Turgot". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 116 (1): 1–20. 
  • – (1997) Pierre Simon Laplace 1749–1827: A Life in Exact Science, Princeton: Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-01185-0.
  • Grattan-Guinness, I., 2005, "'Exposition du système du monde' and 'Traité de méchanique céleste'" in his Landmark Writings in Western Mathematics. Elsevier: 242–57.
  • Gribbin, John. The Scientists: A History of Science Told Through the Lives of Its Greatest Inventors. New York, Random House, 2002. p. 299.
  • Hahn, R. (1955). "Laplace's religious views". Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences. 8: 38–40. 
  • – (1981) "Laplace and the Vanishing Role of God in the Physical Universe", in Woolf, Henry, ed., The Analytic Spirit: Essays in the History of Science. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-1350-8.
  • — (1982). Calendar of the Correspondence of Pierre Simon Laplace. 8 (edisi ke-Berkeley Papers in the History of Science). Berkeley, CA: University of California. ISBN 978-0-918102-07-2. 
  • — (1994). New Calendar of the Correspondence of Pierre Simon Laplace. 16 (edisi ke-Berkeley Papers in the History of Science). Berkeley, CA: University of California. ISBN 978-0-918102-07-2. 
  • – (2005) Pierre Simon Laplace 1749–1827: A Determined Scientist, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, ISBN 978-0-674-01892-1.
  • Israel, Werner (1987). "Dark stars: the evolution of an idea". Dalam Hawking, Stephen W.; Israel, Werner. 300 Years of Gravitation. Cambridge University Press. hlm. 199–276. 
  • John J. O'Connor and Edmund F. Robertson. Pierre-Simon de Laplace di MacTutor archive. (1999)
  • Nikulin, M. (1992). "A remark on the converse of Laplace's theorem". Journal of Soviet Mathematics. 59 (4): 976–979. doi:10.1007/bf01099128. 
  • Rouse Ball, W.W. [1908] (2003) "Pierre Simon Laplace (1749–1827)", in A Short Account of the History of Mathematics, 4th ed., Dover, ISBN 0-486-20630-0.
  • Stigler, S. M. (1975). "Napoleonic statistics: the work of Laplace". Biometrika. 62 (2): 503–517. doi:10.2307/2335393. JSTOR 2335393. 
  • — (1978). "Laplace's early work: chronology and citations". Isis. 69 (2): 234–254. Bibcode:1978Isis...69..234S. doi:10.1086/352006. 
  • Whitrow, G. J. (2001) "Laplace, Pierre-Simon, marquis de", Encyclopædia Britannica, Deluxe CDROM edition
  • Whittaker, E. T. (1949a). "Laplace". Mathematical Gazette. 33 (303): 1–12. doi:10.2307/3608408. JSTOR 3608408. 
  • — (1949b). "Laplace". American Mathematical Monthly. 56 (6): 369–372. doi:10.2307/2306273. JSTOR 2306273. 
  • Wilson, C. (1985). "The Great Inequality of Jupiter and Saturn: from Kepler to Laplace". Archive for History of Exact Sciences. 33 (1–3): 15–290. Bibcode:1985AHES...33...15W. doi:10.1007/BF00328048. 
  • Young, T. (1821). Elementary Illustrations of the Celestial Mechanics of Laplace: Part the First, Comprehending the First Book. London, England: John Murray – via Internet Archive. laplace. 

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