Perjanjian UKUSA

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Komunitas UKUSA
Peta negara-negara komunitas UKUSA bersama Irlandia

Amerika Serikat
Australia
Britania Raya
Kanada
Selandia Baru

United Kingdom–United States of America Agreement (UKUSA, /juːkˈsɑː/ yu-ku-SA),[1][2] atau Perjanjian Britania Raya–Amerika Serikat, adalah perjanjian kerja sama multilateral dalam bidang intelijen sinyal antara Britania Raya, Amerika Serikat, Kanada, Australia, dan Selandia Baru. Aliansi operasi intelijen ini juga dikenal dengan istilah Five Eyes (FVEY).[3][4][5][6]

Berawal dari kesepakatan informal terkait dengan Piagam Atlantik 1941, perjanjian rahasia ini diperbarui lagi melalui pengesahan Perjanjian BRUSA 1943 sebelum diberlakukan secara resmi pada tanggal 5 Maret 1946 oleh Britania Raya dan Amerika Serikat. Pada tahun-tahun berikutnya, perjanjian ini diperluas untuk mencakup tiga jajahan Persemakmuran Kanada, Australia, dan Selandia Baru. Negara-negara lain ("pihak ketiga") seperti Jerman Barat, Filipina, dan beberapa negara Skandinavia juga bergabung dengan komunitas UKUSA.[7]

Sebagian besar pembagian informasi ini dilakukan melalui jaringan ultrasensitif STONEGHOST. Jaringan ini berisi "rahasia-rahasia dunia Barat yang sangat dijaga ketat".[8] Selain menetapkan peraturan pembagian intelijen, perjanjian ini meresmikan dan menetapkan "Hubungan Istimewa" (Special Relationship) antara Britania Raya dan Amerika Serikat.[9][10]

Karena tergolong perjanjian rahasia, keberadaannya tidak diketahui oleh Perdana Menteri Australia sampai tahun 1973,[11] dan baru diungkapkan ke publik tahun 2005.[10] Pada 25 Juni 2010, untuk pertama kalinya dalam sejarah, teks lengkap perjanjian ini dirilis ke publik oleh Arsip Nasional Britania Raya dan bisa diakses di Internet.[12][7] Sesaat setelah dirilis, Perjanjian UKUSA sepanjang tujuh halaman ini diakui oleh majalah Time sebagai salah satu dokumen terpenting era Perang Dingin karena memiliki dampak sejarah yang besar.[10]

Saat ini, pengungkapan pengintaian massal 2013 oleh Edward Snowden menunjukkan bahwa aktivitas pembagian informasi intelijen antara sekutu-sekutu Dunia Pertama era Perang Dingin telah merambah ranah digital World Wide Web.[13][14][15]

Tentang[sunting | sunting sumber]

Meski aliansi UKUSA sering dikaitkan dengan sistem ECHELON, intelijen yang diproses bergantung pada banyak sumber informasi dan intelijen yang dibagikan tidak terikat pada intelijen sinyal saja. Tabel berikut memberi gambaran tentang lembaga pemerintah yang terlibat dan masing-masing tugasnya di dalam komunitas "Five Eyes":[3]

Negara Intelijen sinyal Intelijen pertahanan Intelijen keamanan Intelijen manusia
 Amerika Serikat National Security Agency (NSA) DIA FBI CIA
 Britania Raya Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) DIS MI5 MI6
 Australia Defence Signals Directorate (DSD) DIO ASIO ASIS
 Kanada Communications Security Establishment Canada (CSEC) CDI CSIS CSIS
 Selandia Baru Government Communications Security Bureau (GCSB) DDIS SIS SIS

Galeri[sunting | sunting sumber]

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ National Security Agency (24 June 2010). Declassified UKUSA Signals Intelligence Agreement Documents Available. Siaran pers. Diakses pada 25 June 2010.
  2. ^ Also known as the Quadripartite Agreement or Quadripartite Pact (EPIC, Privacy International (2002), Privacy and Human Rights 2002: An International Survey of Privacy Rights and Developments, Epic, 2002, hlm. 100, ISBN 1-893044-16-5 )
  3. ^ a b Cox, James (December 2012). "Canada and the Five Eyes Intelligence Community". Canadian Defence and Foreign Affairs Institute. 
  4. ^ McGregor, Richard. "Global Insight: US spying risks clouding ‘five eyes’ vision". Financial Times. Diakses 30 August 2013. 
  5. ^ Ben Grubb. "Mission almost impossible: keeping a step ahead of prying 'Five Eyes'". The Sydney Morning Herald. Diakses 21 October 2013. 
  6. ^ Gurney, Matt. "Canada Navy Spy Case". National Post. Diakses 13 August 2013. 
  7. ^ a b Norton-Taylor, Richard (25 June 2010). "Not so secret: deal at the heart of UK-US intelligence". The Guardian. Diakses 25 June 2010. 
  8. ^ Rob Gordon. "Navy spy probe kept military in dark: documents". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Diakses 20 October 2013. "The military's fears were well-founded, given Delisle had access to terabytes of some of the Western world's most closely guarded secrets. He operated a computer system called Stone Ghost, which links the intelligence services of the Five Eyes: the United States, Britain, Canada, Australia and New Zealand." 
  9. ^ Duncan Gardham. "Document that formalised 'special relationship' with the US". The Daily Telegraph. Diakses 29 October 2013. 
  10. ^ a b c Adam White (29 June 2010). "How a Secret Spy Pact Helped Win the Cold War". Time. 
  11. ^ Jordan Chittley and Kevin Newman. "Canada's role in secret intelligence alliance Five Eyes". CTV News. Diakses 20 October 2013. 
  12. ^ "Newly released GCHQ files: UKUSA Agreement". The National Archives. June 2010. "The files contain details of the recently avowed UKUSA Agreement – the top secret, post-war arrangement for sharing intelligence between the United States and the UK. Signed by representatives of the London Signals Intelligence Board and its American counterpart in March 1946, the UKUSA Agreement is without parallel in the Western intelligence world and formed the basis for co-operation between the two countries throughout the Cold War." 
  13. ^ MELISSA EDDY. "For Western Allies, a Long History of Swapping Intelligence". The New York Times. Diakses 20 October 2013. 
  14. ^ Nathan Smith. "The world of signals intelligence and GCSB in context". National Business Review. Diakses 20 October 2013. "A partnership with various telecommunications industries has secured access to the internet for the UKUSA signals agencies. All traffic on the internet and via emails is reportedly captured and stored." 
  15. ^ Alexander Abdo and Patrick Toomey. "The NSA is turning the internet into a total surveillance system". The Guardian. Diakses 20 October 2013. 

Bacaan lanjutan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Bryden, John. Best Kept Secret: Canadian Secret Intelligence in the Second World War. Toronto: Lester Publishing, 1993, ISBN 1895555299.
  • Coxsedge, Joan; Coldicutt, Ken; Harant, Gerry (1982), Rooted in secrecy: the clandestine element in Australian politics, Committee for the Abolition of Political Police, hlm. 101 
  • Frost, Mike and Michel Gratton. Spyworld: Inside the Canadian and American Intelligence Establishments. Toronto: Doubleday Canada, 1994.
  • Hamilton, Dwight. Inside Canadian Intelligence: Exposing the New Realities of Espionage and International Terrorism. Toronto: Dundurn Press, 2006.
  • Janczewski, Lech; Colarik, Andrew M. (2008), Cyber warfare and cyber terrorism, Premier Reference Series, Gale virtual reference library, Idea Group Inc (IGI), hlm. 454,455, ISBN 1-59140-991-8 
  • Hager, Nicky (1996) Secret Power, New Zealand's Role in the International Spy Network; Craig Potton Publishing, Nelson, NZ; ISBN 0-908802-35-8; (ONLINE EDITION)
  • Richelson, Jeffrey T.; Ball, Desmond (1985). The Ties That Bind: Intelligence Cooperation Between the UKUSA Countries. London: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 0-04-327092-1.
  • Richelson, Jeffrey T. The United States Intelligence Community, fifth ed. Westview Press, Boulder, Colo.; ISBN 978-0-8133-4362-4; 2008.
  • Rosen, Philip. The Communications Security Establishment: Canada’s Most Secret Intelligence Agency. Ottawa: Library of Parliament Research Branch, 1993.
  • Rudner, Martin. Canada's Communications Security Establishment: From the Cold War to Globalization in Intelligence and National Security. Volume 16 Number 1 (Spring 2001). 97–128.
  • Whitaker, Reginald. Cold War Alchemy: How America, Britain, and Canada Transformed Espionage into Subversion in Intelligence and National Security.

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]