Perang di Abkhazia (1992–1993)

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Perang di Abkhazia (1992–1993)
Bagian dari Konflik Georgia–Abkhazia dan Perang Saudara Georgia
Abkhazia map-fr.svg
Peta wilayah konflik
Tanggal14 Agustus 1992 – 27 September 1993
(1 tahun, 1 bulan dan 13 hari)
LokasiAbkhazia, Georgia Barat
Hasil Kemenangan separatis Abkhaz
Pembersihan etnis orang Georgia di Abkhazia
Perubahan
wilayah
Abkhazia menjadi negara merdeka secara de facto, tetapi tidak diakui
Pihak terlibat

Bendera Abkhazia Abkhazia
 Rusia [1][2][3][4]

Bataliun Bagramyan

 Georgia

UNA-UNSO "Argo"
Tokoh dan pemimpin
Bendera Abkhazia Vladislav Ardzinba
Bendera Abkhazia Vladimir Arshba
Bendera Abkhazia Sergei Dbar
Bendera Abkhazia Vagharshak Kosyan
Musa Shanibov
Sultan Sosnaliyev
Shamil Basayev
Eduard Shevardnadze
Tengiz Kitovani
Jaba Ioseliani
Giorgi Karkarashvili
Geno Adamia 
David Tevzadze
Gujar Kurashvili
Korban
2.220 tewas
~8.000 terluka
122 hilang[5]
1.820 warga tewas (klaim Abkhaz)[5]

2.600 tewas
10.000 terluka
1.000 hilang[5]

20.000–30.000 warga tewas[6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14]
200.000–250.000 orang Georgia mengungsi[15][16][17]

Perang di Abkhazia dari tahun 1992 hingga 1993 adalah pertempuran yang berlangsung antara pasukan pemerintah Georgia melawan kelompok separatis Abkhaz, pasukan Rusia dan militan Kaukasus Utara. Orang Georgia yang tinggal di wilayah Abkhazia kebanyakan membantu pasukan pemerintah Georgia. Sementara itu, sebagian besar orang Armenia dan Rusia[18] di Abkhazia mendukung kelompok separatis Abkhazia.[19][20][21] Kelompok separatis Abkhaz juga mendapat bantuan dari ribuan militan Kaukasus Utara dan Cossack.[22][23]

Kedua belah pihak dituduh telah melakukan pelanggaran hak asasi manusia yang semakin parah setelah Abkhaz merebut Sukhumi pada tanggal 27 September 1993, karena setelah itu terjadi pembersihan etnis terhadap orang-orang Georgia.[24] Selain itu, lebih dari 250.000 orang Georgia menjadi pengungsi internal, sementara 2.000 orang hilang.

Perang ini sangat berdampak terhadap negara Georgia pada masa setelah pembubaran Uni Soviet, karena Georgia mengalami kerugian keuangan, korban jiwa dan psikologis. Pertempuran dan konflik sporadis juga telah menghancurkan Abkhazia.

Catatan kaki[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ https://www.hrw.org/reports/pdfs/g/georgia/georgia953.pdf
  2. ^ Dmitry Kholodov, Moscow journalist covering the Conflict, September 1993, Nezavisimaya Gazeta, Moscow
  3. ^ Chervonnaia, Svetlana Mikhailovna. Conflict in the Caucasus: Georgia, Abkhazia and the Russian Shadow. Gothic Image Publications, 1994
  4. ^ White Book of Abkhazia. 1992–1993 Documents, Materials, Evidences. Moscow, 1993.
  5. ^ a b c GEORGIA/ABKHAZIA: VIOLATIONS OF THE LAWS OF WAR AND RUSSIA'S ROLE IN THE CONFLICT
  6. ^ The Guns of August 2008, Russia's War in Georgia, Svante Cornell & Frederick Starr, p 27
  7. ^ Anatol Lieven, "Victorious Abkhazian Army Settles Old Scores in An Orgy of Looting, The Times, 4 October 1993
  8. ^ In Georgia, Tales of Atrocities Lee Hockstander, International Herald Tribune, 22 October 1993
  9. ^ The Human Rights Field Operation: Law, Theory and Practice, Abkhazia Case, Michael O'Flaherty
  10. ^ The Politics of Religion in Russia and the New States of Eurasia, Michael Bourdeaux, hlm. 237–238
  11. ^ Managing Conflict in the Former Soviet Union: Russian and American Perspectives, Alekseĭ Georgievich Arbatov, p. 388
  12. ^ On Ruins of Empire: Ethnicity and Nationalism in the Former Soviet Union Georgiy I. Mirsky, hlm. 72
  13. ^ Freedom in the World: The Annual Survey of Political Rights and Civil Liberties by Roger Kaplan, hlm. 564
  14. ^ Small Nations and Great Powers: A Study of Ethnopolitical Conflict in the Caucasus, hlm. 174
  15. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20140407080334/http://assembly.coe.int/documents/adoptedtext/ta96/erec1305.htm. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 7 April 2014. Diakses tanggal 2 April 2014.  Tidak memiliki atau tanpa |title= (bantuan)
  16. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20140407080112/https://drc.dk/relief-work/stories-from-the-field/story/artikel/durable-solutions-for-the-long-term-displaced/. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 7 April 2014. Diakses tanggal 2 April 2014.  Tidak memiliki atau tanpa |title= (bantuan)
  17. ^ "European Commission – PRESS RELEASES – Press release – European Union promotes Justice Reform and support to Internally Displaced People in Georgia". Europa.eu. Diakses tanggal 2016-02-24. 
  18. ^ Helen Krag and Lars Funch. The North Caucasus: Minorities at a Crossroads. (Manchester, December 1994)
  19. ^ Abkhazia Today. The International Crisis Group Europe Report N°176, 15 September 2006, page 5. Diakses 30 Mei 2007.
  20. ^ AGBU, ABKHAZIA ARMENIANS: HOLDING A HOME IN AN UNSTABLE TERRITORY, 11/1/2004
  21. ^ The Security of the Caspian Sea Region hlm. 286 oleh Alexander Kyrlov dan disunting oleh Genadi Chufrin
  22. ^ http://www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/europe/195_russia_vs_georgia___the_fallout.pdf
  23. ^ Rusiant-Georgian War 1992–93
  24. ^ General Assembly Adopts Resolution Recognizing Right Of Return By Refugees, Internally Displaced Persons To Abkhazia, Georgia

Daftar pustaka[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Chervonnaia, Svetlana Mikhailovna. Conflict in the Caucasus: Georgia, Abkhazia and the Russian Shadow. Gothic Image Publications, 1994.
  • Andersen, Andrew. "Russia Versus Georgia: One Undeclared War in the Caucasus.", Young Experts’ Think Tank (YETT)
  • Blair, Heather. Ethnic Conflict as a Tool of Outside Influence: An Examination of Abkhazia and Kosovo., Young Experts’ Think Tank (YETT)
  • McCallion, Amy. Abkhazian Separatism, Young Experts’ Think Tank (YETT)
  • Lynch, Dov, The Conflict in Abkhazia: Dilemmas in Russian 'Peacekeeping' Policy. Royal Institute of International Affairs, February 1998.
  • MacFarlane, S., N., “On the front lines in the near abroad: the CIS and the OSCE in Georgia’ s civil wars”, Third World Quarterly, Vol 18, No 3, pp 509– 525, 1997.
  • Marshania L., Tragedy of Abkhazia Moscow, 1996
  • White Book of Abkhazia. 1992–1993 Documents, Materials, Evidences. Moscow, 1993.

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]