Metafora

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Metafora adalah pemakaian kata atau kelompok kata bukan dengan arti yang sebenarnya, melainkan sebagai lukisan yang berdasarkan persamaan atau perbandingan.[1] Metafora merupakan salah satu majas. Seperti halnya majazi dalam bab kata dan makna (ilmu logika), makna yang terkandung dalam majas metafora adalah suatu peletakan kedua dari makna asalnya, yaitu makna yang bukan menggunakan kata dalam arti sesungguhnya, melainkan sebagai kiasan yang berdasarkan persamaan dan perbandingan.

Contoh[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. Engkau belahan jantung hatiku sayangku.
  2. Raja siang keluar dari ufuk timur.
  3. Jonathan adalah bintang kelas dunia.
  4. Raja malam telah keluar dari paraduannya.

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bacaan lanjutan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Stefano Arduini (2007). (ed.) Metaphors, Roma, Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura.
  • Aristoteles. Poetics. Trans. I. Bywater. In The Complete Works of Aristotle: The Revised Oxford Translation. (1984). 2 Vols. Ed. Jonathan Barnes. Princeton, Princeton University Press.
  • Max Black (1954). Metaphor, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, 55, pp. 273–294.
  • Max Black (1962). Models and metaphors: Studies in language and philosophy, Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
  • Max Black (1979). More about Metaphor, in A. Ortony (ed) Metaphor & Thought.
  • Clive Cazeaux (2007). Metaphor and Continental Philosophy: From Kant to Derrida. New York: Routledge.
  • L. J. Cohen (1979). The Semantics of Metaphor, in A. Ortony (ed), Metaphor & Thought
  • Donald Davidson. (1978). "What Metaphors Mean." Reprinted in Inquiries Into Truth and Interpretation. (1984), Oxford, Oxford University Press.
  • Jacques Derrida (1982). "White Mythology: Metaphor in the Text of Philosophy." In Margins of Philosophy. Trans. Alan Bass. Chicago, University of Chicago Press.
  • René Dirvens; Ralf Pörings, ed. (2002). Metaphor and Metonymy in Contrast. Berlin.: Mouton de Gruyter. 
  • Fass, Dan (1988). "Metonymy and metaphor: what's the difference?". Proceedings of the 12th conference on Computational linguistics. 1. hlm. 177–81. doi:10.3115/991635.991671. ISBN 978-963-8431-56-1. 
  • Jakobson, Roman (1990). "Two Aspects of Language and Two Types of Aphasic Disturbances". Dalam Linda Waugh; Monique Monville-Burston. On Language. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. hlm. 115–133. ISBN 978-0-674-63536-4. 
  • Lakoff, G. & Johnson, M. Metaphors We Live By (IL: University of Chicago Press, 1980), Chapters 1–3. (pp. 3–13).
  • Lakoff, George (1980). Metaphors We Live By. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-46801-3. .
  • Low, Graham (1999-02-11). "An Essay is a Person". Dalam Cameron, Lynne; Low, Graham. Researching and Applying Metaphor. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. hlm. 221–48. ISBN 978-0-521-64964-3. 
  • Peters, Wim (2003). "Metonymy as a cross-lingual phenomenon". Proceedings of the ACL 2003 workshop on Lexicon and figurative language. 14. hlm. 1–9. doi:10.3115/1118975.1118976. 
  • McKinnon, AM. (2012). 'Metaphors in and for the Sociology of Religion: Towards a Theory after Nietzsche'. Journal of Contemporary Religion, vol 27, no. 2, pp. 203–216. [1]
  • David Punter (2007). Metaphor, London, Routledge.
  • Paul Ricoeur (1975). The Rule of Metaphor: Multi-Disciplinary Studies in the Creation of Meaning in Language, trans. Robert Czerny with Kathleen McLaughlin and John Costello, S. J., London: Routledge and Kegan Paul 1978. (Toronto: University of Toronto Press 1977)
  • I. A. Richards. (1936). The Philosophy of Rhetoric. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
  • John Searle (1979). "Metaphor," in A. Ortony (ed.) Metaphor and Thought, Cambridge University Press.
  • Underhill, James W., Creating Worldviews: Metaphor, Ideology & Language, Edinburgh UP, 2011.
  • Herscberger, Ruth (Summer 1943). "The Structure of Metaphor". The Kenyan Review. 5 (3): 433–443. JSTOR 4332426. 
  • Rudmin, Floyd W. (1991). "Having: A Brief History of Metaphor and Meaning". Syracuse Law Review. 42: 163. Diakses tanggal 11 October 2013. 
  • Somov, Georgij Yu (2013). "The interrelation of metaphors and metonymies in sign systems of visual art: An example analysis of works by V. I. Surikov". Semiotica. 2013 (193): 31–66. doi:10.1515/sem-2013-0003. 

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