Mari, Suriah

Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
Loncat ke navigasi Loncat ke pencarian
Mari
تل حريري (Arab)
MariZiggurat.jpg
Mari
Mari lies in the east of Syria, close to the border with Iraq.
Mari lies in the east of Syria, close to the border with Iraq.
Lokasi di Suriah
Nama alternatifTell Hariri
LokasiAbu Kamal, Kegubernuran Dayr az-Zawr, Suriah
Koordinat34°32′58″N 40°53′24″E / 34.54944°N 40.89000°E / 34.54944; 40.89000Koordinat: 34°32′58″N 40°53′24″E / 34.54944°N 40.89000°E / 34.54944; 40.89000
JenisPermukiman
Luas60 hektare (150 ekar)
Sejarah
Didirikanskt. 2900 SM
Ditinggalkanabad ke-3 SM
PeriodeZaman Perunggu
BudayaSemitik Timur (Peradaban Kiš), Bangsa Amori
Catatan situs
ArkeologAndré Parrot
KondisiPuing
PemilikUmum
Akses umumYes

Mari (Tell Hariri modern, Arab: تل حريري‎) merupakan sebuah kota Semit kuno yang terletak di Suriah modern. Sisa-sisa dari kota ini merupakan tel yang terletak 11 kilometer di barat laut Abu Kamal di tepi barat sungai Efrat, sekitar 120 kilometer tenggara Deir ez-Zor. Kota ini berkembang sebagai pusat perdagangan dan negara hegemonik pada sekitar tahun 2900 SM dan 1759 SM.[note 1] Sebagai kota yang dibangun dengan sengaja, keberadaan Mari terkait dengan posisinya di tengah rute perdagangan Efrat; posisi ini menjadikannya perantara antara Sumeria di selatan dan Levant di barat.

Catatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ All of the dates in the article are estimated through the Middle chronology unless otherwise stated.

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kutipan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sumber[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Akkermans, Peter M. M. G.; Schwartz, Glenn M. (2003). The Archaeology of Syria: From Complex Hunter-Gatherers to Early Urban Societies (c.16,000-300 BC). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-79666-8. 
  • Archi, Alfonso; Biga, Maria Giovanna (2003). "A Victory over Mari and the Fall of Ebla". Journal of Cuneiform Studies. The American Schools of Oriental Research. 55. ISSN 2325-6737. 
  • Armstrong, James A. (1996). "Sumer and Akkad". Dalam Fagan, Brian M. The Oxford Companion to Archaeology. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-507618-9. 
  • Aruz, Joan; Wallenfels, Ronald, ed. (2003). Art of the First Cities: The Third Millennium B.C. from the Mediterranean to the Indus. Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 978-1-58839-043-1. 
  • Astour, Michael C. (2002). "A Reconstruction of the History of Ebla (Part 2)". Dalam Gordon, Cyrus Herzl; Rendsburg, Gary. Eblaitica: Essays on the Ebla Archives and Eblaite Language. 4. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-1-57506-060-6. 
  • Aubet, Maria Eugenia (2013). Commerce and Colonization in the Ancient Near East. Diterjemahkan oleh Turton, Mary. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-51417-0. 
  • Bertman, Stephen (2005) [2003]. Handbook to Life in Ancient Mesopotamia. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-518364-1. 
  • Black, Jeremy; Cunningham, Graham; Robson, Eleanor; Zólyomi, Gábor (2004). The Literature of Ancient Sumer. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-926311-0. 
  • Bonatz, Dominik; Kühne, Hartmut; Mahmoud, Asʻad (1998). Rivers and Steppes: Cultural Heritage and Environment of the Syrian Jezireh: Catalogue to the Museum of Deir ez-Zor. Damascus: Ministry of Culture, Directorate-General of Antiquities and Museums. OCLC 41317024. 
  • Bretschneider, Joachim; Van Vyve, Anne-Sophie; Leuven, Greta Jans (2009). "War of the lords, The Battle of Chronology: Trying to Recognize Historical Iconography in the 3rd Millennium Glyptic Art in seals of Ishqi-Mari and from Beydar". Ugarit-Forschungen. Ugarit-Verlag. 41. ISBN 978-3-86835-042-5. 
  • Bryce, Trevor (2009). The Routledge Handbook of the Peoples and Places of Ancient Western Asia. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-15908-6. 
  • Bryce, Trevor (2014). Ancient Syria: A Three Thousand Year History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-100292-2. 
  • Burns, Ross (2009) [1992]. Monuments of Syria: A Guide (edisi ke-revised). I.B.Tauris. ISBN 978-0-85771-489-3. 
  • Charpin, Dominique (2011). "Patron and Client: Zimri-Lim and Asqudum the Diviner". Dalam Radner, Karen; Robson, Eleanor. The Oxford Handbook of Cuneiform Culture. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-955730-1. 
  • Charpin, Dominique (2012) [2003]. Hammurabi of Babylon. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84885-752-0. 
  • Chavalas, Mark (2005). "The Age of Empires, 3100–900 BCE". Dalam Snell, Daniel C. A Companion to the Ancient Near East. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4051-3739-3. 
  • Chew, Sing C. (2007). The Recurring Dark Ages: Ecological Stress, Climate Changes, and System Transformation. Trilogy on world ecological degradation. 2. Altamira Press. ISBN 978-0-7591-0452-5. 
  • Cockburn, Patrick (February 11, 2014). "The Destruction of the Idols: Syria's Patrimony at Risk From Extremists". The Independent. Diakses tanggal January 6, 2017. 
  • Cohen, Mark E. (1993). The Cultic Calendars of the Ancient Near East. CDL Press: The University Press of Maryland. ISBN 978-1-883053-00-0. 
  • Cohen, Yoram (2013). George, Andrew R., ed. Wisdom from the Late Bronze Age. Writings from the Ancient World. 34. Society of Biblical Literature. Atlanta. ISBN 978-1-58983-754-6. 
  • Cooper, Jerrold S. (1986). Presargonic Inscriptions. Sumerian and Akkadian Royal Inscriptions. 1. American Oriental Society. ISBN 978-0-940490-82-6. 
  • Cooper, Jerrold S (1999). "Sumerian and Semitic Writing in Most Ancient Syro-Mesopotamia". Dalam van Lerberghe, Karel; Voet, Gabriela. Languages and Cultures in Contact: At the Crossroads of Civilizations in the Syro-Mesopotamian realm. Proceedings of the 42th RAI. Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta. 92. Peeters Publishers & Department of Oriental Studies, Leuven. ISBN 978-90-429-0719-5. 
  • Crawford, Harriet, ed. (2013). The Sumerian World. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-21912-2. 
  • Dalley, Stephanie (2002) [1984]. Mari and Karana, Two Old Babylonian Cities (edisi ke-2). Gorgias Press. ISBN 978-1-931956-02-4. 
  • Daniels, Brian I.; Hanson, Katryn (2015). "Archaeological Site Looting in Syria and Iraq: A Review of the Evidence". Dalam Desmarais, France. Countering Illicit Traffic in Cultural Goods: The Global Challenge of Protecting the World's Heritage. The International Council of Museums. ISBN 978-92-9012-415-3. 
  • Darke, Diana (2010) [2006]. Syria (edisi ke-2). Bradt Travel Guides. ISBN 978-1-84162-314-6. 
  • DeVries, LaMoine F. (2006). Cities of the Biblical World: An Introduction to the Archaeology, Geography, and History of Biblical Sites. Wipf and Stock Publishers. ISBN 978-1-55635-120-4. 
  • Dolce, Rita (2008). "Ebla before the Achievement of Palace G Culture: An Evaluation of the Early Syrian Archaic Period". Dalam Kühne, Hartmut; Czichon, Rainer Maria; Kreppner, Florian Janoscha. Proceedings of the 4th International Congress of the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East, 29 March - 3 April 2004, Freie Universität Berlin. 2. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3-447-05757-8. 
  • Dougherty, Beth K.; Ghareeb, Edmund A. (2013). Woronoff, Jon, ed. Historical Dictionary of Iraq. Historical Dictionaries of Asia, Oceania, and the Middle East (edisi ke-2). Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-7942-3. 
  • Evans, Jean M. (2012). The Lives of Sumerian Sculpture: An Archaeology of the Early Dynastic Temple. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-139-78942-4. 
  • Feliu, Lluís (2003). The God Dagan in Bronze Age Syria. Diterjemahkan oleh Watson, Wilfred GE. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-13158-3. 
  • Finer, Samuel Edward (1997). Ancient monarchies and empires. The History of Government from the Earliest Times. 1. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-820664-4. 
  • Fleming, Daniel E. (2004). "Prophets and Temple Personnel in the Mari Archives". Dalam Grabbe, Lester L.; Bellis, Alice Ogden. The Priests in the Prophets: The Portrayal of Priests, Prophets, and Other Religious Specialists in the Latter Prophets. T&T Clark International. ISBN 978-0-567-40187-8. 
  • Fleming, Daniel E. (2012). The Legacy of Israel in Judah's Bible: History, Politics, and the Reinscribing of Tradition. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-139-53687-5. 
  • Fowden, Garth (2014). Before and After Muhammad: The First Millennium Refocused. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-1-4008-4816-4. 
  • Frayne, Douglas (1990). Old Babylonian Period (2003–1595 BC). The Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia Early Periods. 4. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-5873-7. 
  • Frayne, Douglas (2001). "In Abraham's Footsteps". Dalam Daviau, Paulette Maria Michèle; Wevers, John W.; Weigl, Michael. The World of the Aramaeans. 1: Biblical Studies in Honour of Paul-Eugène Dion. Sheffield Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-567-20049-5. 
  • Frayne, Douglas (2008). Pre-Sargonic Period: Early Periods (2700–2350 BC). The Royal inscriptions of Mesopotamia Early Periods. 1. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-1-4426-9047-9. 
  • Gadd, Cyril John (1971). "The Cities of Babylonia". Dalam Edwards, Iorwerth Eiddon Stephen; Gadd, Cyril John; Hammond, Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière. Part 2: Early History of the Middle East. The Cambridge Ancient History (Second Revised Series). 1 (edisi ke-3). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-07791-0. 
  • Gates, Charles (2003). Ancient Cities: The Archaeology of Urban Life in the Ancient Near East and Egypt, Greece and Rome. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-67662-0. 
  • Grabbe, Lester L. (2004). "Introduction and Overview". Dalam Grabbe, Lester L.; Bellis, Alice Ogden. The Priests in the Prophets: The Portrayal of Priests, Prophets, and Other Religious Specialists in the Latter Prophets. T&T Clark International. ISBN 978-0-567-40187-8. 
  • Grayson, Albert Kirk (1972). Assyrian Royal Inscriptions. Records of the Ancient Near East. 1: From the Beginning to Ashur-Resha-Ishi I. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3-447-01382-6. ISSN 0340-8450. 
  • Green, Alberto Ravinell Whitney (2003). The Storm-god in the Ancient Near East. Biblical and Judaic studies from the University of California, San Diego. 8. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-1-57506-069-9. 
  • Haldar, Alfred (1971). Who Were the Amorites?. Monographs on the ancient Near East. 1. Brill. OCLC 2656977. 
  • Hamblin, William J. (2006). Warfare in the Ancient Near East to 1600 BC. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-52062-6. 
  • Harris, Rivkah (2003) [2000]. Gender and Aging in Mesopotamia: The Gilgamesh Epic and Other Ancient Literature. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-3539-7. 
  • Hasselbach, Rebecca (2005). Sargonic Akkadian: A Historical and Comparative Study of the Syllabic Texts. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3-447-05172-9. 
  • Heimpel, Wolfgang (2003). Letters to the King of Mari: A New Translation, with Historical Introduction, Notes, and Commentary. Mesopotamian civilizations. 12. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-1-57506-080-4. ISSN 1059-7867. 
  • Heintz, Jean Georges; Bodi, Daniel; Millot, Lison (1990). Bibliographie de Mari: Archéologie et Textes (1933–1988). Travaux du Groupe de Recherches et d'Études Sémitiques Anciennes (G.R.E.S.A.), Université des Sciences Humaines de Strasbourg (dalam bahasa Prancis). 3. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3-447-03009-0. 
  • Kramer, Samuel Noah (2010) [1963]. The Sumerians: Their History, Culture, and Character. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-45232-6. 
  • Kupper, Jean Robert (1973). "Northern Mesopotamia and Syria". Dalam Edwards, Iorwerth Eiddon Stephen; Gadd, Cyril John; Hammond, Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière; Sollberger, Edmond. Part 1: The Middle East and the Aegean Region, c.1800–1380 BC. The Cambridge Ancient History (Second Revised Series). 2 (edisi ke-3). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-139-05426-3. 
  • Larsen, Mogens Trolle (2008). "The Middle Bronze Age". Dalam Aruz, Joan; Benzel, Kim; Evans, Jean M. Beyond Babylon: Art, Trade, and Diplomacy in the Second Millennium B.C. Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 978-1-58839-295-4. 
  • Launderville, Dale (2003). Piety and Politics: The Dynamics of Royal Authority in Homeric Greece, Biblical Israel, and Old Babylonian Mesopotamia. William B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8028-3994-7. 
  • Leick, Gwendolyn (2002). Who's Who in the Ancient Near East. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-78796-8. 
  • Liverani, Mario (2013). The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-75084-9. 
  • Maisels, Charles Keith (2005) [1990]. The Emergence of Civilisation: From Hunting and Gathering to Agriculture, Cities and the State of the Near East. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-86328-0. 
  • Malamat, Abraham (1980). "A Mari Prophecy and Nathan's Dynastic Oracle". Dalam Emerton, John Adney. Prophecy: Essays presented to Georg Fohrer on his Sixty-Fifth Birthday. Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft. 150. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-083741-4. 
  • Malamat, Abraham (1998). Mari and the Bible. Studies in the History and Culture of the Ancient Near East. 12. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-10863-9. ISSN 0169-9024. 
  • Margueron, Jean-Claude (1992). "The 1979–1982 Excavations at Mari: New Perspectives and Results". Dalam Young, Gordon Douglas. Mari in Retrospect: Fifty Years of Mari and Mari Studies. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-0-931464-28-7. 
  • Margueron, Jean-Claude (2003). "Mari and the Syro-Mesopotamian World". Dalam Aruz, Joan; Wallenfels, Ronald. Art of the First Cities: The Third Millennium B.C. from the Mediterranean to the Indus. Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 978-1-58839-043-1. 
  • Margueron, Jean-Claude (2013). "The Kingdom of Mari". Dalam Crawford, Harriet. The Sumerian World. Diterjemahkan oleh Crawford, Harriet. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-21912-2. 
  • Matthews, Victor Harold; Benjamin, Don C. (2006) [1994]. Old Testament Parallels: Laws and Stories from the Ancient Near East (edisi ke-3). Paulist Press. ISBN 978-0-8091-4435-8. 
  • Matthiae, Paolo (2003). "Ebla and the Early Urbanization of Syria". Dalam Aruz, Joan; Wallenfels, Ronald. Art of the First Cities: The Third Millennium B.C. from the Mediterranean to the Indus. Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 978-1-58839-043-1. 
  • McLerran, Dan (September 13, 2011). "Ancient Mesopotamian City in Need of Rescue". Popular Archaeology Magazine. Diakses tanggal January 6, 2017. 
  • McMahon, Augusta (2013). "North Mesopotamia in the Third Millennium BC". Dalam Crawford, Harriet. The Sumerian World. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-21912-2. 
  • Michalowski, Piotr (1993). "Memory and Deed: The Historiography of the Political Expansion of the Akkad State". Dalam Liverani, Mario. Akkad: the First World Empire: Structure, Ideology, Traditions. History of the Ancient Near East Studies. 5. Padua: S.a.r.g.o.n. Editrice Libreria. OCLC 32011634. 
  • Michalowski, Piotr (1995). Van Lerberghe, Karel; Schoors, Antoon, ed. Immigration and Emigration Within the Ancient Near East: Festschrift E. Lipiński. Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta. 65. Peeters Publishers & Department of Oriental Studies, Leuven. ISBN 978-90-6831-727-5. ISSN 0777-978X. 
  • Michalowski, Piotr (2000). "Amorites". Dalam Freedman, David Noel; Myers, Allen C. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 978-90-5356-503-2. 
  • Michalowski, Piotr (2003). "The Earliest Scholastic Tradition". Dalam Aruz, Joan; Wallenfels, Ronald. Art of the First Cities: The Third Millennium B.C. from the Mediterranean to the Indus. Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 978-1-58839-043-1. 
  • Nadali, Davide (2007). "Monuments of War, War of Monuments: Some Considerations on Commemorating War in the Third Millennium BC". Orientalia. Pontificium Institutum Biblicum. 76 (4). OCLC 557711946. 
  • Nemet-Nejat, Karen Rhea (1998). Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia. Daily Life Through History. Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-29497-6. ISSN 1080-4749. 
  • Nissinen, Martti; Seow, Choon Leong; Ritner, Robert Kriech (2003). Machinist, Peter, ed. Prophets and Prophecy in the Ancient Near East. Writings from the Ancient World. 12. Society of Biblical Literature. Atlanta. ISBN 978-1-58983-027-1. 
  • Ochterbeek, Cynthia (1996). "Dan". Dalam Berney, Kathryn Ann; Ring, Trudy; Watson, Noelle; Hudson, Christopher; La Boda, Sharon. Middle East and Africa. 4: International Dictionary of Historic Places. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-25993-9. 
  • Oldenburg, Ulf (1969). The Conflict between El and Ba'al in Canaanite Religion. Dissertationes ad Historiam Religionum Pertinentes. 3. Brill. ISSN 0419-4233. OCLC 63449. 
  • Oliva, Juan (2008). Textos Para Una Historia Política de Siria-Palestina I (dalam bahasa Spanyol). Ediciones Akal. ISBN 978-84-460-1949-7. 
  • Otto, Adelheid; Biga, Maria Giovanna (2010). "Thoughts About the Identification of Tall Bazi with Armi of the Ebla Texts". Dalam Matthiae, Paolo; Pinnock, Frances; Nigro, Lorenzo; Marchetti, Nicolò; Romano, Licia. Proceedings of the 6th International Congress of the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East: Near Eastern archaeology in the past, present and future: heritage and identity, ethnoarchaeological and interdisciplinary approach, results and perspectives; visual expression and craft production in the definition of social relations and status. 1. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3-447-06175-9. 
  • Pardee, Dennis; Glass, Jonathan T. (1984). "Literary Sources for the History of Palestine and Syria: The Mari Archives". The Biblical Archaeologist. The American Schools of Oriental Research. 47 (2). ISSN 2325-534X. 
  • Pettinato, Giovanni (1981). The archives of Ebla: an empire inscribed in clay. Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-13152-0. 
  • Pitard, Wayne T. (2001) [1998]. "Before Israel: Syria-Palestine in the Bronze Age". Dalam Coogan, Michael David. The Oxford History of the Biblical World (edisi ke-revised). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-513937-2. 
  • Podany, Amanda H. (2010). Brotherhood of Kings: How International Relations Shaped the Ancient Near East. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-979875-9. 
  • Porter, Anne (2012). Mobile Pastoralism and the Formation of Near Eastern Civilizations: Weaving Together Society. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-76443-8. 
  • Riehl, Simone; Pustovoytov, Konstantin; Dornauer, Aron; Sallaberger, Walther (2013). "Mid-to-Late Holocene Agricultural System Transformations in the Northern Fertile Crescent: A Review of the Archaeobotanical, Geoarchaeological, and Philological Evidence". Dalam Giosan, Liviu; Fuller, Dorian Q.; Nicoll, Kathleen; Flad, Rowan K.; Clift, Peter D. Climates, Landscapes, and Civilizations. Geophysical Monograph Series. 198. American Geophysical Union. ISBN 978-0-87590-488-7. ISSN 0065-8448. 
  • Roux, Georges (1992) [1964]. Ancient Iraq (edisi ke-3). Penguin Putnam. ISBN 978-0-14-012523-8. 
  • Shaw, Ian (1999). "Mari". Dalam Shaw, Ian; Jameson, Robert. A Dictionary of Archaeology. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-75196-1. 
  • Sicker, Martin (2000). The Pre-Islamic Middle East. Praeger. ISBN 978-0-275-96890-8. 
  • Simons, Marlise (December 31, 2016). "Damaged by War, Syria's Cultural Sites Rise Anew in France". The New York Times. Diakses tanggal January 6, 2017. 
  • Smith, Mark S. (1995). "The God Athtar in the Ancient Near East and His Place in KTU 1.6 I". Dalam Zevit, Ziony; Gitin, Seymour; Sokoloff, Michael. Solving Riddles and Untying Knots: Biblical, Epigraphic, and Semitic Studies in Honor of Jonas C. Greenfield. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-0-931464-93-5. 
  • Stieglitz, Robert R. (2002). "The Deified Kings of Ebla". Dalam Gordon, Cyrus Herzl; Rendsburg, Gary. Eblaitica: Essays on the Ebla Archives and Eblaite Language. 4. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-1-57506-060-6. 
  • Strommenger, Eva (1964) [1962]. 5000 Years of the Art of Mesopotamia. Diterjemahkan oleh Haglund, Christina. Harry N. Abrams. OCLC 505796. 
  • Suriano, Matthew J. (2010). The Politics of Dead Kings: Dynastic Ancestors in the Book of Kings and Ancient Israel. Forschungen zum Alten Testament. 48. Mohr Siebeck. ISBN 978-3-16-150473-0. ISSN 1611-4914. 
  • Teissier, Beatrice (1996) [1995]. Egyptian Iconography on Syro-Palestinian Cylinder Seals of the Middle Bronze Age. Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis- Series Archaeologica. 11. University Press Fribourg Switzerland. ISBN 978-3-525-53892-0. ISSN 1422-4399. 
  • Tetlow, Elisabeth Meier (2004). Women, Crime and Punishment in Ancient Law and Society. 1: The Ancient Near East. Continuum. ISBN 978-0-8264-1628-5. 
  • Thompson, Thomas L. (2007). "A Testimony of the Good King: Reading the Mesha Stela". Dalam Grabbe, Lester L. Ahab Agonistes: The Rise and Fall of the Omri Dynasty. T&T Clark International. ISBN 978-0-567-04540-9. 
  • Van De Mieroop, Marc (2002). "Foreign Contacts and the Rise of an Elite in Early Dynastic Babylonia". Dalam Ehrenberg, Erica. Leaving No Stones Unturned: Essays on the Ancient Near East and Egypt in Honor of Donald P. Hansen. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-1-57506-055-2. 
  • Van De Mieroop, Marc (2007) [2005]. King Hammurabi of Babylon: A Biography. Blackwell Ancient Lives. 19. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 978-0-470-69534-0. 
  • Van De Mieroop, Marc (2011) [2003]. A History of the Ancient Near East ca. 3000 - 323 BC. Blackwell History of the Ancient World. 6 (edisi ke-2). Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4443-2709-0. 
  • Van Der Meer, Petrus (1955) [1947]. The Chronology of Ancient Western Asia and Egypt. Documenta et Monumenta Orientis Antiqui. 2 (edisi ke-2). Brill. OCLC 4727997. 
  • Van Der Toorn, Karel (1996). Family Religion in Babylonia, Ugarit and Israel: Continuity and Changes in the Forms of Religious Life. Studies in the History of the Ancient Near East. 7. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-10410-5. ISSN 0169-9024. 
  • Viollet, Pierre-Louis (2007) [2005]. Water Engineering in Ancient Civilizations: 5,000 Years of History. IAHR Monographs. 7. Diterjemahkan oleh Holly, Forrest M. CRC Press. ISBN 978-90-78046-05-9. 
  • Walton, John H. (1990) [1989]. Ancient Israelite Literature in Its Cultural Context: A Survey of Parallels Between Biblical and Ancient Near Eastern Texts. Zondervan Publishing House. ISBN 978-0-310-36591-4. 
  • Wossink, Arne (2009). Challenging Climate Change: Competition and Cooperation Among Pastoralists and Agriculturalists in Northern Mesopotamia (c. 3000–1600 BC). Sidestone Press. ISBN 978-90-8890-031-0. 

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Mari Mari passage on the Syrian ministry of culture website (in Arabic).
  • Syrie - Mari Mari page on Britannica.
  • Mari (Tell Hariri) Suggestion to have Mari (Tell Hariri) recognized as a UNESCO world heritage site, in 1999