Jerman Amerika

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Jerman Amerika
Deutschamerikaner
Baron Steuben by Peale, 1780.jpg
John Jacob Astor.jpg
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Total populasi

50,764,352[1][2]

17.1% dari populasi AS (2009)
Kawasan dengan populasi yang signifikan
Bendera Amerika Serikat Di seluruh wilayah Amerika Serikat, kecuali untuk New England
Pluralitas di Pennsylvania[3] dan Negara-negara bagian tengah barat[4]
Bahasa
Inggris (Dialek Inggris Amerika) dan Jerman
Agama
Kelompok etnis terkait

Kelompok etnis Jerman Amerika (bahasa Jerman: Deutschamerikaner) terdiri dari orang-orang yang memiliki darah Jerman secara menyeluruh atau sebagian. Kelompok etnis tersebut merupakan kelompok etnis terbesar di Amerika Serikat, yang terdiri dari sekitar 50 juta orang.[1][6][7][8][9][10][11] Kelompok tersebut terdiri dari sekitar 13 dari diaspora Jerman di dunia.[12][13][14]

Tidak ada negara-negara Jerman yang memiliki koloni Amerika. Pada 1670an, kelompok-kelompok imigran Jerman signifikan pertama datang ke koloni-koloni Britania, utamanya bermukim di New York dan Pennsylvania. Imigrasi berlanjut dalam jumlah yang sangat besar pada abad ke-19, dengan delapan juga orang datang dari Jepang. Pada pertengahan abad kesembilan belas (antara 1820 sampai 1870) lebih dari tujuh setengah juta imigran datang ke Amerika Serikat — lebih dari dua kali lipatnya populasi di negara asalnya. Pada 2010, populasi mereka bertumbuh menjadi 49.8 juta warga negara, menandakan penambahan 6 juta orang sejak 2000.

Jerman Amerika mendirikan taman kanak-kanak pertama di Amerika Serikat,[15] memperkenalkan tradisi pohon Natal,[16][17] dan mempelopori makanan-makanan Amerika populer seperti hot dog dan hamburger.[18]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ a b Census 2009 ACS Ancestry estimates
  2. ^ "Regular Session 2009-2010 Senate Resolution 141 P.N. 1216". Diakses tanggal 17 March 2015. 
  3. ^ "The Germans in America". 2014-04-24. Diakses tanggal 2015-06-12. 
  4. ^ "Ancestry of the Population by State: 1980 - Table 3" (PDF). Diakses tanggal 2012-11-11. 
  5. ^ One Nation Under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society, p. 120.
  6. ^ Sharing the Dream: White Males in a Multicultural America By Dominic J. Pulera.
  7. ^ Reynolds Farley, 'The New Census Question about Ancestry: What Did It Tell Us?', Demography, Vol. 28, No. 3 (August 1991), pp. 414, 421.
  8. ^ Stanley Lieberson and Lawrence Santi, 'The Use of Nativity Data to Estimate Ethnic Characteristics and Patterns', Social Science Research, Vol. 14, No. 1 (1985), pp. 44-6.
  9. ^ Stanley Lieberson and Mary C. Waters, 'Ethnic Groups in Flux: The Changing Ethnic Responses of American Whites', Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 487, No. 79 (September 1986), pp. 82-86.
  10. ^ Mary C. Waters, Ethnic Options: Choosing Identities in America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990), p. 36.
  11. ^ From Census Bureau, "S0201. Selected Population Profile in the United States" 2006-2008 data
  12. ^ Germans and foreigners with an immigrant background. 156 is the estimate which counts all people claiming ethnic German ancestry in the U.S., Brazil, Argentina, and elsewhere.
  13. ^ "Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia" by Jeffrey Cole (2011), page 171.
  14. ^ "Report on German population". Histclo.com. 4 February 2010. Diakses tanggal 2013-01-07. 
  15. ^ "404 Error: File Not Found". Diakses tanggal 17 Maret 2015. 
  16. ^ "The History of Christmas", Gareth Marples, diakses tanggal 2 Desember 2006 
  17. ^ Harvard Office of News and Public Affairs. "Professor Brought Christmas Tree to New England". Diakses tanggal 17 Maret 2015. 
  18. ^ Lihat catatan surat kabar

Daftar pustaka[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • "German-Americans: The silent minority," The Economist Feb. 7, 2015, With a statistical map by counties
  • Adams, Willi Paul. The German-Americans: An Ethnic Experience (1993).
  • Bank, Michaela. Women of Two Countries: German-American Women, Women's Rights and Nativism, 1848–1890 (Berghahn, 2012).
  • Baron, Frank, "Abraham Lincoln and the German Immigrants: Turners and Forty-Eighters," Yearbook of German-American Studies, 4 (Supplemental Issue 2012), 1–254.
  • Barry, Colman J. The Catholic Church and German Americans. (1953).
  • Brancaforte, Charlotte L., ed. The German Forty-Eighters in the United States. (1989).
  • Coburn, Carol K. Life at Four Corners: Religion, Gender, and Education in a German-Lutheran Community, 1868–1945. (1992).
  • Conzen, Kathleen Neils. "Germans" in Stephan Thernstrom, ed. Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups. (1980). pp. 405–425.
  • Conzen, Kathleen Neils. Germans in Minnesota. (2003).
  • Conzen, Kathleen Neils. Immigrant Milwaukee, 1836–1860: Accommodation and Community in a Frontier City. (1976).
  • DeWitt, Petra. Degrees of Allegiance: Harassment and Loyalty in Missouri's German-American Community during World War I (Ohio University Press, 2012).
  • Dobbert, Guido A. "German-Americans between New and Old Fatherland, 1870–1914". American Quarterly 19 (1967): 663–680.
  • Efford, Alison Clark. German Immigrants: Race and Citizenship in the Civil War Era. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013.
  • Ellis, M. and P. Panayi. "German Minorities in World War I: A Comparative Study of Britain and the USA", Ethnic and Racial Studies 17 (April 1994): 238–259.
  • Emmerich, Alexander. John Jacob Astor and the First Great American Fortune. (2013); Astor (1763-1848) came to the US in 1783
  • Ernst, Robert. Immigrant Life in New York City, 1825-1863 (1949), detailed coverage of Germans and Irish.
  • Faust, Albert Bernhardt. The German Element in the United States with Special Reference to Its Political, Moral, Social, and Educational Influence. 2 vol (1909). vol. 1, vol. 2
  • Fogleman, Aaron. Hopeful Journeys: German Immigration, Settlement, and Political Culture in Colonial America, 1717–1775 (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996) online
  • German Historical Institute. Immigrant Entrepreneurship: German-American Business Biographies, 1720 to the Present. (2010, updated continually)
  • Gross, Stephen John. "Handing down the farm: Values, strategies, and outcomes in inheritance practices among rural German Americans", Journal of Family History, (1996) 21: 2, 192–217.
  • Grubb, Farley. German Immigration and Servitude in America, 1709–1920 (Routledge Explorations in Economic History) (2011).
  • Hawgood, John. The Tragedy of German-America. (1940).
  • Iverson, Noel. Germania, U.S.A.: Social Change in New Ulm, Minnesota. (1966). emphasizes Turners.
  • Jensen, Richard. The Winning of the Midwest, Social and Political Conflict 1888–1896. (1971). Voting behavior of Germans, prohibition, language, and school issues.
  • Johnson, Hildegard B. "The Location of German Immigrants in the Middle West". Annals of the Association of American Geographers 41 (1951): 1–41.
  • Jordon, Terry G. German Seed in Texas Soil: Immigrant Farmers in Nineteenth-century Texas. (1966).
  • Kamphoefner, Walter D. and Wolfgang Helbich, eds. German-American Immigration and Ethnicity in Comparative Perspective. Madison, Wisconsin: Max Kade Institute, University of Wisconsin–Madison (2004).
  • Kamphoefner, Walter D., "Uprooted or Transplanted? Reflections on Patterns of German Immigration to Missouri," Missouri Historical Review, 103 (Jan. 2009), 71-89.
  • Kamphoefner, Walter D. "Immigrant Epistolary and Epistemology: On the Motivators and Mentality of Nineteenth-Century German Immigrants." Journal of American Ethnic History (2009): 34-54. in JSTOR, on deep-reading their letters
  • Kazal, Russell A. Becoming Old Stock: The Paradox of German-American Identity. (2004).
  • Keller, Christian B. "Flying Dutchmen and Drunken Irishmen: The Myths and Realities of Ethnic Civil War Soldiers," Journal of Military History, 73 (January 2009), 117–145.
  • Knarr, Mary L. "Faith, frauen, and the formation of an ethnic identity: German Lutheran women in south and central Texas, 1831–1890". Ph.D. dissertation, Texas Christian University, 2009.
  • Lohne, Raymond. "Team of Friends: A New Lincoln Theory and Legacy", Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society Fall/Winter 2008, vol. 101 no. 3/4, pp. 285–314. German American politics and Abraham Lincoln
  • Luebke, Frederick C. Bonds of Loyalty: German Americans During World War I. (1974).
  • Luebke, Frederick C., ed. Ethnic Voters and the Election of Lincoln. (1971).
  • Luebke, Frederick C. Germans in the New World. University of Illinois Press (1990).
  • Luebke, Frederick. Immigrants and Politics: The Germans of Nebraska, 1880–1900. (1969).
  • O'Connor, Richard. German-Americans: an Informal History. (1968).
  • Pickle, Linda. Contented among Strangers: Rural German-Speaking Women and Their Families in the Nineteenth-Century Midwest (1996).
  • Pochmann, Henry A. and Arthur R. Schultz; German Culture in America, 1600–1900: Philosophical and Literary Influences. (1957).
  • Ritter, Luke, "Sunday Regulation and the Formation of German American Identity in St. Louis, 1840–1860," Missouri Historical Review, (2012), vol. 107, no. 1, pp. 23–40.
  • Roeber, A. G. Palatines, Liberty, and Property: German Lutherans in Colonial British America. (1998).
  • Salamon, Sonya. Prairie Patrimony: Family, Farming, and Community in the Midwest (U of North Carolina Press, 1992), focus on German Americans.
  • Schiffman, Harold. "Language loyalty in the German-American Church: The Case of an Over-confident Minority" (1987).
  • Schirp, Francis. "Germans in the United States". The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 6. New York: Appleton, 1909.
  • Schlossman, Steven L. "Is there an American tradition of bilingual education? German in the public elementary schools, 1840-1919." American Journal of Education (1983): 139-186. in JSTOR
  • Tatlock, Lynne and Matt Erlin, eds. German Culture in Nineteenth-Century America: Reception, Adaptation, Transformation. (2005).
  • Tischauser, Leslie V. The Burden of Ethnicity: The German Question in Chicago, 1914–1941. (1990).
  • Tolzmann, Don H., ed. German Americans in the World Wars, 2 vols. Munich, Germany: K.G. Saur, (1995).
  • Tolzmann, Don H. German-American Literature (Scarecrow Press, 1977).
  • Trommler, Frank & Joseph McVeigh, eds. America and the Germans: An Assessment of a Three-Hundred-Year History. (2 vol 1985); vol 1: Immigration, Language, Ethnicity; vol 2: The Relationship in the Twentieth Century. Essays by scholars covering broad themes.
  • Turk, Eleanor L. "Germans in Kansas: Review Essay". Kansas History: A Journal of the Central Plains 28 (Spring 2005): 44–71.
  • van Ravenswaay, Charles. The Arts and Architecture of German Settlements in Missouri: A Survey of a Vanishing Culture (1977; reprint University of Missouri Press, 2006).
  • Walker, Mack. Germany and the Emigration, 1816–1885 (1964).
  • Wittke, Carl Frederick. The German-Language Press in America. (1957).
  • Wittke, Carl Frederick. Refugees of Revolution: The German Forty-Eighters in America. (1952).
  • Wittke, Carl Frederick. We Who Built America: The Saga of the Immigrant. (1939), ch. 6, 9.
  • Wood, Ralph, ed. The Pennsylvania Germans. (1942).
  • Zeitlin, Richard. Germans in Wisconsin. Madison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin (2000).

Historiografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Hustad, Bradley Jake. "Problems in Historiography: The Americanization of German Ethnics." (MA thesis, Mankato State University, 2013). online
  • Kazal, Russell A. "Revisiting Assimilation: The Rise, Fall, and Reappraisal of a Concept". American Historical Review 100 (1995): 437–71.
  • Ortlepp, Anke. "Deutsch-Athen Revisited: Writing the History of Germans in Milwaukee" in Margo Anderson and Victor Greene (eds.), Perspectives on Milwaukee's Past. Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 2009.
  • Miller, Zane L. "Cincinnati Germans and the Invention of an Ethnic Group", Queen City Heritage: The Journal of the Cincinnati Historical Society 42 (Fall 1984): 13–22.
  • Parish, Peter J., ed. (2013). Reader's Guide to American History. Taylor & Francis. pp. 294–95. 

Sumber primer[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Kamphoefner, Walter D., and Wolfgang Helbich (Eds.). Germans in the Civil War; The Letters They Wrote Home. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006.
  • Kamphoefner, Walter D., Wolfgang Johannes Helbich and Ulrike Sommer (Eds.). News from the Land of Freedom: German Immigrants Write Home. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991.
  • "German". Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey. Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. 1942 – via Newberry Library.  (English translations of selected German-language newspaper articles, 1855-1938).

Dalam bahasa Jerman[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sejarah dan budaya Jerman-Amerika[sunting | sunting sumber]

Organisasi Jerman-Amerika[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sejarah dan budaya Jerman-Amerika lokal[sunting | sunting sumber]