Daftar hitam Hollywood

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Daftar hitam Hollywood—atau yang lebih dikenal sebagai daftar hitam industri hiburan—adalah praktek penolakan pekerjaan terhadap para penulis latar, aktor, sutradara, musisi, dan anggota profesional dunia hiburan Amerika lainnya pada pertengahan abad ke-20 karena mereka dituduh simpatisan atau berhubungan dengan Komunis. Para artisditarik dari pekerjaannya atas dasar tuduhan keanggotaan mereka dalam atau bersimpati dengan Partai Komunis AS atau menolak untuk ikut penyelidikan dalam aktivitas partai tersebut. Bahkan pada masa penegakan terkuatnya, akhir 1940an sampai akhir 1950an, daftar hitam-nya terkadang eksplisit atau terverifiabel, namun langsung menghancurkan karier orang-orang dalam industri film.

Daftar hitam Hollywood sistematis pertama dilembagakan pada 24 November 1947, sehari setelah sepuluh penulis dan sutradara dikutip kontem Kongres karena menolak pentestifikasian untuk House Un-American Activities Committee. Sekelompok eksekutif studio, yang bertindak di bawah naungan Motion Picture Association of America, membela artis-artis tersebut—yang disebut Hollywood Ten—dan menjadi dikenal sebagai Pernyataan Waldorf.

Pada 22 Juni 1950, sebuah pamflet berjudul Red Channels diterbitkan. Berfokus pada bidang penyiaran, pamflet tersebut mengidentifikasikan 151 anggota profesional industri hiburan dalam konteks "Fasis Merah dan simpatisan mereka". Kemudian, kebanyakan dari mereka, bersama dengan pembawa acara dari artis lainnya, dikeluarkan dari pekerjaan dalam sebagian besar bidang dunia hiburan.

Daftar hitam berlanjut sampai 1960, saat Dalton Trumbo, seorang anggota Partai Komunis dari 1943 sampai 1948[1] dan anggota Hollywood Ten, diangkat sebagai penulis latar dari film yang sangat sukses Exodus, dan kemudian secara terbuka diketahui oleh aktor Kirk Douglas karena menulis permainan latar untuk film Spartacus.[2] Namun, sejumlah orang yang masuk daftar hitam masih ditolak bekerja dalam profesi-profesi mereka selama bertahun-tahun setelahnya.

Hollywood Ten dan orang-orang yang masuk daftar hitam lainnya pada 1947[sunting | sunting sumber]

Hollywood Ten[sunting | sunting sumber]

Berikut ini adalah sepuluh orang yang dikutip kontem Kongres dan dimasukkan daftar hitam setelah menolak menjawab pertanyaan tentang tuduhan keterlibatan mereka dengan Partai Komunis:[3]

Lain-lain[sunting | sunting sumber]

Orang-orang yang masuk daftar hitam antara Januari 1948 dan Juni 1950[sunting | sunting sumber]

(yang berbintang menandakan orang yang juga masuk dalam Red Channels)

Daftar Red Channels[sunting | sunting sumber]

(lihat, e.g., Schrecker [2002], p. 244; Barnouw [1990], pp. 122–24)

Orang-orang lainnya yang mula-mula masuk daftar hitam setelah Juni 1950[sunting | sunting sumber]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kutipan

  1. ^ Victor Navasky, Naming Names, New York: Viking, 2003
  2. ^ ref blacklist Kirk Douglas, "My Spartacus Broke All the Rules", the Telegraph
  3. ^ "Hollywood Ten". Encyclopædia Britannica. Diakses tanggal 9 December 2012. 
  4. ^ Herman (1997), p. 356; Dick (1989), p. 7.
  5. ^ Gordon (1999), p. 16.
  6. ^ Ceplair and Englund (2003), p. 403; Goldstein (1999).
  7. ^ Ceplair and Englund (2003), p. 401.
  8. ^ Everitt (2007), p. 53.
  9. ^ Navasky (1980), p. 88.
  10. ^ a b Ward and Butler (2008), pp. 178–79.
  11. ^ Newman (1989), p. 140.
  12. ^ Horne (2006), pp. 204–5, 224; Goudsouzian (2004), p. 88.
  13. ^ Gill (2000), pp. 50–52.
  14. ^ Nelson and Hendricks (1990), p. 53.
  15. ^ Cogley (1956), pp. 25–28.
  16. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=HvC3WaGZF3UC&pg=PA218&lpg=PA218&dq=ceplair+george+pepper&source=bl&ots=Ep3qCwB9b2&sig=3cho2HcWTwjo2N68tJwluagSwkQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjii4nNkKLPAhUB5WMKHfCpBm4Q6AEIQDAH#v=onepage&q=ceplair%20george%20pepper&f=false
  17. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 188.
  18. ^ a b Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 28.
  19. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 253.
  20. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 159.
  21. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 146.
  22. ^ Faulk (1963), p. 7.
  23. ^ McGill (2005), pp. 249–50; Ward (1998), p. 323; Cogley (1956), pp. 8–9.
  24. ^ Katz (1994), p. 106.
  25. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 50.
  26. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 123.
  27. ^ Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama Buhle and Wagner 2003b, p. 21
  28. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003a), p. 42.
  29. ^ Denning (1998), p. 374; Buhle and Wagner (2003a), p. 108.
  30. ^ a b Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 31.
  31. ^ a b c d Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 49.
  32. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 83.
  33. ^ Schwartz, J. (1999); Buhle and Wagner (2003a), p. 50.
  34. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 2.
  35. ^ Barzman (2004), p. 449.
  36. ^ a b Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 22.
  37. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003a), p. 128.
  38. ^ a b c Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 6.
  39. ^ a b Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 17.
  40. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003a), p. 22.
  41. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 129.
  42. ^ Katz (1994), p. 241.
  43. ^ Navasky (1980), p. 283.
  44. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003a), p. 73.
  45. ^ Faulk (1963), pp. 7–8.
  46. ^ Denning (1998), p. 374; Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 20.
  47. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003a), p. 77.
  48. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 151.
  49. ^ Sullivan (2010), p. 64.
  50. ^ Times (2008).
  51. ^ Lumenick 2007a.
  52. ^ a b Cohen (2004), p. 178.
  53. ^ Boyer (1996); Cogley (1956), p. 124.
  54. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003a), p. 105.
  55. ^ http://capitolwords.org/date/2005/02/09/H472_honoring-the-life-and-accomplishments-of-the-late-/
  56. ^ http://brbl-archive.library.yale.edu/exhibitions/cvvpw/gallery/dee1.html
  57. ^ Ramón (1997), p. 44.
  58. ^ a b Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 5.
  59. ^ a b c Buhle and Wagner (2003a), p. 250.
  60. ^ a b c Buhle and Wagner (2003a), p. 83.
  61. ^ Cohen (2004), pp. 178–81.
  62. ^ a b Navasky (1980), p. 282.
  63. ^ a b Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 7.
  64. ^ Barzman (2004), p. 89.
  65. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003a), p. 137.
  66. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 14.
  67. ^ Johnson, Allan (February 27, 1996). "Climate Of Fear: 'Blacklist' Chronicles Careers, Lives Trashed During Witch Hunts For Communists". Chicago Tribune. Diakses tanggal 2012-12-09. 
  68. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003a), p. 48.
  69. ^ Faulk (1963), pp. 6–7.
  70. ^ Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama Burlingame 2000 74
  71. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003a), p. xi.
  72. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 251.
  73. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 105.
  74. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003a), p. 139.
  75. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 16.
  76. ^ Dick (1982), p. 80.
  77. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 96.
  78. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003a), p. 31.
  79. ^ a b Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 13.
  80. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 95.
  81. ^ a b c Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 37.
  82. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 164.
  83. ^ a b Cohen (2004), pp. 172–76.
  84. ^ a b c Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 15.
  85. ^ Cohen (2004), pp. 178, 181–83.
  86. ^ a b Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 18.
  87. ^ a b Buhle and Wagner (2003a), p. 86.
  88. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003a), p. viii.
  89. ^ Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama Doherty 2003, p. 236
  90. ^ a b Buhle and Wagner (2003a), p. 80.
  91. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003a), p. 134.
  92. ^ Graulich and Tatum (2003), p. 115.
  93. ^ Zecker (2007), p. 106.
  94. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 194.
  95. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 106.
  96. ^ Herman (1997), p. 356.
  97. ^ Korvin (1997).
  98. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 39.
  99. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 24.
  100. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003a), p. 150.
  101. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 53.
  102. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=bXSdUTdA_dUC&pg=PA163
  103. ^ a b c Schwartz (1999).
  104. ^ a b Buhle and Wagner (2003a), p. 130.
  105. ^ Denning (1998), p. 374; Lumenick (2007b).
  106. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003a), p. 110.
  107. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003a), p. 20.
  108. ^ Cohen (2004), pp. 172–73178.
  109. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 142.
  110. ^ Cohen (2004), pp. 178–79, 186.
  111. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 8.
  112. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 110.
  113. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 78.
  114. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003a), p. 26.
  115. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003a), p. 157.
  116. ^ Navasky (1980), pp. 371–73.
  117. ^ a b c Buhle and Wagner (2003a), p. 45.
  118. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 10.
  119. ^ a b Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama Englund 2003 p. 388
  120. ^ a b Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 11.
  121. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003a), p. 247.
  122. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 163.
  123. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003a), p. 253.
  124. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 1.
  125. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003a), p. 18.
  126. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003a), p. 88.
  127. ^ a b Lerner (2003), pp. 337–38.
  128. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003a), p. 142.
  129. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 55.
  130. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003a), p. 208.
  131. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 101.
  132. ^ Perebinossoff, Gross, and Gross (2005), p. 9; Kisseloff (1995), p. 416.
  133. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 218.
  134. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003a), p. 63.
  135. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003a), p. 36.
  136. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003a), p. 91.
  137. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003a), p. 175.
  138. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 47.
  139. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 141.
  140. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 90.
  141. ^ Navasky (1980), pp. 93–94.
  142. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 9.
  143. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 209.
  144. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003b), p. 66.
  145. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003a), p. 111.
  146. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003a), p. vii.
  147. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2003a), p. 248.

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Further reading

  • Berg, Sandra (2006). "When Noir Turned Black" (interview with Jules Dassin), Written By (November) (available online Archived version of May 2013).
  • Bernstein, Walter (2000). Inside Out: A Memoir of the Blacklist. New York: Da Capo. ISBN 0-306-80936-2
  • Briley, Ronald (1994). "Reel History and the Cold War", OAH Magazine of History 8 (winter) (available online Archived version of Jan.2003).
  • Georgakas, Dan (1992). "Hollywood Blacklist", in Encyclopedia of the American Left, ed. Mari Jo Buhle, Paul Buhle, and Dan Georgakas. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press (available online). ISBN 0-252-06250-7
  • Kahn, Gordon (1948). Hollywood on Trial: The Story of the 10 Who Were Indicted. New York: Boni & Gaer (excerpted online). ISBN 0-405-03921-2
  • Leab, Daniel J., with guide by Robert E. Lester (1991). Communist Activity in the Entertainment Industry: FBI Surveillance Files on Hollywood, 1942–1958. Bethesda, Maryland: University Publications of America (available online). ISBN 1-55655-414-1
  • Murray, Lawrence L. (1975). "Monsters, Spys, and Subversives: The Film Industry Responds to the Cold War, 1945–1955", Jump Cut 9 (available online).
  • Nizer, Louis. (1966). The Jury Returns. New York: Doubleday & Co. ISBN 978-0-671-12505-9
  • "Seven-Year Justice", Time, July 6, 1962 (available online).
  • Vaughn, Robert. (2004). Only Victims: A Study of Show Business Blacklisting, 2nd ed. New York: Proscenium/Limelight Editions. (Originally published New York: Putnam, 1972).ISBN 978-0-87910-081-0

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