Richard Wright (pengarang)

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Richard Wright
Wright dalam foto tahun 1939 karya Carl Van Vechten
Wright dalam foto tahun 1939 karya Carl Van Vechten
LahirRichard Nathaniel Wright
(1908-09-04)4 September 1908
Plantation, Roxie, Mississippi, Amerika Serikat
Meninggal28 November 1960(1960-11-28) (umur 52)
Paris, Prancis
Pekerjaan
  • Novelis
  • penyair
  • esayis
  • penulis cerpen
KebangsaanAmerika Serikat, Prancis
Periode1938–60
GenreDrama, fiksi, non-fiksi, autobiografi
Karya terkenalUncle Tom's Children, Native Son, Black Boy, The Outsider
Pasangan
Dhimah Rose Meidman
(m. 1939; bercerai 1940)
Ellen Poplar
(m. 1941)
Anak2

Richard Nathaniel Wright (4 September 1908 – 28 November 1960) adalah seorang penulis novel, cerpen, puisi dan non-fiksi Amerika Serikat. Sebagian besar karya sastranya menampilkan tema-tema rasial, khususnya trkait nasib Afrika Amerika pada akhir abad ke-19 sampai pertengahan abad ke-20 yang mengalami diskriminasi dan kekerasan. Para kritikus sastra meyakini bahwa karyanya membantu mengubah hubungan ras di Amerika Serikat pada pertengahan abad ke-20.[1]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sumber tambahan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Buku[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Fabre, Michel. The World of Richard Wright (Univ. Press of Mississippi, 1985).
  • Fabre, Michel. The unfinished quest of Richard Wright (U of Illinois Press, 1993).
  • Fishburn, Katherine. Richard Wright's Hero: The Faces of a Rebel-Victim (Scarecrow Press, 1977).
  • Rampersad, Arnold, ed. Richard Wright: A Collection of Critical Essays (1994)
  • Rowley, Hazel. Richard Wright: The life and times (U of Chicago Press, 2008).
  • Smith, Virginia Whatley, ed. Richard Wright Writing America at Home and from Abroad (Univ. Press of Mississippi, 2016).
  • Ward, Jerry W., and Robert J. Butler, eds. The Richard Wright Encyclopedia (ABC-CLIO, 2008).
  • Yarborough, Richard (2008). Uncle Tom's Children. Introduction. Harper Perennial Modern Classics. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal July 7, 2008. 
  • Graham Barnfield and Joseph G. Ramsey, ed. (Winter 2008). Special Centenary Section on "Facing the Future After Richard Wright". Reconstruction 8.4. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal December 24, 2008. 

Artikel jurnal[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Alsen, Eberhard. "'Toward The Living Sun': Richard Wright's Change Of Heart From 'The Outsider' To 'The Long Dream'." CLA Journal 38.2 (1994): 211-227. online
  • Baldwin, James (1988). "Richard (Nathaniel) Wright". Contemporary Literary Criticism. Detroit: Gale. 48: 415–430. 
  • Bone, Robert. "Richard Wright and the Chicago Renaissance." Callaloo 28 (1986): 446-468. online
  • Burgum, Edwin Berry. "The Promise of Democracy and the Fiction of Richard Wright," Science & Society, vol. 7, no. 4 (Fall 1943), pp. 338–352. In JSTOR.
  • Bradley, M. (2018). "Richard Wright, Bandung, and the Poetics of the Third World." Modern American History, 1(1), 147-150.
  • Cauley, Anne O. "A Definition of Freedom in the Fiction of Richard Wright." CLA Journal 19.3 (1976): 327-346. online
  • Cobb, Nina Kressner. "Richard Wright: exile and existentialism." Phylon 40.4 (1979): 362-374. online
  • Ghasemi, Mehdi (2018). "An Equation of Collectivity: We + You in Richard Wright's 12 Million Black Voices". Mosaic: An Interdisciplinary Critical Journal. 51 (1): 71–86. 
  • Gines, Kathryn T. "'The Man Who Lived Underground': Jean-Paul Sartre And the Philosophical Legacy of Richard Wright." Sartre Studies International 17.2 (2011): 42-59.
  • Knapp, Shoshana Milgram. "Recontextualizing Richard Wright’s The Outsider: Hugo, Dostoevsky, Max Eastman, and Ayn Rand." in Richard Wright in a Post-Racial Imaginary (2014) pp: 99-112.
  • Meyerson, Gregory. "Aunt Sue’s Mistake: False Consciousness in Richard Wright’s ‘Bright and Morning Star’." in Reconstruction: Studies in Culture: 2008 8#4 online
  • Reynolds, Guy (2000). ""Sketches of Spain": Richard Wright's Pagan Spain and African-American Representations of the Hispanic". Journal of American Studies: 34. 
  • Veninga, Jennifer Elisa. "Richard Wright: Kierkegaard’s Influence as Existentialist Outsider." in Kierkegaard's Influence on Social-Political Thought (Routledge, 2016) pp. 281–298.
  • Widmer, Kingsley, and Richard Wright. "The Existential Darkness: Richard Wright's 'The Outsider'." Wisconsin Studies in Contemporary Literature 1.3 (1960): 13-21. online
  • Woodson, Hue. "Heidegger and The Outsider, Savage Holiday, and The Long Dream" in Critical Insights: Richard Wright. Ed. Kimberly Drake. (Amenia, NY: Grey House, 2019)

Bahan arsip[sunting | sunting sumber]

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Templat:Spingarn Medal