Cotton Mather

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Cotton Mather
Cotton Mather.jpg
Cotton Mather, sekitar 1700
Lahir(1663-02-12)12 Februari 1663
Boston, Koloni Teluk Massachusetts
Meninggal13 Februari 1728(1728-02-13) (umur 65)
Provinsi Teluk Massachusetts
AlmamaterHarvard College
PekerjaanPendeta
Orang tuaIncrease Mather dan Maria Cotton
KerabatJohn Cotton (kakek pihak ibu)
Richard Mather (kakek pihak ayah)
Tanda tangan
Appletons' Mather Richard - Cotton signature.png

Cotton Mather, FRS (lahir 12 Februari 1663 – meninggal 13 Februari 1728 pada umur 65 tahun; A.B. 1678, Harvard College; A.M. 1681, dokterandes kehormatan 1710, Universitas Glasgow) adalah seorang pendeta Puritan, pengarang, dan pembuat pamflet asal New England yang berpengaruh secara politik dan sosial. Ia meninggalkan warisan saintifik karena eksperimen hibridasinya dan promosinya terhadap inokulasi untuk pencegahan penyakit, meskipun ia lebih dikenal pada masa sekarang karena ia terlibat dalam pengadilan penyihir Salem. Ia kemudian menolak jabatan presiden Harvard College yang sempat dipegang oleh ayahnya, Increase Mather.

Catatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sumber[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Aronson, Stanley M; Newman, Lucile (2002), God Have Mercy on This House: Being a Brief Chronicle of Smallpox in Colonial New England, Brown University News Service .
  • Bancroft, George (1874–1878), History of the United States of America, from the discovery of the American continent, Boston: Little, Brown, & co, ISBN 0-665-61404-7 
  • Bercovitch, Sacvan (1972), "Cotton Mather", dalam Emerson, Everett, Major Writers of Early American Literature, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press .
  • Blake, John B (December 1952), "The Inoculation Controversy in Boston: 1721–1722", The New England Quarterly, 25 (4): 489–506, doi:10.2307/362582 .
  • Boylston, Zabdiel. An Historical Account of the Small-pox Inoculated in New England. London: S. Chandler, 1726.
  • Breslaw, Elaine G (2000), Witches of the Atlantic World: A Historical Reader & Primary Sourcebook, New York: New York University Press, ISBN 0-8147-9850-0 
  • Burdick, Bruce (2009), Mathematical Works Printed in the Americas 1554–1700, Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press, ISBN 0-8018-8823-9 
  • Calef, Robert (1700), More Wonders of the Invisible World, London, ENG, UK: Nath Hillar on London Bridge .
  • Calef, Robert (1823), More Wonders of the Invisible World, Salem: John D. and T.C. Cushing, Jr. 
  • Douglass, William (1722), The Abuses and Scandals of Some Late Pamphlets in Favor of Inoculation of the Small Pox, Boston: J. Franklin .
  • Felker, Christopher D. Reinventing Cotton Mather in the American Renaissance: Magnalia Christi Americana in Hawthorne, Stowe, and Stoddard (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1993); ISBN 1-55553-187-3
  • Gronim, Sara Stidstone (2006), "Imagining Inoculation: Smallpox, the Body, and Social Relations of Healing in the Eighteenth Century", Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 80: 247–68, doi:10.1353/bhm.2006.0057 .
  • Halttunen, Karen (1978), "Cotton Mather and the Meaning of Suffering in the Magnalia Christi Americana", Journal of American Studies, 12 (3): 311–29, doi:10.1017/s0021875800006460, JSTOR 27553427 .
  • Hansen, Chadwick (1969), Witchcraft at Salem, New York: George Braziller, ISBN 0-451-61947-1 .
  • Hovey, Kenneth Alan (2009), "Cotton Mather: 1663–1728", dalam Lauter, Paul, Heath Anthology of American Literature, A, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, hlm. 531–33 .
  • Kennedy, Rick (2015), The First American Evangelical: A Short Life of Cotton Mather, Eerdmans , xiv, 162 pp.
  • Lovelace, Richard F (1979), The American Pietism of Cotton Mather: Origins of American Evangelicalism, Grand Rapids, MC; Washington, DC: American University Press; Christian College Consortium, ISBN 0-8028-1750-5 .
  • Mather, Increase (1692) Cases of Conscience from University of Virginia Special Collections Library.
  • Meyers, Karen (2006), Colonialism and the Revolutionary Period (Beginning–1800): American Literature in its Historical, Cultural, and Social Contexts, New York: DWJ .
  • Middlekauff, Robert. The Mathers: Three Generations of Puritan Intellectuals, 1596–1728, ISBN 0-520-21930-9
  • Monaghan, E. Jennifer (2005,7) Learning to Read and Write in Colonial America; ISBN 978-1-55849-581-4
  • Montagu, Mary Wortley (1763), Letters of the Right Honourable Lady M—y W—y M—e, London: T. Becket and P.A. de Hondt .
  • Silverman, Kenneth. The Life and Times of Cotton Mather; ISBN 1-56649-206-8
  • Smolinski, Reiner (2006), "Authority and Interpretation: Cotton Mather's Response to the European Spinozists", dalam Williamson, Arthur; MacInnes, Allan, Shaping the Stuart World, 1603–1714: The Atlantic Connection, Leyden: Brill, hlm. 175–203 .
  • ——— (November 3, 2009) [2008], "How to Go to Heaven, or How to Heaven Goes? Natural Science and Interpretation in Cotton Mather's Biblia Americana (1693–1728)", The New England Quarterly, Farmville, VA: MIT Press Journals, Longwood University Library, 81 (2): 278–329, doi:10.1162/tneq.2008.81.2.278 .
  • Upham, Charles Wentworth (1959), Salem Witchcraft, New York: Frederick Ungar, ISBN 0-548-15034-6 .
  • ——— (1869), Salem Witchcraft and Cotton Mather, A Reply, Morrisania, Bronx: Project Gutenberg .
  • Van De Wetering, Maxine (March 1985), "A Reconsideration of the Inoculation Controversy", The New England Quarterly, 58 (1): 46–67, doi:10.2307/365262 .
  • Wendell, Barrett (1891), Cotton Mather, the Puritan priest, New York: Dodd, Mead & co .
  • White, Andrew (2010), "Zabdiel Boylston and Innoculation", Today In Science History .
  • Williams, John (1721), Several Arguments Proving that Inoculating the Smallpox is not Contained in the Law of Physick, Boston: J. Franklin .
  • Winslow, Ola Elizabeth (1974), A Destroying Angel: The Conquest of Smallpox in Colonial Boston, Boston: Houghton Mifflin .
  • Zirkle, Conway (1935), The beginnings of plant hybridization, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press .

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Salem