Bangsa Kalmuk

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Kalmuk
Хальмгуд Halm'gud
Total populasi
196,000
Kawasan dengan populasi yang signifikan
 Kalmykia (Rusia)
 Rusia 183,372[1][2]
 Ukraina 325[3]
 Kirgizstan 12,000[4]
Bahasa
Kalmyk Oirat, Rusia
Agama

Kebanyakan Buddha Tibetan
Minoritas Kristen Ortodoks in Russia[5] Mayoritas Islam Sunni di Kirgizstan

Minorias Yudaisme di Belarus[6]
Kelompok etnis terkait
Mongol, khususnya Oirat

Kalmuk (Kalmuk: Хальмгуд, Khal’mgud, Mongolia: Халимаг, Khalimag) adalah sebuah suku bangsa Oirat di Rusia, yang leluhurnya bermigrasi dari Dzungaria pada 1607. Mereka membuat Khanat Kalmuk pada 1630–1724 di wilayah Kaukasus Utara Rusia. Sekarang, mereka membentuk mayoritas di republik otonomi Kalmykia di pesisir barat Laut Kaspia.

Melalui emigrasi, komunitas Kalmuk kecil berada di Amerika Serikat, Perancis, Jermann, dan Republik Ceko.[7]

Daftar tokoh Kalmuk terkenal[sunting | sunting sumber]

Tokoh politik[sunting | sunting sumber]

Khan Kalmuk[sunting | sunting sumber]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Daftar pustaka[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Adelman, Fred. Kalmyk Cultural Renewal, PhD Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania,1960.
  • Anonymous. Donskaia Oblast, Donskoi Pervyi Okrug, Donskoi Vtoroi Okrug (translation: The Don Region, First Don District, Second Don District), Novyi Entsliklopedicheskii Solvar, XVI, 1914.
  • Anuchin, D. "Kalmyki", Entsiklopedicheskii Slovar Brokgauz-Efrona, XIV, St. Petersburg, 1914.
  • Arbakov, Dorzha. Genocide in the USSR, Chapter II, Complete Destruction of National Groups as Groups, The Kalmyks, Nikolai Dekker and Andrei Lebed, Editors, Series I, No. 40, Institute for the Study of the USSR, Munich, 1958.
  • Borisov, T.K. Kalmykiya; a historic-political and socio-economic survey, Moscow-Leningrad, 1926.
  • Bormanshinov, Arash. The Kalmyks: Their Ethnic, Historical, Religious, and Cultural Background, Kalmyk American Cultural Association, Occasional Papers Number One, 1990.
  • Bretschneider, E.V. Medieval Researches from Eastern Asiatic Sources, 2 vols., London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner, 1910.
  • Dunnell, Ruth W.; Elliott, Mark C.; Foret, Philippe; Millward, James A (2004). New Qing Imperial History: The Making of Inner Asian Empire at Qing Chengde. Routledge. ISBN 1134362226. Diakses tanggal 2014-03-10. 
  • Dzhimbinov, B. Sovetskaia Kalmykiia, Moscow, 1940.
  • Grin, François. Kalmykia: From Oblivion to Assertion, European Center or Minority Issues, ECMI Working Paper #10, 2000.
  • Grousset, René. The Empire of the Steppes: a History of Central Asia, Rutgers University Press, 1970.
  • Halkovic, Jr., Stephen A. THE MONGOLS OF THE WEST, Indiana University Uralic and Altaic Series, Volume 148, Larry Moses, Editor, Research Institute for Inner Asian Studies, Indiana University, Bloomington, 1985.
  • Haslund, Henning. MEN AND GODS IN MONGOLIA, National Travel Club, New York, E.P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1935.
  • Heller, Mikhail and Nekrich, Aleksandr M. Utopia in Power: The History of the Soviet Union from 1917 to the Present, Summit Books, 1988.
  • Krader, Lawrence. Social Organization of the Mongol-Turkic Pastoral Nomads, Indiana University Publications, Uralic and Altaic Series, Vol. 20., 1963.
  • Khodarkovsky, Michael. Where Two Worlds Met: The Russian State and the Kalmyk Nomads 1600–1771, Cornell University Press, 1992.
  • Boris Malyarchuk, Miroslava Derenko, Galina Denisova, Sanj Khoyt, Marcin Wozniak, Tomasz Grzybowski and Ilya Zakharov. Y-chromosome diversity in the Kalmyks at the ethnical and tribal levels
  • Loewenthal, Rudolf. THE KALMUKS AND OF THE KALMUK ASSR: A Case in the Treatment of Minorities in the Soviet Union, External Research Paper No. 101, Office of Intelligence Research, Department of State, September 5, 1952.
  • Millward, James A. (1998). Beyond the Pass: Economy, Ethnicity, and Empire in Qing Central Asia, 1759-1864 (illustrated ed.). Stanford University Press. ISBN 0804729336. Diakses tanggal 2014-03-10. 
  • Pallas, Peter Simon. Sammlungen Historischer Nachrichten über die Mongolischen Völkerschaften di Google Books

, 2 vols., St. Petersburg: Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1776.

  • Pelliot, Paul. Notes sur le Turkestan, T'oung Pao, XXVII, 1930.
  • Poppe, Nicholas N. The Mongolian Language Handbook, Center for Applied Linguistics, 1970.
  • Pozdneev, A.M. Kalmytskoe Verouchenie, Entsiklopedicheskii Slovar Brokgauz-Efrona, XIV, St. Petersburg, 1914.
  • Riasanovsky, V.A. Customary Law of the Mongol Tribes (Mongols, Buriats, Kalmucks), Harbin, 1929
  • Williamson, H.N.H. FAREWELL TO THE DON: The Russian Revolution in the Journals of Brigadier H.N.H. Williamson, John Harris, Editor, The John Day Company, New York, 1970.
  • Wang Jinglan, Shao Xingzhou, Cui Jing et al. Anthropological survey on the Mongolian Tuerhute tribe in He shuo county, Xinjiang Uigur autonomous region // Acta anthropologica sinica. Vol. XII, № 2. May, 1993. pp. 137–146.
  • Williamson, Hudleston Noel Hedworth (1970). Farewell to the Don: The Journal of Brigadier H. N. H. Williamson. Collins. ISBN 978-0-00-211164-5. 
  • Санчиров В. П. О Происхождении этнонима торгут и народа, носившего это название // Монголо-бурятские этнонимы: cб. ст. – Улан-Удэ: БНЦ СО РАН, 1996. C. 31–50.
  • Galushkin S.K., Spitsyn V.A., Crawford M.H. Genetic Structure of Mongolic-speaking Kalmyks // Human Biology, December 2001, v.73, no. 6, pp. 823–834.
  • Хойт С.К. Генетическая структура европейских ойратских групп по локусам ABO, RH, HP, TF, GC, ACP1, PGM1, ESD, GLO1, SOD-A // Проблемы этнической истории и культуры тюрко-монгольских народов. Сборник научных трудов. Вып. I. Элиста: КИГИ РАН, 2009. с. 146–183.
  • [hamagmongol.narod.ru/library/khoyt_2008_r.htm Хойт С.К. Антропологические характеристики калмыков по данным исследователей XVIII–XIX вв. // Вестник Прикаспия: археология, история, этнография. № 1. Элиста: Изд-во КГУ, 2008. с. 220–243.]
  • [hamagmongol.narod.ru/library/khoyt_2012_r.htm Хойт С.К. Калмыки в работах антропологов первой половины XX вв. // Вестник Прикаспия: археология, история, этнография. № 3, 2012. с. 215–245.]

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]