Aspasia

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Herma di dalam Museum Vatikan yang bertuliskan nama Aspasia di bawah. Ditemukan pada tahun 1777, marmer ini herma ini adalah salinan Romawi dari abad ke-5 SM yang asli dan mungkin mewakili Prasasti Upacara pemakaman Aspasia.

Aspasia (/æˈspʒiə, æˈspziə, æˈspʒə, æˈspʃə/;[1][2] Yunani: Ἀσπασία; skt. 470 SM[3][4] – skt. 400 SM)[3][5] adalah seorang imigran yang berpengaruh terhadap era Athena Klasik yang merupakan kekasih dan mitra negarawan Perikles. Pasangan itu memiliki seorang putra, Perikles Muda, namun rincian lengkap status pernikahan pasangan tersebut tidak diketahui. Menurut Plutarkhos, rumahnya menjadi pusat intelektual di Athena, menarik para penulis dan pemikir yang paling menonjol, termasuk filsuf Socrates. Disarankan bahwa ajaran Aspasia mempengaruhi Sokrates. Aspasia disebutkan di dalam tulisan-tulisan Plato, Aristofanes, Xenophon, dan lain-lain. Meskipun ia menghabiskan sebagian besar masa dewasanya di Yunani, beberapa rincian tentang hidupnya sepenuhnya diketahui. Beberapa ilmuwan mengatakan bahwa Aspasia adalah penjaga rumah bordil dan seorang pelacur. Peran Aspasia di dalam sejarah memberikan wawasan penting untuk memahami Wanita di Yunani. Sangat sedikit yang diketahui tentang wanita dari masa waktunya. Seorang ilmuwan menyatakan bahwa, "Mengajukan pertanyaan tentang kehidupan Aspasia adalah mengajukan pertanyaan tentang setengah kemanusiaan."[6]

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

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Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Ondřej Kaše, Thesis Dubletní výslovnost v angličtině ("Alternative Pronunciation in English") in Czech, 2013, p. 28.
  2. ^ "Aspasia". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
  3. ^ a b D. Nails, The People of Plato, Hackett Publishing pp 58–59
  4. ^ P. O'Grady, Aspasia of Miletus Diarsipkan December 1, 2006, di Wayback Machine.
  5. ^ A.E. Taylor, Plato: The Man and his Work, 41
  6. ^ M. Henry, Prisoner of History, 9

Sumber[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sumber pertama (Yunani dan Romawi)

Sumber kedua

  • Adams, Henry Gardiner, ed. (1857). Aspasia. A Cyclopaedia of Female Biography. London: Groombridge and Sons. 
  • Alden, Raymond MacDonald (2005) [1917]. "Walter Savage Landor". Readings in English Prose of the Nineteenth Century. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 0-8229-5553-9. 
  • Allen, Prudence (1997). "The Pluralists: Aspasia". The Concept of Woman: The Aristotelian Revolution, 750 B.C. - A.D. 1250. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 0-8028-4270-4. 
  • Anderson, D.D. (2001). "The Origins and Development of the Literature of the Midwest". Dictionary of Midwestern Literature: Volume One: The Authors by Philip A Greasley. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-33609-0. 
  • Arkins, Brian (1994). "Sexuality in Fifth-Century Athens". Classics Ireland. 1. Diakses tanggal 2006-08-29. 
  • "Aspasia". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2002. 
  • Bicknell, Peter J. (1982). "Axiochus Alkibiadou, Aspasia and Aspasios". "L'Antiquité Classique". 51 (3): 240–250. 
  • Bolansée, Schepens; Theys, Engels (1989). "Antisthenes of Athens". Die Fragmente Der Griechischen Historiker: A. Biography. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 90-04-11094-1. 
  • Brose, Margaret (2005). "Ugo Foscolo and Giacomo Leopardi: Italy's Classical Romantics". Dalam Ferber, Michael. A Companion to European Romanticism. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 1-4051-1039-2. 
  • Duyckinck, G.L., Duyckinc, E.A. (1856). Cyclopedia of American Literature. C. Scribner. 
  • Samons II, Loren J.; Fornara, Charles W. (1991). Athens from Cleisthenes to Pericles. Berkeley: University of California Press. 
  • Glenn, Cheryl (1997). "Locating Aspasia on the Rhetorical Map". Listening to Their Voices. Univ of South Carolina Press. ISBN 1-57003-172-X. 
  • Glenn, Cheryl (1994). "Sex, Lies, and Manuscript: Refiguring Aspasia in the History of Rhetoric". "Composition and Communication". 45 (4): 180–199. 
  • Gomme, Arnold W. (1977). "The Position of Women in Athens in the Fifth and Fourth Centuries BC". Essays in Greek History & Literature. Ayer Publishing. ISBN 0-8369-0481-8. 
  • Hammond, N.G.L.; Scullard, H.H., ed. (1970). The Oxford Classical Dictionary (edisi ke-2). London: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0198691174. 
  • Henry, Madeleine M. (1995). Prisoner of History. Aspasia of Miletus and her Biographical Tradition. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-508712-7. 
  • Kagan, Donald (1991). Pericles of Athens and the Birth of Democracy. The Free Press. ISBN 0-684-86395-2. 
  • Kagan, Donald (1989). "Athenian Politics on the Eve of the War". The Outbreak of the Peloponnesian War. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-9556-3. 
  • Kahn, Charles H. (1997). "Antisthenes". Plato and the Socratic Dialogue. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-64830-0. 
  • Kahn, Charles H. (1994). "Aeschines on Socratic Eros". Dalam Vander Waerdt, Paul A. The Socratic Movement. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-9903-8. 
  • Just, Roger (1991). "Personal Relationships". Women in Athenian Law and Life. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-415-05841-4. 
  • Loraux, Nicole (2003). "Aspasie, l'étrangère, l'intellectuelle". La Grèce au Féminin (dalam bahasa French). Belles Lettres. ISBN 2-251-38048-5. 
  • Mazzon, Daniela, Aspasia maestra e amante di Pericle, EdizioniAnordest, 2011 (in Italian) EAN9788896742280
  • Mazzon, Daniela, Desiderata Aspasia. Rapsodia mediterranea, one-act drama, 2012 (in Italian)
  • McClure, Laura (1999). "The City of Words: Speech in the Athenian Polis". Spoken Like a Woman: Speech and Gender in Athenian Drama. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01730-1. 
  • McGlew, James F. (2002). "Exposing Hypocrisie: Pericles and Cratinus' Dionysalexandros". Citizens on Stage: Comedy and Political Culture in the Athenian Democracy. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-11285-6. 
  • Monoson, Sara (2002). "Plato's Opposition to the Veneration of Pericles". Plato's Democratic Entanglements. Hackett Publishing. ISBN 0-691-04366-3. 
  • Nails, Debra (2000). The People of Plato: A Prosopography of Plato and Other Socratics. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-87220-564-9. 
  • Onq, Rory; Jarratt, Susan (1995). "Aspasia: Rhetoric, Gender, and Colonial Ideology". Dalam Lunsford, Andrea A. Reclaiming Rhetorica. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 0-7661-9484-1. 
  • Ostwald, M. (1992). "Athens as a Cultural Center". Dalam Lewis, David M.; Boardman, John; Davies, J. K.; Ostwald, M. The Cambridge Ancient History. Volume V. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23347-X. 
  • Paparrigopoulos, Konstantinos; (Karolidis, Pavlos) (1925). History of the Hellenic Nation (Volume Ab) (dalam bahasa Yunani). Eleftheroudakis. 
  • Podlecki, A.J. (1997). Perikles and His Circle. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-415-06794-4. 
  • Powell, Anton (1995). "Athens' Pretty Face: Anti-feminine Rhetoric and Fifth-century Controversy over the Parthenon". The Greek World. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-415-06031-1. 
  • Rose, Martha L. (2003). "Demosthenes' Stutter: Overcoming Impairment". The Staff of Oedipus. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-11339-9. 
  • Rothwell, Kenneth Sprague (1990). "Critical Problems in the Ecclesiazusae". Politics and Persuasion in Aristophanes' Ecclesiazusae. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 90-04-09185-8. 
  • Smith, William (1855). "Death and Character of Pericles". A History of Greece. R. B. Collins. 
  • Southall, Aidan (1999). "Greece and Rome". The City in Time and Space. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-78432-8. 
  • Stadter, Philip A. (1989). A Commentary on Plutarch's Pericles. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-1861-5. 
  • Sykoutris, Ioannis (1934). Symposium (Introduction and Comments) -in Greek. Estia. 
  • Taylor, A. E. (2001). "Minor Socratic Dialogues: Hippias Major, Hippias Minor, Ion, Menexenus". Plato: The Man and His Work. Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-41605-4. 
  • Taylor, Joan E. (2004). "Greece and Rome". Jewish Women Philosophers of First-Century Alexandria. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-925961-5. 
  • Tritle, Lawrence A. (2004). "Annotated Bibliography". The Peloponnesian War. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-32499-9. 
  • Wider, Kathleen (1986). "Women philosophers in the Ancient Greek World: Donning the Mantle". Hypatia. 1 (1): 21–62. doi:10.1111/j.1527-2001.1986.tb00521.x. 

Bacaan selanjutnya[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Atherton, Gertrude (2004). The Immortal Marriage. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 1-4179-1559-5. 
  • Becq de Fouquières, Louis (1872). Aspasie de Milet (in French). Didier. 
  • Cecilia, Cozzi (2014). Aspasia, storia di una donna (in Italian). David and Matthaus. ISBN 978-88-98899-01-2. 
  • Dover, K.J. (1988). "The Freedom of the Intellectual in Greek Society". Greeks and Their Legacy. New York: Blackwell. 
  • Hamerling, Louis (1893). Aspasia: a Romance of Art and Love in Ancient Hellas. Geo. Gottsberger Peck. 
  • Savage Landor, Walter (2004). Pericles And Aspasia. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 0-7661-8958-9. 

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