Jalur Sutra

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Rute Jalur Sutra

Jalur Sutra (Hanzi tradisional: 絲綢之路; Hanzi yang Disederhanakan: 丝绸之路; pinyin: sī chóu zhī lù, bahasa Persia راه ابریشم Râh-e Abrisham) adalah sebuah jalur perdagangan melalui Asia yang menghubungkan antara Timur dan Barat dengan dihubungkan oleh pedagang, pengelana, biarawan, prajurit, nomaden dengan menggunakan karavan dan kapal laut, dan menghubungkan Chang'an, Republik Rakyat Tiongkok, dengan Antiokhia, Suriah, dan juga tempat lainnya pada waktu yang bervariasi. Pengaruh jalur ini terbawa sampai ke Korea dan Jepang.

Pertukaran ini sangat penting tak hanya untuk pengembangan kebudayaan Cina, India dan Roma namun juga merupakan dasar dari dunia modern. Istilah 'jalur sutra' pertama kali digunakan oleh geografer Jerman Ferdinand von Richthofen pada abad ke-19 karena komoditas perdagangan dari Cina yang banyak berupa sutra.[1][2]

Jalur Sutra benua membagi menjadi jalur utara dan selatan begitu dia meluas dari pusat perdagangan Cina Utara dan Cina Selatan, rute utara melewati Bulgar-Kipchak ke Eropa Timur dan Semenanjung Crimea, dan dari sana menuju ke Laut Hitam, Laut Marmara, dan Balkan ke Venezia; rute selatan melewati Turkestan-Khorasan menuju Mesopotamia dan Anatolia, dan kemudian ke Antiokia di Selatan Anatolia menuju ke Laut Tengah atau melalui Levant ke Mesir dan Afrika Utara.

Hubungan jalan rel yang hilang dalam Jalur Sutra diselesaikan pada 1992, ketika jalan rel internasional Almaty - Urumqi dibuka.

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Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

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