White Anglo-Saxon Protestant

Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
Loncat ke navigasi Loncat ke pencarian

White Anglo-Saxon Protestant (WASP) adalah kelompok sosial Protestan berkulit putih keturunan Britania di Amerika Serikat, yang pada umumnya kaya raya dan memiliki koneksi bagus. Kelompok ini telah sejak lama mendominasi kehidupan masyarakat, budaya, dan kepemimpinan partai-partai politik besar Amerika, dan memonopoli kalangan masyarakat elite melalui perkawinan campur dan nepotisme. Meskipun hegemoni WASP di kehidupan sosial budaya Amerika telah berkurang sejak era Perang Dunia II, WASP terus mendapat tempat istimewa pada lembaga keuangan, bisnis, hukum, dan akademis.[1]

Selama paruh kedua abad ke-20, kelompok etnis dan ras lainnya tumbuh berpengaruh dan dominasi WASP berkurang. Warga Amerika semakin mengkritik hegemoni WASP dan merendahkan WASP sebagai lambang "Establishment". Random House Unabridged Dictionary 1998 mengatakan istilah tersebut "Terkadang Meremehkan dan Menyinggung".[2][3][4]

Sosiolog kerap menggunakan istilah ini secara luas untuk menggolongkan semua Warga Amerika Protestan berdarah Eropa Utara atau Eropa Barat Laut tanpa memandang kelas atau kekuasaan.[5] Istilah ini juga digunakan di Australia, Selandia Baru, dan Kanada untuk kelompok elite serupa.[6][7][8][9]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Kaufmann, Eric P. (2004). "The decline of the WASP in the United States and Canada". Dalam Kaufmann, E.P. Rethinking Ethnicity: Majority Groups and Dominant Minorities. London, New York: Routledge. hlm. 61–83. ISBN 0-41-531542-5. 
  2. ^ "the definition of wasps". www.dictionary.com (dalam bahasa Inggris). Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2018-10-20. Diakses tanggal 2018-12-27. 
  3. ^ Ralph E. Pyle (1996). Persistence and Change in the Protestant Establishment. Greenwood. hlm. 11–12. ISBN 9780275954871. 
  4. ^ Irving Lewis Allen, "WASP—From Sociological Concept to Epithet", Ethnicity (ISSN 0095-6139) 1975, p. 154
  5. ^ Glassman, Ronald; Swatos, William H., Jr.; Denison, Barbara J. (2004). Social Problems in Global Perspective. University Press of America. hlm. 258. ISBN 9780761829331. 
  6. ^ J.M.S. Careless (1996). Careless at Work: Selected Canadian historical studies. hlm. 297. ISBN 9781554881253. 
  7. ^ C. P. Champion (2010). The Strange Demise of British Canada: The Liberals and Canadian Nationalism, 1964–68. MQUP. hlm. 48–49. ISBN 9780773591059. 
  8. ^ Margery Fee and Janice McAlpine, Guide to Canadian English Usage (2008) pp. 517–518
  9. ^ "WASP" in Frederick Ludowyk and Bruce Moore, eds, Australian modern Oxford dictionary (2007)

Bacaan lanjutan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Allen, Irving Lewis. "WASP—From Sociological Concept to Epithet", Ethnicity 2.2 (1975): 153-162.
  • Allen, Irving Lewis: Unkind Words: Ethnic Labeling from Redskin to Wasp (NY: Bergin & Garvey, 1990) ISBN 9780897892209
  • Baltzell, E. Digby. Philadelphia Gentlemen: The Making of a New Upper Class (1958).
  • Beckert, Sven. The monied metropolis: New York City and the consolidation of the American bourgeoisie, 1850-1896 (2003).
  • Brooks, David. Bobos in paradise: The new upper class and how they got there (2010)
  • Burt, Nathaniel. The Perennial Philadelphians: The Anatomy of an American Aristocracy (1999).
  • Cookson, Peter W.; Persell, Caroline Hodges: Preparing for Power: America's Elite Boarding Schools (1985) ISBN 9780465062683
  • Davidson, James D.; Pyle, Ralph E.; Reyes, David V.: "Persistence and Change in the Protestant Establishment, 1930-1992", Social Forces, 74#1. (1995), pp. 157–175.
  • Davis, Donald F. "The Price of Conspicious Production: The Detroit Elite and the Automobile Industry, 1900-1933." Journal of Social History 16.1 (1982): 21-46. online
  • Farnum, Richard. "Prestige in the Ivy League: Democratization and discrimination at Penn and Columbia, 1890-1970." in Paul W. Kingston and Lionel S. Lewis, eds. The high-status track: Studies of elite schools and stratification (1990).
  • Foulkes, Nick. High Society – The History of America's Upper Class, (Assouline, 2008) ISBN 2759402886
  • Fraser, Steve and Gary Gerstle, eds. Ruling America: A History of Wealth and Power in a Democracy, Harvard UP, 2005, ISBN 0-674-01747-1
  • Friend, Tad. Cheerful Money: Me, My Family, and the Last Days of WASP Splendor (2009). ISBN 9780316003179
  • Fussell, Paul. Class: A Guide Through the American Status System (1983) ISBN 9780671792251
  • Ghent, Jocelyn Maynard, and Frederic Cople Jaher. "The Chicago Business Elite: 1830–1930. A Collective Biography." Business History Review 50.3 (1976): 288-328. online
  • Hood. Clifton. In Pursuit of Privilege: A History of New York City's Upper Class and the Making of a Metropolis (2016). Covers 1760-1970.
  • Ingham, John N. The Iron Barons: A Social Analysis of an American Urban Elite, 1874-1965 (1978)
  • Jaher, Frederic Cople, ed. The Rich, the Well Born, and the Powerful: Elites and Upper Classes in History (1973), essays by scholars
  • Jaher, Frederick Cople. The Urban Establishment: Upper Strata in Boston, New York, Chicago, Charleston, and Los Angeles (1982).
  • Jensen, Richard. "Family, Career, and Reform: Women Leaders of the Progressive Era." in Michael Gordon, ed., The American Family in Social-Historical Perspective,(1973): 267-80.
  • Jensen, Richard. "Yankees" Encyclopedia of Chicago (2004) p 1391
  • King, Florence: WASP, Where is Thy Sting? (1977)
  • Lundberg, Ferdinand: The Rich and the Super-Rich: A Study in the Power of Money Today (1968)
  • McConachie, Bruce A. "New York operagoing, 1825-50: creating an elite social ritual." American Music (1988): 181-192. online
  • Ostrander, Susan A. (1986). Women of the Upper Class. Temple University Press. ISBN 978-0-87722-475-4. 
  • Phillips, Kevin P. Wealth and Democracy: A Political History of the American Rich, Broadway Books 2003, ISBN 0-7679-0534-2
  • Pyle, Ralph E.: Persistence and Change in the Protestant Establishment (1996)
  • Salk, Susanna. A Privileged Life: Celebrating WASP Style (2007)
  • Schrag, Peter.: The Decline of the WASP (NY: Simon and Schuster, 1970)
  • Story, Ronald. (1980) The forging of an aristocracy: Harvard & the Boston upper class, 1800-1870
  • Synnott, Marcia. The half-opened door: Discrimination and admissions at Harvard, Yale, and Princeton, 1900-1970 (2010).
  • Useem, Michael. The Inner Circle: Large Corporations and the Rise of Business Political Activity in the U.S. and U.K. (1984)
  • Williams, Peter W. Religion, Art, and Money: Episcopalians and American Culture from the Civil War to the Great Depression (2016), especially in New York City

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]